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Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                  www.deri.ie        ...
Cave Drawings 30000 BCDigital Enterprise Research Institute                            www.deri.ie                        ...
Writing: 3200 BC                             (Sumerian cuneiform)Digital Enterprise Research Institute                    ...
Printing PressDigital Enterprise Research Institute   (Gutenberg 1450)                   www.deri.ie                      ...
PhotographyDigital Enterprise Research Institute   (Daguerre 1839)                 www.deri.ie                            ...
Phonograph (Edison 1877)Digital Enterprise Research Institute                             www.deri.ie                     ...
Movies (Lumiere 1895)Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie                    ...
Bush’s camera on the                                headDigital Enterprise Research Institute                             ...
MemexDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie       Posited by Vannevar Bush in “...
Sketch of memexDigital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie                            ...
oNLine System- NLS, 1968                                (Doug Engelbart, SRI)Digital Enterprise Research Institute        ...
ARPANET (1969)                              (John Postel, David Crocker, Vint Cerf)Digital Enterprise Research Institute  ...
Xanadu (Ted Nelson                                ~1960-???)Digital Enterprise Research Institute                         ...
World Wide Web                               (Tim Berners-Lee 1989)Digital Enterprise Research Institute                  ...
Making Progress…Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                            www.deri.ie      Memex (V...
A Network of Data                                and Knowledge                                        ?Digital Enterprise ...
?Digital Enterprise Research Institute                         www.deri.ie                                        Enabling...
What enabled the Web?Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie     1.     Scalabili...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                         www.deri.ie   Metcalfes law:   The value of a   network is  ...
Metcalfe’s Law 1: LinksDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie                  ...
Metcalfe’s Law 2Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                    www.deri.ie                      ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                         www.deri.ie                                        Enabling ...
Requirements for a Data WebDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie               ...
Enabling Metcalfe’s LawDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie    1. Gl...
ObservationsDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                       www.deri.ie         • The relation...
The usual twoDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                         Ingredients                    ...
Linked Open Data cloud                                 - domainsDigital Enterprise Research Institute                     ...
Provocative?Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie                 Do we really ...
Issues with OntologiesDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie           Differe...
How did                                classes/instancesDigital Enterprise Research Institute                             ...
Note: How did DL &                            Ontologies/Classes happen in the                            Semantic Web?Dig...
Class- vs. Prototype-                             based ProgrammingDigital Enterprise Research Institute                  ...
ExamplesDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                                      www.deri.ie            ...
How it could look like:                                 (Horizontal InformationDigital Enterprise Research Institute      ...
“Instantiation”Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                   www.deri.ie                        ...
Research AgendaDigital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie           Knowledge Repres...
Linked Data Vocabularies                                as Social ConstructsDigital Enterprise Research Institute         ...
NeologismDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                              www.deri.ie    http://vocab.de...
Linked Open Data cloud                                 - domainsDigital Enterprise Research Institute                     ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                    www.deri.ie                      ...
User Role AnalysisDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                                  www.deri.ie Digit...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                         www.deri.ie                                        Enabling ...
User Role Analysis:                                 Orthogonal FeaturesDigital Enterprise Research Institute              ...
Role AnalysisDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                                     www.deri.ie        ...
ExampleDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                                         www.deri.ie          ...
Analysis of ForumsDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie       Boards.ie data fr...
Personal Issues ForumDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie                     ...
Christianity vs WeatherDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                    www.deri.ie           Som...
Windows, Development, PoliticsDigital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie     Less so...
Humanities ForumDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie                         ...
The Evolution of                                CommunitiesDigital Enterprise Research Institute                          ...
MotivationDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie       Kuhn claimed the develop...
Cross-Community EffectsDigital Enterprise Research Institute                             www.deri.ie    community    shift...
Methodology PipelineDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                                      www.deri.ie...
Community & Topic                                DetectionDigital Enterprise Research Institute                           ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                         www.deri.ie                                        Enabling ...
