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From	          Chaos	  to	        Complexity	  -­‐	  A	  Point	  of	  View	  for	  the	  Manager	  in	  the	        21st	 ...
„I	                      am	  very	  relaxed	                       now,	  since	  I	  am	                   responsible	 ...
Charlie	  Todd:	  The	  shared	  experience	  of	  absurdity,	  TED,	  2011
BARRIERS	        TO	  FURTHER	      AGILE	  ADOPTION	     For	  over	  half	  of	  the	  respondents,	  the	  inability	  ...
What	  is	  a	  complex	  system?
“complexity	   entails	  that,	  in	  a	  system,	  there	  are	  more	  possibiliNes	     than	  can	  be	     actualized...
(i)	  Complex	  systems	  consist	  of	  a	  large	  number	  of	  elements	  ...	  convenNonal	  means	  ...	  cease	  to...
many	  (i)	  Complex	  systems	  consist	  of	  a	  large	  number	  of	  elements	  ...	  convenNonal	  means	  ...	  cea...
many	  (i)	  Complex	  systems	  consist	  of	  a	  large	  number	  of	  elements	  ...	  convenNonal	  means	  ...	  cea...
many	  (i)	  Complex	  systems	  consist	  of	  a	  large	  number	  of	  elements	  ...	  convenNonal	  means	  ...	  cea...
many	                                                                                                      Complex	  (i)	 ...
many	                                                                                                      Complex	  (i)	 ...
many	                                                                                                  Complex	  (i)	  Com...
many	                                                                                                  Complex	  (i)	  Com...
many	                                                                                                  Complex	  (i)	  Com...
many	                                                                                                  Complex	  (i)	  Com...
Brains,	  bacteria,	  immune	  systems,	  the	  Internet,	  countries,	  gardens,	  ciLes,	  beehives…They’re	  all	  comp...
A	  team	  is	  a	  complex	  adapLve	  system	  (CAS),	  because	  it	  consists	  of	  parts	  (people)	  that	  form	  ...
Chaos	           is	  any	  state	         of	  confusion	  or	  disorder,	  randomness,	   a	  lack	  of	  intelligible	 ...
Süddeutsche	  Zeitung,	  Nr.	  176,	  1.	  August	  2012	  
Kitty Kraus, People’s Choice Prize at the Hamburgerbahnhof 2011
The	  Nunchaku	  Bruce	  Lee	  vs	  Danny	  Inosanto,	  "Game	  of	  Death"	  (1978)
Once	  there	  was	  a	  software	  business	  withunhappy	  customers
Customer	  satisfaction	  was	  low	  because	  of	  low      quality	  and	  productivity
Quality	  and	  productivity	  were	  low	  because	  there	  waslack	  of	  skills	  and	  discipline
Customer	  dissatisfaction	  increased        pressure	  on	  teams
Stress	  at	  work	  meantno	  time	  foreducation
No	  education	  meantno	  skills	  andno	  discipline
Customer	  pressure	  led	  to  unhappy	  teams
Lack	  of	  skills	  and	  unhappy	  customers	  added	  to                                          decreasing           ...
Decreased    motivation     added	  to decreasingproductivity
We	  call	  this	  a                           Causal	  Loop	  Diagram(Some	  call	  it	  aDiagram	  of	  Effects)
It	  shows	  the	  business	  suffered	  from                     vicious	  cycles
And	  not	  just	  one,	  but                   many
Management	  sawrevenues	  declining
They	  tried	  to	  supportimprovement	  whilecutting	  budgets
Meanwhile,	  technological	  pressure	  was	  increasingAnd	  due	  to	  the	  crisis,	  economic	  pressure	  also	  went...
Needless	  to	  say,	  this	  business	  wasDOOMED
Grow	         StructurePrinzessinnengärten	  Berlin	  
„...organizaNons	                               which	  design	                    systems	  ...	  are	  constrained	     ...
Darkness	  Principle
Misfit by Thomas Grünfeld
Agile	  Agile	  Team	   Startup	  
Step	  1:	  Product  "The	  minimum	  plan	     necessary	  to	  start	  a	  Scrum	  project	  consists	  of	   a	  vision...
