3. WHAT IS SERVICE DESIGN?The 5 Principles of Service Design Thinking1. User- centeredServices should be experience through the customers eyes2. Co-creativeAll Stakeholders should be included in the service design process3. SequencingThe service should be visualised as a sequence of interrelated actions4. EvidencingIntangible services should be visualised in terms of physical artefacts5. HolisticThe entire environment of a service should be considered Schneider, J & Stickdorn, M 2010, This is Service Design Thinking, BIS Publishers, AmsterdamService design is empathetic, multidisciplinary andrequires a holistic understanding of the serviceecosystem. The designer facilitates co-creation ofvalue with all individuals who come in contact with the service system.
4. Schneider, J & Stickdorn, M 2010, This is Service Design Thinking, BIS Publishers, Amsterdam
5. INSPIRATION- Use theme for inspiration- Can you think of a need that is unfuliflled?- Brainstorm services you think are successful and unsuccessful. Why?- Choose a type of need or service to work with
6. IDEATION DT for Ed | Toolkit Defer judgement. There are no bad ideas at this point. There will be plenty of time to narrow them down later. Encourage wild ideas. Even if an ideaBrain- doesn’t seem realistic, it may spark astorming great idea for someone else.Rules Build on the ideas of others. Think “and” rather than “but.”These seven rules will makeyour brainstorming sessionfocused, effective and fun. Stay focused on topic. To get moreIntroduce them at the start ofevery brainstorm, even if they out of your session, keep your brain-merely serve as a reminder storm question in sight.for experience participants. One conversation at a time. All ideas need to be heard, so that they may be built upon. Be visual. Draw your ideas, as opposed to just writing them down. Stick ﬁgures and simple sketches can say more than many words. Go for quantity. Set an outrageous goal—then surpass it. The best way to ﬁnd one good idea is to come up with lots of ideas.
7. METHOD Saturate and GroupYou space saturate to help you unpack thoughts and experiences into tangible and visual pieces ofinformation that you surround yourself with to inform and inspire the design team. You group these ﬁndingsto explore what themes and patterns emerge, and strive to move toward identifying meaningful needs ofpeople and insights that will inform your design solutions.Saturate your wall space (or work boards) with post-its headlining interesting ﬁndings (see “Story Share-and-Capture”) plus pictures from the ﬁeld of users you met and relevant products and situations.In order to begin to synthesize the information, organize the post-its and pictures into groups of related parts.You likely have some ideas of the patterns within the data from the unpacking you did when producing thenotes. For example, you may have seen and heard many things related to feeling safe, and many thingsregarding desire for eﬃciency. Within the group of ‘safety’, go beyond the theme and try to see if there is adeeper connection that may lead to an insight such as “Feeling safe is more about who I am with than where Iam”. Maybe there is a relation between groups that you realize as you place items in groups – that safety isoften at odds with users’ desire for eﬃciency. Try one set of grouping, discuss (and write down) the ﬁndings,and then create a new set of groups.The end goal is to synthesize data into interesting ﬁndings and create insights which will be useful to you increating design solutions.It is common to do the grouping with post-its headlining interesting stories from ﬁeldwork. But grouping isalso useful to think about similarities among a group of products, objects, or users. :: 14 ::
8. METHOD Why-How Laddering -As a general rule, asking ‘why’ yields more abstract statements and asking ‘how’ yields speciﬁc statements.Often times abstract statements are more meaningful but not as directly actionable, and the opposite istrue of more speciﬁc statements. That is why you ask ‘why?’ often during interviews – in order to get towardmore meaningful feelings from users rather than speciﬁc likes and dislikes, and surface layer answers.Outside an interview, when you think about the needs of someone, you can use why-how laddering to ﬂeshout a number of needs, and ﬁnd a middle stratum of needs that are both meaningful and actionable. -When considering the needs of your user, start with a meaningful one. Write that need on the board andthen ladder up from there by asking ‘why’. Ask why your user would have that need, and phrase the answeras a need. For example, “Why would she ‘need to see a link between a product and the natural processthat created it’? Because she ‘needs to have conﬁdence that something will not harm her health byunderstanding where it came from’.” Combine your observations and interviews with your intuition toidentify that need. Then take that more abstract need and ask why again, to create another need. Writeeach on the board above the former. At a certain point you will reach a very abstract need, common to justabout everyone, such as the ‘need to be healthy’. This is the top of that need hierarchy branch.You can also ask ‘how’ to develop more speciﬁc needs. Climb up (‘why?’) and down (how?) in branches toﬂesh out a set of needs for your user. You might come up to one need and then come back down. In theprevious example, you climbed up to the ‘need to understand where a product came from’. Then ask ‘how’to identify the ‘need to participate in the process of creating a product’. There will also be multiple answersto your ‘whys’ and ‘hows’ – branch out and write those down.The result (after some editing and reﬁning) is a needs hierarchy that paints a full picture of your user orcomposite user. Alternatively, you can use this tool to hone in on one or two particularly salient needs. :: 20 ::
9. UNDERSTANDING (empathy)- Understand the values and needs of the customer whowill be using your service- Who is this customer?- What does the holistic service look like? Who does itdirectly or indirectly involve, in or out of the business?- Keep in mind not just organisational structure, but theentire ecosystem that the service affects and operates in- Focus on understanding the people in and around theservice
