The radiating Eye, In: Johannes Zahn, Oculus Artificialis Teledioptricus “ Emission theory” eyes emanate from the eyes and are intercepted by visual objects-5 the century BC to Euclid 300 Bc Based upon an idea that the eye was composed of some “internal fire” which interacted with the “external fire” of visible light
The laws of geometry 1648 “ Intromission theory” later establishes that rays of light reflect from an object and enter into the eyes. Aristotle
The laws of perspective which were developed in the Renaissance, offer a stable structure for the relations of things seen through the human eye: as distance grows greater, so objects become smaller from the observer’s vantage point Parallel lines seem to meet, the view from any point commands a vanishing point on its farthest reaches.
Camera obscura - “darkened chamber” Led to photography As the pinhole gets smaller the image gets sharper Later - use lenses because it allows a larger aperature giving a usable brightness while maintaining focus 5th century first mentioned by a chinese philsopher Aristotle 4 th century Used by Vermeer and Caravaggio “ It has been known for at least 2,000 years that when light passes through a small hole into a dark, enclosed interior an inverted image will appear on the wall opposite the hole” Many philosophers (euclide, aristotle, leonard) observed this phenomena and postulated how it might be analogous to the functioning of human vision.
During the 17th and 18th centuries the camera obscura was w/o question the most widely used model for explaining human vision, and for representing the relation of a perceiver and the position of a knowing subject to an external world.
Simply not an optical device Also a philosophical metaphor, a model in the science of physical optics and was also a technical apparatus used in a large range of cultural activities Observing the physical world Instrument of popular entertainment Scientific inquiry Artistic practice.
Defines the position of an interiorized observer to an exterior world Apparatus that makes an orderly cut of the field allowing it to be viewed without sacrificing the vitality of its being. Late 1500s- important to define the relations between observer and world. A site which vision can be conceived o represented New model of subjectivity Disembodied subject inside the model of the eye Performs an operation of individuation necessarily defines an observer as isolated, enclosed and autonomous within its dark confines Impels a withdralw from the world Interior vs exterior world
Thus camera obscura is inseparable from a certain metaphysic of interiority Split the act of seeing from the physical view of the observer - decorporealize vision Camera obscura is a model simultaneously for the observation of empirical phenomena and for reflective introspection and self-observation.
Vermeer, The Astronomer, 1668
Giuseppe Penone. To Turn Upside Down (To Reverse) your Own Eyes 1970
The idea of the site of truth vs. a model for procedures and forces that conceal, invert and mystify truth Camera was haunted by its proximity to techniques of conjuration and illusion
Skyspace Garden Vienna 1998
The magic lantern that developed alongside the camera obscura had the capacity to appropriate the setup of the latter and subvert its operation by infusing its interior with reflected and projected images and artificial light
Phantasmagoria lantern projection
Room for one color - monofrequency lights
Carsten Holler _ key to the laboratory of doubt
The Ambasadors (1533) , Hans Holbein the Younger National Gallery london
Robert Lazzarini telephone
From Opticks, or, A treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections, and colours of light by Issac Newton (1665/6-1704)