Step	  1:	  Product	    Co-­‐Create	  the	  Team	      Vision	  and	  iniNal	  Product	  Backlog	  with	  the	      Produc...
Step	             2:	  Journey	  Lines	     fosters	  self-­‐organizaNon	        and	  cross-­‐funcNonal	   behavior	  bec...
Step	  3:	  Grow	                 Structure       Co-­‐Design	  the	  team-­‐structure	  and	  decide	  who	  is	  in	  wh...
Step	  3:	  Grow	            Structure Choose	  team	  members	   according	  to	  interest	  in	  the	  main	  feature	  ...
Step	  3:	  Grow	                                                                 Structure                               ...
Complexity Thinking1.   Address	  complexity	  with	  complexity2.   Use	  a	  diversity	  of	  perspecNves3.   Assume	  d...
StartComplexity	    Doing                 When Faith Moves Mountains by Francis Alÿs
For	  a	  book	  list	  and	  references	  write	  an	  e-­‐mail	  to	  stefan.haas@haaslab.net	  or	                     ...
QuesNons?
From chaos to complexity
From chaos to complexity
From chaos to complexity
From chaos to complexity
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From chaos to complexity

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Transcript of "From chaos to complexity"

  1. 1. From   Chaos  to   Complexity  -­‐  A  Point  of  View  for  the  Manager  in  the   21st  Century Stefan  Haas Agile  Coach  &   Trainer  @haaslab www.haaslab.net
  2. 2. „I   am  very  relaxed   now,  since  I  am   responsible  for  what  I   am  saying,  you  are   responsible  for  what   you  are  hearing”    Humberto  Maturana,  transmediale08,  2008,  Berlin,  Haus  der  Kulturen  der  Welt
  3. 3. Charlie  Todd:  The  shared  experience  of  absurdity,  TED,  2011
  4. 4. BARRIERS   TO  FURTHER   AGILE  ADOPTION   For  over  half  of  the  respondents,  the  inability   to  change  their   organization’s  culture   was  the  biggest   problem. http://www.versionone.com/pdf/2011_State_of_Agile_Development_Survey_Results.pdf
  5. 5. What  is  a  complex  system?
  6. 6. “complexity   entails  that,  in  a  system,  there  are  more  possibiliNes   than  can  be   actualized”   Niklas  Luhmann  in  Complexity  &  Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  7. 7. (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system.(ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as  the  transference  of  informa.on.(iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons.(iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ...(v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from  immediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  few  steps.  As  a  result  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way.(vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,  someNmes  directly,  someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  stages.  This  feedback  can  be  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency.(vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  border  of  a  complex  system  ...  the  scope  ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing.(viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐responsible  for  their  present  behaviour.(x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. Complexity  &  Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  8. 8. many  (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system. elements  (ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as   interact  the  transference  of  informa.on.(iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons. dynamically,  (iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ...(v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from   non-­‐linear  and  immediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  few  steps.  As  a  result   rich  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way.(vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,  someNmes  directly,  someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  stages.  This  feedback  can  be  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency.(vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  border  of  a  complex  system  ...  the  scope  ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing.(viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐responsible  for  their  present  behaviour.(x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. Complexity  &Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  9. 9. many  (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system. elements  (ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as   interact  the  transference  of  informa.on.(iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons. dynamically,  (iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ...(v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from   non-­‐linear  and  immediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  few  steps.  As  a  result   rich   The  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way.(vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,   interacNons  someNmes  directly,  someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  stages.  This  feedback  can  be  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency. can  also  be  (vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  border  of  a  complex  system  ...  the  scope  ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the   thought  of  as  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing.(viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is   transference  of  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐responsible  for  their  present  behaviour. informa.on(x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. Complexity  &Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  10. 10. many  (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system. elements  (ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon   Complex  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as   interact  the  transference  of  informa.on. systems  are  (iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons. dynamically,   open  systems(iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ...(v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from   non-­‐linear  and  immediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  few  steps.  As  a  result   rich   The  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way.(vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,   interacNons  someNmes  directly,  someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  stages.  This  feedback  can  be  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency. can  also  be  (vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  border  of  a  complex  system  ...  the  scope  ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the   thought  of  as  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing.(viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is   transference  of  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐responsible  for  their  present  behaviour. informa.on(x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. Complexity  &Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  11. 11. many   Complex  (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system. elements   systems  (ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon   Complex  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as   interact  the  transference  of  informa.on. systems  are   have  a  (iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons. dynamically,   usually  open  (iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ... history(v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from   non-­‐linear  and   systemsimmediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  few  steps.  As  a  result   rich   The  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way.(vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,   interacNons  someNmes  directly,  someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  stages.  This  feedback  can  be  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency. can  also  be  (vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  border  of  a  complex  system  ...  the  scope  ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the   thought  of  as  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing.(viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is   transference  of  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐responsible  for  their  present  behaviour. informa.on(x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. Complexity  &Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  12. 12. many   Complex  (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system. elements   systems  (ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon   Complex  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as   interact  the  transference  of  informa.on. systems  are   have  a  (iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons. dynamically,   usually  open  (iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ... history(v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from   non-­‐linear  and   systemsimmediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  few  steps.  As  a  result   rich   The  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way.(vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,   interacNons  someNmes  directly,  someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  stages.  This  feedback  can  be  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency. can  also  be   interacNons  (vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  border  of  a  complex  system  ...  the  scope  ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the   thought  of  as  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing. have  a  short  (viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is   range  and  wide   transference  of  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐responsible  for  their  present  behaviour. ranging   informa.on influence  (x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. Complexity  &Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  13. 13. many   Complex  (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system. elements   systems  (ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon   Complex  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as   interact  the  transference  of  informa.on. systems  are   have  a  (iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons. dynamically,   usually  open  (iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ... history(v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from   non-­‐linear  and   systemsimmediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  few  steps.  As  a  result   rich   The  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way.(vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,   interacNons  someNmes  directly,  someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  stages.  This  feedback  can  be  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency. can  also  be   interacNons  (vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  border  of  a  complex  system  ...  the  scope  ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the   thought  of  as  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing. have  a  short  (viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is   range  and  wide   There   transference  of  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐ ranging   are  loops  in  responsible  for  their  present  behaviour. informa.on influence  (x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. the  interacNons Complexity  &Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  14. 14. many   Complex  (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system. elements   systems  (ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon   Complex  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as   interact  the  transference  of  informa.on. systems  are   have  a  (iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons. dynamically,   usually  open  (iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ... history(v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from   non-­‐linear  and   systemsimmediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  few  steps.  As  a  result   rich   Complex   The  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way.(vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,   Systems   interacNons  someNmes  directly,  someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  stages.  This  feedback  can  be  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency. operate  far  from   can  also  be   interacNons  (vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  border  of  a   equilibriumcomplex  system  ...  