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Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples
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Learning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples

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  • 1. Motivation Data on the Web Some eyecatching opener illustrating growth and or diversity of web dataLearning Analytics & Linked Data – Opportunities, Challenges, Examples Stefan Dietze (L3S Research Center, DE, @stefandietze) Mathieu d’Aquin (The Open University, UK) Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 2. Linked Data for Education & Learning AnalyticsWhy is it useful?1. Linked Data as body of knowledge for education, analytics and TEL recommender sytems:  vast amount of publicly available resources and data Source: http://lod-cloud.net/state, September 2011  HTTP access according to state of the art principles Number of Domain Triples % (O datasets2. Linked Data as set of principles for data sharing: Media 25 1,841,852,061 5.82 % Geographic 31 6,145,532,484 19.43 %  to improve interoperability of educational data Government 49 13,315,009,400 42.09 %  facilitate learning analytics and recommender system Publications 87 2,950,720,693 9.33 % 1 scenarios across isolated platforms Cross-domain 41 4,184,635,715 13.23 % Life sciences 41 3,036,336,004 9.60 % 1 User-generated 20 134,127,413 0.42 % content Further reading: 295 31,634,213,770 5  Interlinking educational Resources and the Web of Data – a Survey of Challenges and Approaches Stefan Dietze, Salvador Sanchez-Alonso, Hannes Ebner, Hong Qing Yu, Daniela Giordano, Ivana Marenzi, Bernardo Pereira Nunes, Emerald Program: electronic Library and Information Systems, Volume 47, Issue 1 (2013).  Linked Data for Open and Distance Learning Mathieu d’Aquin, report for the Common Wealth of Learning, Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 3. Educationally relevant Web data Count Where does it come from? http://kidshealth.org 5 Vast amounts of educational resource http://www.childrenoftheearth.org 5 collections (OpenCourseWare etc) but… http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil… 5 …increasing relevance of (social) Web http://www.museumofbrands.com 5 content for education http://www.ducati.it 5 Data source: LearnWeb (http://learnweb.l3s.uni-hannover.de/) http://www.nationalgeograohic.com 5 http://www.ecokids.ca 5 M1: R (% of total) http://museo.ferrari.com 5 50,00 M2: Resources R / 1K queries http://www.slideshare.com 5 45,00 M3: Resources R´/ 1K queries http://www.metmuseum.org 6 40,00 http://www.deutsches-museum.de 6 35,00 30,00 http://www.oxfam.org 6 25,00 http://www.google.it 7 20,00 http://www.mocp.org/ 7 15,00 http://www.moma.org/ 8 10,00 http://en.cyberdodo.com 9 5,00 0,00 http://www.bbc.co.uk 12 http://www.flickr.com 16 Stefan Dietze 06/11/12 3 0 10 20
  • 4. LD as body of knowledge for educationEducationally relevant data, eg for informal learning Publications & literature: ACM, PubMed, DBLP (L3S), OpenLibrary Domain-specific knowledge & resources: Bioportal for Life Sciences, historic artefacts in Europeana, Geonames Cross-domain knowledge: DBpedia, Freebase, … (Social) media resource metadata: BBC, Flickr, … Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 5. LD as body of knowledge for educationEducationally relevant data, eg for informal learning Publications & literature: ACM, PubMed, DBLP (L3S), OpenLibrary Domain-specific knowledge & resources: Bioportal for Life Sciences, historic artefacts in Europeana, Geonames Cross-domain knowledge: DBpedia, Freebase, … (Social) media resource metadata: BBC, Flickr, …Explicitly educational datasets and schemas University Linked Data: eg The Open University UK, http://data.open.ac.uk, Southampton University, University of Munster (DE), http://education.data.gov.uk OER Linked Data: mEducator Linked ER ( http://ckan.net/package/meducator), Open Learn LD Schemas: Learning Resource Metadata Initiative (LRMI, http://www.lrmi.net/), mEducator Educational Resources schema ( http://purl.org/meducator/ns)⇒http://linkededucation.org &⇒http://linkeduniversities.org Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 6. LD for integration and analytics Examples 1. Integration & analytics of biomedial resources: Linked Data as means to lift, enrich, disambiguate and cluster educational resources from disparate repositories ( http://www.meducator.net) 2. Curation and analytics of educational datasets in LinkedUp: towards a unified educational graph (http://linkedup-project.eu)Further reading:Linked Education: interlinking educational Resources and the Web ofDataStefan Dietze, Honq Qing Yu, Daniela Giordano, Eleni Kaldoudi,Nikolas Dovrolis and Davide Taibi, ACM Symposium On Applied Computing(SAC-2012), Special Track on Semantic Web and Applications Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 7. LinkedUp vision: a global data space for educationLinkedUp European-funded „Support Action“ Started Nov/2012 http://linkedup-project.euChallenges Finding the needle in the heystack: mEducator which datasets to consider? The Open Data.gov.uk University education Lack of structured & precise descriptions of datasets according to dimensions such as topic coverage, Research represented types, quality, relevance ouputs Orgs., Dataset heterogeneity: lack of links Buidings, between (a) dataset schemas and (b) Locations resources and entities Learning resources University of Muenster, DE OrganicEduNet University of University of Bristol Southampton Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 8. LinkedUp data cataloging and assessmentLinked Education Cloud & Linked Education GraphEducational data gathering and cataloging: Linked Education cloud “LinkedUp/Linked Education cloud” as subset of LOD cloud CKAN – “The DataHub” for data collection, dedicated group “linked-education” Public RDF vocabulary of datasets (“Linked Education Catalog”) Educational DataEducational data integration & infrastructure: Linked Education graph Linked Education cloud => Linked Education graph & dataset Integration of (selected) datasets into coherent (RDF) graph Infrastructure, unified (SPARQL) endpoint & APIs for querying Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 9. Linked Education/LinkedUp @ The DataHub http://datahub.io/group/linked-education http://data.linkededucation.org/linkedup/catalog Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 10. Analytics on Learning Analytics http://www.solaresearch.org/resources/lak-dataset/in a nutshell CKAN linkededucation  Linked Data (including full text) of 300+ papers LAK tutorial from LAK and Educational Data Mining community LAK Data  Unprecedented resource for further research & analytics LAK challenge  Further reading: LILE2013 @ www Taibi, D., Dietze, S., Fostering analytics on learning analytics research: the LAK dataset, Technical Report, 03/2013, URL: http://resources.linkededucation.org/2013/03/lak-dataset-taibi.p
  • 11. Dataset analytics: topic coverage in a nutshell DatasetGoal Entities Categories Types Yovisto 25 99 91 Broader understanding of the topics / disciplines education.data.gov.uk 24 81 22 covered within Linked Educational Programs - SISVU 23 95 55 Education cloud Achievement Standards Networks – ASN:US 22 97 64 (and LOD in general) Linking Italian University Statistics Project 20 78 24 Identifying similarities between datasets Open Data from the Italian National Research Council 19 59 54 Creating richer dataset Nature Publishing Group - ALL 19 36 20 descriptions Organic Edunet Linked Open Data 16 47 19 DBLP Bibliography Database in RDF (FU Berlin) 16 53 70Approach Linked Data from the Open University 13 50 62 Enriching sample Italian public schools (LinkedOpenData.it) 13 46 80 resources from each Learning Analytics & Knowledge (LAK) Data 12 46 66 dataset with DBpedia COLINDA - Conference Linked Data 10 28 48 entities/categories mEducator: Linked Educational Resources 8 37 128 TheSoz Thesaurus for the Social Sciences (GESIS) 7 23 58 DBLP in RDF (L3S) 7 24 70 Catalogus Professorum Lipsiensis 6 15 55 OxPoints (University of Oxford) 2 9 49
  • 12. Dataset analytics: topic coveragein a nutshell Top-20 Categories in Linked Education Category #Occurrence Catalog http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Educational_psychology 133 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Philosophy_of_science 115 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Thought 111 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Concepts_in_metaphysics 104 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Management 97 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Concepts_in_physics 96 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Cognition 95 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Teaching 