Topics of Louvain Community 26Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie    ...
A Network of                                KnowledgeDigital Enterprise Research Institute                                ...
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Stefan Decker Keynote at CSHALS

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Keynote Slides Stefan Decker at CSHALS Conference

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  • Since 2013 I come back to this at least once every 6 months, often starting slide #28. This is my public thank you ! to Stefan for sharing with us a preview of what is needed for the web to be both a global data space and a global compute space. The role of prototypal inheritance is an absolute eye opener!
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  • The Mouse; Word Processing; Data Sharing; voice & video 4 minutes
  • The Mouse; Word Processing; Data Sharing; voice & video 4 minutes
  • The Mouse; Word Processing; Data Sharing; voice & video 4 minutes
  • In order to create a global data network the data format needs to be able to identify entities. Therefore it needs a world-wide accepted way to identify entities. Object identity does not impose name uniqueness: information is created independently. Different object identifiers may be used for the same object as information is been created independently.
  • In order to create a global data network the data format needs to be able to identify entities. Therefore it needs a world-wide accepted way to identify entities. Object identity does not impose name uniqueness: information is created independently. Different object identifiers may be used for the same object as information is been created independently.
  • Work by Conor Hayes, Vaclav Belak et at, DERI.
  • Agglomerative hierachical clustering
  • Using principle component analysis to analyse the features, we found that the the amplitude of the largest principal component constituted more than 95% of the variance in the features, and the size of the ego-centric networks was the dominant feature in the largest component. Hence, we use the size of the ego-centric networks as our feature to partition the users into the three bands. We discard the lowest band, which consists one-post users, and the middle band, which does not have enough neighbours to have an accurate power law exponent fit. Using agglomerative hierarchical clustering, we cluster the feature profile data of the remaining top band users from all forums. To determine the optimal number of clusters, we used five different validation techniques: Rand, Silhouette, RS, Root mean square and DB Index (Handl, Knowles, and Kell 2005). We found that the optimal number of clusters was either 8, 13, 15 or 21. After manual inspection, we selected 8 and 15 as the best numbers of clusters. Each cluster approximately corresponds to one user role type. The average value of the nine features and the number of users in each cluster are used to build a quantitative description of the clusters/user role types.
  • For example, the taciturn role makes up 95% of all users in the Personal Issues forum (grouping 1). This suggests that, despite its name, there is little dialogue happening.
  • strong component of popular initiators, suggesting that a few users regularly initiate threads that subsequently generate discussion (large percentage of popular participants and supporters).
  • Instead of paradigm shift, we were looking for community shift Instead of paradigm articulation, we were looking for community specialization We call it ‘community shift’, because we reveal less dramatic changes in the scientific discourse. Very significant and important shifts may eventually turn out to be ‘paradigm shifts’. Similar argument applies also to the use of the notion ‘community specialization’. Paradigm articulation – scientists successfully apply the methods within the paradigm to new problems, until they eventually reach the limits of the paradigm by finding problems/questions not answerable/solvable by the methods, which leads to the crisis of the paradigm and call for a radical change in the scientific field.
  • Publications from major IR and SW conferences obtained from DBLP for 2000–2009 (ISWC, ESWC, SIGIR, …) Co-citation network of 5772 authors and 817642 edges over all years was extracted 3-year time-steps with 2-years overlap: 2000–2002, 2001–2003, 2002–2004, . . . Total number of articles was 39314 for which we were able to scrape 22975 abstracts and 3740 full-texts Nearly 70% coverage by content 10% coverage by author-provided keywords
  • We used non-overlapping community detection algorithms, because at that time there was no suitable implementation of overlapping communities detection algorithm. We currently work with overlapping communities.
  • In 2007 there was a strong inflow from community 15 “semantic web and IR” into community 26, which caused a change of topics towards “semantic web”.
