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Dietze Aswc 2009 Final

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  • 1. Two-Fold Service Matchmaking – Applying Ontology Mapping for Semantic Web Service Discovery /// ASWC’09, Shanghai, China, December 08, 2009 Stefan Dietze1, Neil Benn1, John Domingue1, Alex Conconi2, Fabio Cattatoni2 1Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, UK 2TXT eSolutions, Italy
  • 2. Outline Semantic Web Services (SWS) mediation Two-fold matchmaking approach for SWS Prototypical implementation & application Conclusions 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 3. Introduction Semantic Web Services (SWS) Formalisations of Web services in terms of capabilities (Cap), interfaces (If) and non-functional properties (Nfp) Capabilities: assumptions (Ass) and effects (Eff) sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService Use ontologies O (i.e. tuple of SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 concepts C, instances I, properties P, relations R and axioms A) Reference models e.g. OWL-S, WSMO, SAWSDL WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 4. SWS matchmaking Issues SWS discovery: matchmaking of capabilities of SWS e.g. : sws:Request R.1 As 2 ⊂ As1 ∪ Ef 2 ⊂ Ef1 ? ? sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 5. SWS matchmaking Issues As1 ≡ ¬ I1 ∩ I 2 SWS discovery: matchmaking of has-assumption capabilities of SWS e.g. : sws:Request R.1 As 2 ⊂ As1 ∪ Ef 2 ⊂ Ef1 I.e., matching logical expressions sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 has-assumption As 2 ≡ I 3 ∩ ¬ I 4 WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 6. SWS matchmaking Issues <geospatialLocation rdf:ID="M-K"/> As1 ≡ ¬ I1 ∩ I 2 SWS discovery: matchmaking of has-assumption capabilities of SWS e.g. : sws:Request R.1 As 2 ⊂ As1 ∪ Ef 2 ⊂ Ef1 ? I.e., matching logical expressions… …which are heterogeneous. sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 has-assumption As 2 ≡ I 3 ∩ ¬ I 4 <Location rdf:ID="Milton_Keynes"/> WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 7. SWS matchmaking Semantic-level mediation SWS discovery: matchmaking of capabilities of SWS e.g. : sws:Request R.1 As 2 ⊂ As1 ∪ Ef 2 ⊂ Ef1 Semantic-Level Mediation I.e., matching logical expressions… …which are heterogeneous. sws:WebService sws:WebService sws:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 Requires: mediation between concepts/instances across Mediation between heterogeneous heterogeneous SWS. semantic representations WebService WebService WebService WS.1 WS.2 WS.3 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 8. SWS matchmaking Two-fold process Proposal: SWS matchmaking as two-fold process (i) Semantic mediation via ontology (instance) mapping (ii) Logical reasoning for matchmaking of capability/interface descriptions 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 9. SWS matchmaking Two-fold process Proposal: SWS matchmaking as two-fold process (i) Semantic mediation via ontology (instance) mapping (ii) Logical reasoning for matchmaking of capability/interface descriptions Issues: Traditional SWS matchmaking focusses on (ii) Integration of (i): Via manual mappings? - costly Via exploitation of linguistic or structural similarities? - prone to errors Representations allowing for implicit similarity-computation ? 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 10. Semantic-level mediation Approach: instance similarity computation in shared MS Refining SWS ontologies through multiple “Mediation Spaces” (MS), i.e. multidimensional, { vector spaces MS n = ( p1d1, p2d2 ,..., pndn ) di ∈ MS, pi ∈ ℜ } Through MS ontology (extends SWS descriptions) Concept C in SWS ontology O => Mediation Space MS / Instance I of C => member M (vector) in MS SWS Ontology O1 Concept C1x instance-of instance-of refined-as-ns Instance I1i Instance I1j d1 refined-as-member refined-as-member d2 d3 Mediation Space MS1x 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 11. Semantic-level mediation Approach: instance similarity computation in shared MS Similarity-computation between SWS instances => spatial distances in MS n ui − u v −v 2 e.g. Euclidean distance: dist (u, v) = ∑ p (( i =1 i su )−( i sv )) Common agreement at schema (i.e. MS) level Agent 1 Agent 2 SWS Ontology O1 SWS Ontology O2 Concept c1x Concept c2x instance-of instance-of refined-as-ms refined-as-ms Instance i1i Instance i2i refined-as-member d1 refined-as-member d2 d3 Mediation