92 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Mental_processes 90 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Systems_science 90 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Developmental_psychology 86 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Concepts_in_epistemology 83 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Cognitive_science 82 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Neuropsychology 82 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Design 81 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Greek_loanwords 81 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Learning 79 http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Evaluation 74 Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 13. Data assessment: topic coverageIdentifying dataset similarities and correlationsin a nutshell
  • 14. Data assessment: topic coverageIdentifying dataset similarities and correlationsin a nutshell
  • 15. Linked Education graph: resource analytics LinkedUniversities educational videos Step 1 – Alignment of types/properties ? <dc:title> <akt:has-title> OER VideoLecture Publication  6 million distinct (but linked) resources  97 million RDF triples  21.6 GB of data  Schema: http://data.linkededucation.org/ns/linked-education.rdf  SPARQL: http://data.linkededucation.org/request/linked-learning/sparql Mathieu d‘Aquin, Stefan Dietze 12/03/13 15
  • 16. Entity enrichment => disambiguation & correlationVia DBpedia/Freebase <led:Resource-BBC-519215> … <led:title>…gravitating…</led:title> … </led:Resource-BBC-519215> <led:Resource-OpenLearn-2139393292> … <led:title>…laws of gravity…</led:title> … </led:Resource-OpenLearn-2139393292> Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 17. Linked Education graph: resource analytics Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 18. LD for integration & analytics of heterogeneous Web DataUse case: biomedical education Metamorphosis+ Tailored (L)CMS plugins => http://metamorphosis.med.duth.gr/ => http://www.meducator3.net/ Data/services integration & retrieval/search APIs ? Educational Web Resources
  • 19. LD for integration & analytics of heterogeneous Web DataUse case: biomedical education http://purl.org/smartlink ⇒ http://linkededucation.org/meducator Data/services integration & retrieval/search APIs Linked Educational Resources
  • 20. Data enrichment via DBpedia & Freebase Semi-structured RDF description of ? educational resource Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 21. Data enrichment via DBpedia & Freebase Semi-structured RDF description of educational resource ? Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 22. Data enrichment via DBpedia & Freebase ? ? ? ?
  • 23. Data enrichment via DBpedia & Freebase NER & disambiguation, eg, via ! !
  • 24. Semi-automated data enrichmentExample: OER annotation in MetaMorphosis+ Metamorphosis+ http://metamorphosis.med.duth.gr/Further reading:Dietze, S., Kaldoudi, E., Dovrolis, N., Yu, H.Q., Taibi, D. (2011)MetaMorphosis+ – A social network of educational Web resources basedon semantic integration of services and data, 10th International SemanticWeb Conference (ISWC2011), Bonn, Germany Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 25. Semi-automated data enrichment Access to 324 ontologies 1. User-specified term during and over 5 Mio entities learning resource annotation Metamorphosis+ http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ http://metamorphosis.med.duth.gr/ 2. Suggested Entities 3. Selected entities from BioPortal used to describe discipline, keywords of resource Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 26. Data analytics: clustering & correlation..) DBpedia concept (http://dbpedia.org/resource/....) Linked by number of Linked by number of Number of resources per DBpedia reference/enrichment (subject) in mEducator dataset resources resources Cervical_cancer 59 59 Screening 31 31 Cervical 29 29 Hpv 29 29 Oxygenation 26 DBpedia references used most frequently to describe the 26 Childhood 22 „subject“ of particular educational resources 22 differential_diagnosis 19 19 Knowledge 18 18 Learning 17 17 decision_making 16 16 Training 15 15 Lecture 15 15 Risk 15 15 hpv_infection 15 15 Fear 15 15 pap_smear 15 15 Abnormal 14 14 Ventilation 14 14 Ecg 14 14 Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 