  • Transcript of "Stefan Decker Keynote at CSHALS"

    1. 1. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie From Linked Data to Networked Knowledge or Science is a Social Construct Stefan Decker Stefan.Decker@deri.org© Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rightsreserved. http://www.StefanDecker.org/ Enabling Networked Knowledge
    2. 2. Cave Drawings 30000 BCDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    3. 3. Writing: 3200 BC (Sumerian cuneiform)Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    4. 4. Printing PressDigital Enterprise Research Institute (Gutenberg 1450) www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    5. 5. PhotographyDigital Enterprise Research Institute (Daguerre 1839) www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    6. 6. Phonograph (Edison 1877)Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    7. 7. Movies (Lumiere 1895)Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    8. 8. Bush’s camera on the headDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    9. 9. MemexDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Posited by Vannevar Bush in “As We May Think” The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945 “A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility” Enabling Networked Knowledge 9
    10. 10. Sketch of memexDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge 10
    11. 11. oNLine System- NLS, 1968 (Doug Engelbart, SRI)Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie “By ‘augmenting human intellect’ we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.”The Mouse;Word Processing;Data Sharing;Hypertext; Enabling Networked Knowledge
    12. 12. ARPANET (1969) (John Postel, David Crocker, Vint Cerf)Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    13. 13. Xanadu (Ted Nelson ~1960-???)Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge 13
    14. 14. World Wide Web (Tim Berners-Lee 1989)Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie WWW (Tim Berners- Lee) “There was a second part of the dream […] we could then use computers to help us analyse it, make sense of what we re doing, where we individually fit in, and how we can better work together.” Enabling Networked Knowledge
    15. 15. Making Progress…Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Memex (Vannevar Bush) A memex is “a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications.” Augmenting Human Intellect (Doug Engelbart) “By "augmenting human intellect" we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.” WWW (Tim Berners-Lee) “There was a second part of the dream […] we could then use computers to help us analyse it, make sense of what we re doing, where we individually fit in, and how we can better work together.” 15 of 46 Enabling Networked Knowledge
    16. 16. A Network of Data and Knowledge ?Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Interconnected  Universal  All encompassing  assists humans, organisations and systems with problem solving  enabling innovation and increased productivity Enabling Networked Knowledge
    17. 17. ?Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    18. 18. What enabled the Web?Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 1. Scalability: No growth scalability problem (e.g., no back links from HTML pages) 2. No censorship: no lengthy permission or review process 3. Positive feedback loop: exploit Metcalf’s Law Enabling Networked Knowledge
    19. 19. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Metcalfes law: The value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of connected members Enabling Networked Knowledge
    20. 20. Metcalfe’s Law 1: LinksDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    21. 21. Metcalfe’s Law 2Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    22. 22. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    23. 23. Requirements for a Data WebDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 1. Scalability. No centralized infrastructure (e.g., a central object repository) required. 2. No censorship. It must be possible to publish data without having to ask for prior permission. 3. Positive feedback loop. Capitalize on Metcalfe’s Law. Enabling Networked Knowledge
    24. 24. Enabling Metcalfe’s LawDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 1. Global Object Identity. 2. Composability: The value of data can be increased if it can be combined with other data. Composability has a number of consequences: 1. schema-less. ( Combined data originating from difference sources unlikely to conform to a schema) 2. self-describing 3. “object centric”. In order to integrate information about different entities data must be related to these entities. 4. graph-based. The composition of multiple object-centric data sources results in a graph in the general case. Enabling Networked Knowledge