Space MSx 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 12. Similarity-based service matchmaking Implementation based on WSMO/IRS-III Implementation: Web Service Modelling Ontology (WSMO) & SWS environment IRS-III wsmo:Goal G.1 (1) (2) wsmo:Mediator wsmo:MedWS Med.1 SWS.1.1 Comp. Sim. (3) (4) wsmo:WebService wsmo:WebService wsmo:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 (5) 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 13. Similarity-based service matchmaking Implementation based on WSMO/IRS-III Implementation: Web Service Modelling Ontology (WSMO) & SWS environment IRS-III WSMO Mediator: computation of similarities between given request (WSMO Goal, G1) and −1 set of x associated SWS (SWS1..SWSx):  n   ∑ ( dist k )  Sim(Gi , SWS j ) = Dist (Gi , SWS j ) =  k =1 ( )  −1  n      Limitation: suitability of service computed based on instance similarities (=> current work: integration into “real” two-fold matchmaking) wsmo:Goal G.1 (1) (2) wsmo:Mediator wsmo:MedWS Med.1 SWS.1.1 Comp. Sim. (3) (4) wsmo:WebService wsmo:WebService wsmo:WebService SWS.1 SWS.2 SWS.3 (5) 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 14. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application Uses representational approach (MS, similarity-based WSMO Mediator) Retrieval of distributed video resources (provided within EU FP7 IP NoTube - http://notube.tv) Keyword-based searches across Web services exposing video repositories BBC Backstage (news feed) [ http://backstage.bbc.co.uk/ ] BBC Programmes RDF [ http://api.talis.com/stores/bbc-backstage ] Open Video [ http://www.open-video.org/ ] OU channel on YouTube [ http://www.youtube.com/ou ] YouTube (mobile feed) [ http://www.youtube.com/ou ] Similarity-based service discovery for given request 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 15. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env SWS1: SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube WS1: WS2: WS3: WS4: WS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 16. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env SWS1: SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube WS1: WS2: WS3: WS4: WS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 17. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 {(p1*information, p2*education, p3*leisure)} = CS1 {(p4*resolution, p5*bandwidth)} = CS2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env SWS1: SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube WS1: WS2: WS3: WS4: WS5: OU-youtube bbc-programmes open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 18. Semantic mediation through MS Prototypical application SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space Requests (WSMO Goals) via AJAX-based UI O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env Consist of: SWS : SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: 1 OU-youtube entertain-youtube open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube Input parameters: set of keywords Assumption: defined through dynamically created instances WS : 1 2WS : 3 WS : 4 WS : WS5: OU-youtube on measurements describing purpose and environment) (based entertain-youtube open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube Similarity-based SWS discovery based on WSMO mediator 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 19. Demo SWS6: get-video-request M6 ={v1, v2, v3} M6 ={v1, v2} 1 2 MS1 Purpose Space MS2 Environment Space O1:Purp O1:Env O2:Purp O2:Env O3:Purp O3:Env O4:Purp O4:Env O5:Purp O5:Env SWS1: SWS2: SWS3: SWS4: SWS5: OU-youtube entertain-youtube open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube WS1: WS2: WS3: WS4: WS5: OU-youtube entertain-youtube open-video bbc-backstage mobile-youtube 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 20. Conclusions Summary & discussion Summary: Two-fold approach: considering semantic-level mediation as implicit element of SWS matchmaking Mediation approach based on (instance) similarity-computation Issues: Matchmaking purely based on instance similarities (=> current work: integration into “real” two-fold matchmaking) Similarity-calculation requires overlapping MS and measurable quality dimensions Additional representational effort => future work: evaluation 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference
  • 21. Thank you! E-mail: s.dietze@open.ac.uk Web: http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/dietze 08/12/2009 4th Asian Semantic Web Conference