27. Data analytics: clustering & correlation..) DBpedia concept (http://dbpedia.org/resource/....) Linked by number of Linked by number of Number of resources per DBpedia reference/enrichment (subject) in mEducator dataset resources resources Cervical_cancer 59 59 Screening 31 31 Clustering of resources graph (blue nodes: resources, green nodes: enrichments) Cervical 29 29 Hpv 29 29 Oxygenation 26 26 Childhood 22 22 differential_diagnosis 19 19 Knowledge 18 18 Learning 17 17 decision_making 16 16 Training 15 15 Lecture 15 15 Risk 15 15 hpv_infection 15 15 Fear 15 15 pap_smear 15 15 Abnormal 14 14 Ventilation 14 14 Ecg 14 14 Cluster of educational resources relating to „cervical cancer“ subject Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 28. Exploratory search enabled via clusteringExample: search results of OER in MetaMorphosis+ Metamorphosis+ http://metamorphosis.med.duth.gr/ Educational resources retrieved based on particular user query Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 29. Exploratory search enabled via clusteringExample: search results of OER in MetaMorphosis+ Metamorphosis+ http://metamorphosis.med.duth.gr/ Related resources (ranked) Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 30. ConclusionsSummary Linked Data as knowledge resource: growing amount of educationally related datasets available Linked Data principles for data interoperability as enabler for Learning Analytics and educational recommender systems across platform boundaries Challenges:  Data heterogeneity (in particular when considering all forms of related data and resources)  Insufficient knowledge & descriptions of data(sets)Ongoing and future work Linked Education data catalog (http://linkedup- project.eu,http://data.linkededucation.org/linkedup/catalog) Assessment & annotation of datasets according to topic / type coverage, educational relevance, … Exploitation in innovative Learning Analytics scenarios and applications => LinkedUp Challenge (http://linkedup-challenge.org) Stefan Dietze 12/03/13
  • 31. References Interlinking educational Resources and the Web of Data – a Survey of Challenges and Approaches, Stefan Dietze,Salvador Sanchez-Alonso, Hannes Ebner, Hong Qing Yu, Daniela Giordano, Ivana Marenzi, Bernardo Pereira Nunes, EmeraldProgram: electronic Library and Information Systems, Volume 47, Issue 1 (2013). Linked Education: interlinking educational Resources and the Web of Data, Stefan Dietze, Honq Qing Yu,Daniela Giordano, Eleni Kaldoudi, Nikolas Dovrolis and Davide Taibi, ACM Symposium On Applied Computing (SAC-2012),Special Track on Semantic Web and Applications As Simple As It Gets – A sentence simplifier for different learning levels and contextsNunes, B. P., Kawase, R., Siehndel, P., Casanova, M.A., Dietze, S., in ICALT 2013: 13th IEEE International Conference onAdvanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Beijing, China, July 15-18 (2013). Fostering analytics on learning analytics research: the LAK dataset, Taibi, D., Dietze, S., Technical Report, 03/2013, URL:http://resources.linkededucation.org/2013/03/lak-dataset-taibi.pdf Semantic Web Journal Special Issue on Linked Data for Science and Education. , Kessler C., d’Aquin M. and Dietze S.(eds) http://iospress.metapress.com/content/m87017012802/ Putting Linked Data to Use in a Large Higher-Education OrganisationMathieu d’Aquin, Interacting with Linked Data workshop 2012 Information Organization on the Internet based on Heterogeneous Social Networks, Kaldoudi, E., Dovrolis, N., Dietze,S., 29th ACM International Conference on Design of Communication (ACM SIGDOC’11), Pisa, 2011. MetaMorphosis+ – A social network of educational Web resources based on semantic integration of services and data,Dietze, S., Kaldoudi, E., Dovrolis, N., Yu, H.Q., Taibi, D. (2011), 10th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2011),Bonn, Germany Mathieu d‘Aquin, Stefan Dietze 12/03/13 31
  • 32. Thank you! Contact  http://purl.org/dietze | @stefandietze See also (general)  http://linkedup-project.eu  http://linkedup-challenge.org http://linkededucation.org  http://linkeduniversities.org See also (data)  http://datahub.io/group/linked-education  http://data.linkededucation.org/linkedup/catalog  http://www.solaresearch.org/resources/lak-dataset/  http://datahub.io/dataset/meducator  http://datahub.io/dataset/smartlink

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