    25. 25. ObservationsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie • The relational model does not fulfill these requirements (not composable, no global object id) • XML is not object centric and not composable. • Graph based data formats are composable • RDF fulfills these requirements. • Claim: Any data format that fulfills the requirements is “more or less” isomorphic to RDF. Enabling Networked Knowledge
    26. 26. The usual twoDigital Enterprise Research Institute Ingredients www.deri.ie 1. RDF – Resource Description Framework Graph based Data – nodes and arcs  Identifies objects (URIs)  Interlink information (Relationships) 1. Vocabularies (Ontologies)  provide shared understanding of a domain  organise knowledge in a machine-comprehensible way  give an exploitable meaning to the data Enabling Networked Knowledge 26 of 46
    27. 27. Linked Open Data cloud - domainsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie BestBuyhttp://lod-cloud.net/ Overstock.com Facebook US government UK government Media User-generated Government Publications BBC New York Times Cross-domain Geo Life sciences LinkedGeoData Over 200 open data sets with more than 25 billion facts, interlinked by 400 million typed links, doubling every 10 month! Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. Enabling Networked Knowledge 27
    28. 28. Provocative?Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Do we really need Ontologies? Enabling Networked Knowledge
    29. 29. Issues with OntologiesDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Differentiation in Classes and Instances is difficult: no single way to abstract the world (observe Upper Ontology wars…..aehm…discussions!)  Choices between Instances and Classes done at design cause usability issues (different treatment in applications) (animal-mammal-whale)  Ontologies cement power structures (prevent information sharing)  Sharing is only top-down Enabling Networked Knowledge
    30. 30. How did classes/instancesDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie happen?  Predecessor: Frame Representation Systems  “Prototypes: KRL, RLL, and JOSIE employ prototype frames to represent information about a typical instance of a class as opposed to the class itself and as opposed to actual instances of the class.” [Karp, 1993]  AFAIK: Classes as subsets and instances as elements [Hayes, 1979].  Formalization of Frame Systems (Description Logic) picked up on [Hayes, 1979] and left out alternatives Enabling Networked Knowledge
    31. 31. Note: How did DL & Ontologies/Classes happen in the Semantic Web?Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Stefan Decker, Dieter Fensel, Frank van Harmelen, Ian Horrocks, Sergey Melnik, Michel C. A. Klein, Jeen Broekstra: Knowledge Representation on the Web. Description Logics 2000: 89-97  OIL -> DAML+OIL -> OWL -> OWL 2.0 Enabling Networked Knowledge
    32. 32. Class- vs. Prototype- based ProgrammingDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Languages Class-based: Prototype-based:  Classes: methods, common > No classes, only objects properties > Objects define their own  Inheritance along class properties and methods chain > Objects delegate to their  Instances defined by their prototype(s) class > Any object can be the  Structure typically cannot be prototype of another object changed at runtime Prototype-based languages unify objects and classes From: A. Lienhard, O. Nierstrasz: Prototype based programming http://www.slidefinder.net/0/03prototypes/03prototypes/10603817 Enabling Networked Knowledge © A. Lienhard, O. Nierstrasz 3.32
    33. 33. ExamplesDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie > JavaScript, > Self, > NewtonScript, > Omega, Cecil, From: A. Lienhard, O. Nierstrasz: Prototype based programming http://www.slidefinder.net/0/03prototypes/03prototypes/10603817 Enabling Networked Knowledge
    34. 34. How it could look like: (Horizontal InformationDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Sharing) Enabling Networked Knowledge
    35. 35. “Instantiation”Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    36. 36. Research AgendaDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Knowledge Representation Constructs (Specialisation)  Logic based Formalisation of Prototypes  Reasoning (e.g., with Rules)  Complexity  Large Scale Storage, Querying  Collaboration facilities Enabling Networked Knowledge
    37. 37. Linked Data Vocabularies as Social ConstructsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    38. 38. NeologismDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://vocab.deri.ie/ Neologism is a simple, Drupal-based RDF-S vocabulary editor and publishing system, that allows for: • Collaborativelly creating and maintaining RDFS vocabularies • Making the vocab available for humans (HTML, graph) and machines (RDF/XML, Turtle) • Importing external vocabularies • Working with external namespaces such as via PURL.org, etc. • More at http://neologism.deri.ie/ Enabling Networked Knowledge