10. METHOD Composite Character ProﬁleThe composite character proﬁle can be used to bucket interesting observations into one speciﬁc,recognizable character. Teams sometimes get hung up on outlying (or non-essential) characteristics of any ofa number of particular potential users, and the composite character proﬁle is a way for them to focus theteams attention on the salient and relevant characteristics of the user whom they wish to address. Forminga composite character can be a great way to create a "guinea pig" to keep the team moving forward.The composite character proﬁle is a synthesis method whereby the team creates a (semi)-ﬁctional characterwho embodies the human observations the team has made in the ﬁeld. These might include "typical"characteristics, trends, and other patterns that the team has identiﬁed in their user group over the courseof their ﬁeld work.In order to create a composite character proﬁle, a team needs to have unpacked its ﬁeld observations andsaturated its team space. After this is done, a team should survey across the individual users it encounteredin the ﬁeld to identify relevant dimensions of commonality and/or complementarity – these dimensionscould be demographic information, strange proclivities and habits, or sources of motivation, to name only afew. After several dimensions of commonality have been identiﬁed, list these features of the user; if thereare any dimensions of complementarity (those which may not be shared by all users, but are interesting tothe team and not necessarily mutually exclusive), the team should add these as well. Last, give yourcharacter a name, and make sure every member of the team buys into the identity and correspondingcharacteristics that the team has created. :: 17 ::
12. Schneider, J & Stickdorn, M 2010, This is Service Design Thinking, BIS Publishers, Amsterdam
13. SHAPING- Get a little deeper into the structure of your service- What experiences will customers have? Whatexperiences do they want to have?- What does the holistic service look like? Who does itdirectly or indirectly involve, in or out of the business?- Think not just about organisational structure, but theentire ecosystem that the service affects and operates in
14. Schneider, J & Stickdorn, M 2010, This is Service Design Thinking, BIS Publishers, Amsterdam
15. Schneider, J & Stickdorn, M 2010, This is Service Design Thinking, BIS Publishers, Amsterdam
17. MAPPING- Refine and finalise the details from the shaping phase- Start to map out these details of your service into finalpresentable formats- Mapping formats from the shaping phase can be usedas final presentation grids/tables, etc, if appropriate
18. Day Month Year No. Who are our Key Partners? What Key Activities do our Value Propositions require? What value do we deliver to the customer? What type of relationship does each of our Customer For whom are we creating value? Who are our key suppliers? Our Distribution Channels? Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve? Segments expect us to establish and maintain with them? Who are our most important customers? Which Key Resources are we acquiring from partners? Customer Relationships? What bundles of products and services are we offering to each Customer Segment? Which ones have we established? Which Key Activities do partners perform? Revenue streams? Which customer needs are we satisfying? How are they integrated with the rest of our business model? How costly are they? What Key Resources do our Value Propositions require? Through which Channels do our Customer Segments Our Distribution Channels? Customer Relationships? want to be reached? Revenue Streams? How are we reaching them now? How are our Channels integrated? Which ones work best? Which ones are most cost-efficient? How are we integrating them with customer routines?http://businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas What are the most important costs inherent in our business model? For what value are our customers really willing to pay? Which Key Resources are most expensive? For what do they currently pay? Which Key Activities are most expensive? How are they currently paying? How would they prefer to pay? How much does each Revenue Stream contribute to overall revenues? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
19. PRESENTATION- This is the easy part! Use the finalised maps youcreated in the ‘mapping’ phase as presentation tools.- Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse!
20. EVOLUTION | 12.2 DT for Ed | ToolkitStep Mode Time Needed Time TypeBuild the Experience Interaction ~45-60 mins ContinuousPitch Your A credible and inspiring story will help convince others to support yourConcept concept. Build your pitch to motivate others to help bring the idea to life.Team2-4 PeopleWhat it gets you 1. Know your audience 2. Highlight the potential 5. Be speciﬁc aboutA story that can convince Think about who you are Create a provocative your needspotential supporters of trying to get excited about statement for your idea. Be clear about what youyour concept’s strength. your idea. Put yourself in Get your audience excited want from your audience. the shoes of the listener: about the opportunities Draw from your list ofWhat to keep in mind what will get them inter- you see. Frame it as “What needs and communicateBegin by communicating ested in your idea? What if…?” what support you need.what excites you the most— will they be motivated by?talk about the opportunity For example: 3. Build a narrative 6. Encourageand the bigger ideas » For educators: how is it Tell a brief and engaging contributionrather than small details. going to help me do my story, focusing on the most Invite others to join theThis enables others to see job? How is it going to important aspects of your conversation or help buildthe value and contribute help my students suc- concept. Describe what the concept. Considerto the concept. ceed? inspired your idea, and engaging your audience » For administrators: How how it responds to the in an activity that lets does this affect the way needs you learned about. them experience and our school is viewed? participate in the design » For parents: how is this 4. Communicate the value process. going to help my child Explain the value your succeed in school? idea provides for the vari- » For students: how is it ous people involved. Be going to make learning explicit and illustrative in more fun? your descriptions. » For potential team mem- bers: why would I want to be part of this? What’s in it for me?
21. CREDITSThis toolkit has been collated by Stefanie Di Russo forthe 2012 Melbourne Service Jam. All content is creditedto IDEO, Stanford d.School, Service Design Tools, BusinessModel Generation and This is Service Design Thinking.Methods collated for this toolkit can be found from thefollowing sources:D.School Bootcamp Bootleghttp://dschool.typepad.com/news/2010/12/2010-bootcamp-bootleg-is-here.htmlIDEO Toolkit for Educatorshttp://www.ideo.com/work/toolkit-for-educatorsService Design Toolshttp://www.servicedesigntools.org/Business Model Generationhttp://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/This is Service Design Thinking (hardcover book)Developed by Marc Stickdorn and Jakob Schneider2010, BIS Publishers. AmsterdamISSN: 978-90-6369-256-8