    39. 39. Linked Open Data cloud - domainsDigital Enterprise Research Institute BestBuy www.deri.iehttp://lod-cloud.net/ Overstock.com Facebook US government UK government Media User-generated Government Publications BBC New York Times Cross-domain Geo Life sciences LinkedGeoData Over 200 open data sets with more than 25 billion facts, interlinked by 400 million typed links, doubling every 10 month! Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. Enabling Networked Knowledge 39
    40. 40. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie n Actio Visualisation, Collaboration, Exploitation Abstraction, Reasoning, Analytics Networked Data Management n o m ati Infor Enabling Networked Knowledge
    41. 41. User Role AnalysisDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Who are the influencers? • Who are the initiators? • Who tends to answer questions? • What fraction of the network is non-social? • How stable are these roles? Work by Vaclav Belak, Conor Hayes et al, DERI. 6 Enabling Networked Knowledge
    42. 42. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    43. 43. User Role Analysis: Orthogonal FeaturesDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ■Persistence ■ Mean/Std. Dev. posts per thread C D ■Initialisation B ■ % initiated threads A ■Popularity ■ % in-degree ■ % posts that receive reply Post ■Reciprocity Response ■ % bi-directional neighbours ■ % bi-directional threads Enabling Networked Knowledge 43
    44. 44. Role AnalysisDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Reciprocity Persistence Popularity InitiationPopular Initiator High High Very HighPopular Participant High High LowSupporter Medium Medium LowElitist Low L-M neighborhood Hi thread reponseGrunt Low to Low to Medium MediumTaciturn Very Low Low to Medium Enabling Networked Knowledge 44
    45. 45. ExampleDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Post C D Response B A Reciprocity Persistence Popularity Initiation Popular initiator A 2/3 1/7 2/7 1 Popular participant B 2/3 2/7 2/7 0 Grunt C 1/3 3/7 0 0 Taciturn D 0 1/7 0 0 Enabling Networked Knowledge 45
    46. 46. Analysis of ForumsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Boards.ie data from 01/07/2006 to 31/12/2006  Personal Issues  Christianity  Weather  Windows  Development  Humanities  Politics Enabling Networked Knowledge
    47. 47. Personal Issues ForumDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Mostly taciturns  Not a lot of dialog Enabling Networked Knowledge
    48. 48. Christianity vs WeatherDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Some popular  Popular initiators initiators  Large portion of grunts  Some lengthy  Not as much discussion discussions Enabling Networked Knowledge
    49. 49. Windows, Development, PoliticsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Less social (technical)  No popular initiators  Lots of grunts Enabling Networked Knowledge
    50. 50. Humanities ForumDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  highly social elitists  Some supporters Enabling Networked Knowledge
    51. 51. The Evolution of CommunitiesDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ieWork by Vaclav Belak, Conor Hayes et al, DERI. Enabling Networked Knowledge
    52. 52. MotivationDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Kuhn claimed the development of scientific knowledge proceeds in discrete steps: 1.Pre-paradigm period 2.Paradigm period (normal science)  paradigm articulation 1.Crisis 2.Reaction to the crisis  paradigm shift Enabling Networked Knowledge
    53. 53. Cross-Community EffectsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie community shift community specialization  Co-citation networks of Semantic Web community Enabling Networked Knowledge
    54. 54. Methodology PipelineDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Publications from major conferences selected from DBLP Community shifts and specializations Enabling Networked Knowledge
    55. 55. Community & Topic DetectionDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Communities identified using:  Infomap  Reasons:  publicly available implementations  weighted directed networks  Communities traced from one snapshot to the next according to the highest Jaccard coefficient  Ancestors and descendant obtained by a modification of Jaccard coefficient Enabling Networked Knowledge
    56. 56. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
    57. 57. Topics of Louvain Community 26Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 15 Enabling Networked Knowledge
    58. 58. A Network of KnowledgeDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Interconnected  Universal  All encompassing •Search •Science •Collaboration •Commercialization` •Text MiningLinked Data  assists humans, organisations and systems with problem solving  enabling innovation and increased productivity Enabling Networked Knowledge
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