the  scope  ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the   thought  of  as  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing. have  a  short  (viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is   range  and  wide   There   transference  of  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐ ranging   are  loops  in  responsible  for  their  present  behaviour. informa.on influence  (x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. the  interacNons Complexity  &Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  15. 15. many   Complex  (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system. elements   systems  (ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon   Complex  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as   interact  the  transference  of  informa.on. systems  are   have  a  (iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons. dynamically,   usually  open  (iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ... history Each  (v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from   non-­‐linear  and   systemsimmediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  in  tsteps.  As  a  result   element   few   he   rich   Complex   The  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way. system  is  ignorant  (vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,   Systems   interacNons   of  the  behaviour  of  someNmes  directly,  someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  stages.  This  feedback  can  be  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency. operate  far  from  (vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  aorder  of  a   the  system  as   b   can  also  be   interacNons   whole equilibriumcomplex  system  ...  the  scope  ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the   thought  of  as  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing. have  a  short  (viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is   range  and  wide   There   transference  of  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐ ranging   are  loops  in  responsible  for  their  present  behaviour. informa.on influence  (x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. the  interacNons Complexity  &Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  16. 16. many   Complex  (i)  Complex  systems  consist  of  a  large  number  of  elements  ...  convenNonal  means  ...  cease  to  assist  in  any  understanding  of  the  system. elements   systems  (ii)  In  order  to  consNtute  a  complex  system,  the  elements  have  to  interact,  and  this  interacNon   Complex  must  be  dynamic.  The  interacNons  do  not  have  to  be  physical;  they  can  also  be  thought  of  as   interact  the  transference  of  informa.on. systems  are   have  a  (iii)  The  interacNon  is  fairly  rich  ...  The  behaviour  of  the  system,  however,  is  not  determined  by  the  exact  amount  of  interacNons. dynamically,   usually  open  (iv)  ...  interacNons  are  non-­‐linear  ... history Each  (v)  The  interacNons  usually  have  a  fairly  short  range,  i.e.  informaNon  is  received  primarily  from   non-­‐linear  and   systemsimmediate  neighbours  ...  This  does  not  preclude  wide  ranging  influence  -­‐  since  interacNon  is   What  rich,  the  route  from  one  element  to  any  other  can  usually  be  covered  in  a  in  tsteps.  As  a  result   element   few   he   rich   concrete   Complex   The  the  influence  gets  modulated  along  the  way. system  is  ignorant  (vi)  There  are  loops  in  the  interacNons.  The  effect  of  any  acNvity  can  feed  back  onto  itself,  someNmes  directly,  of   examples   someNmes  aVer  a  number  of  intervening  he  behaviour  oan  be   Systems   interacNons   of  t stages.  This  feedback  c f   complex  systems  posiNve  ...  or  negaNve...  recurrency. operate  far  from  (vii)  Complex  systems  are  usually  open  systems...  it  is  oVen  difficult  to  define  the  aorder  of  a   the  system  as   b   can  also  be   interacNons  complex  system  ...  the  of   ...  is  ...  determined  by  the  purpose  of  the  descrip.on  of  the   can  you  think  scope   whole equilibrium thought  of  as  the  system,  and  is  ...  influenced  by  the  posiNon  of  the  observer...  framing. NOW? have  a  short  (viii)  Complex  systems  operate  under  condiNons  far  from  from  equilibrium.  ...  Equilibrium  is   range  and  wide   There   transference  of  another  word  for  death.(xi)  Complex  systems  have  a  history.  Not  only  do  they  evolve  through  Nme,  but  their  past  is  co-­‐ ranging   are  loops  in  responsible  for  their  present  behaviour. informa.on influence  (x)  Each  element  in  the  system  is  ignorant  of  the  behaviour  of  the  system  as  a  whole. the  interacNons Complexity  &Postmodernism,  Paul  Cilliers,  1998
  17. 17. Brains,  bacteria,  immune  systems,  the  Internet,  countries,  gardens,  ciLes,  beehives…They’re  all  complex  adapLve  systems.
  18. 18. A  team  is  a  complex  adapLve  system  (CAS),  because  it  consists  of  parts  (people)  that  form  a  system  (team),  which  shows  complex  behavior  while  it  keeps  adap.ng  to  a  changing  environment.
  19. 19. Chaos   is  any  state   of  confusion  or  disorder,  randomness,   a  lack  of  intelligible   pattern  or   combination hVp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaos
  20. 20. Süddeutsche  Zeitung,  Nr.  176,  1.  August  2012  
  21. 21. Kitty Kraus, People’s Choice Prize at the Hamburgerbahnhof 2011
  22. 22. The  Nunchaku  Bruce  Lee  vs  Danny  Inosanto,  "Game  of  Death"  (1978)
  23. 23. Once  there  was  a  software  business  withunhappy  customers
  24. 24. Customer  satisfaction  was  low  because  of  low quality  and  productivity
  25. 25. Quality  and  productivity  were  low  because  there  waslack  of  skills  and  discipline
  26. 26. Customer  dissatisfaction  increased pressure  on  teams
  27. 27. Stress  at  work  meantno  time  foreducation
  28. 28. No  education  meantno  skills  andno  discipline
  29. 29. Customer  pressure  led  to unhappy  teams
  30. 30. Lack  of  skills  and  unhappy  customers  added  to decreasing motivation
  31. 31. Decreased motivation added  to decreasingproductivity
  32. 32. We  call  this  a Causal  Loop  Diagram(Some  call  it  aDiagram  of  Effects)
  33. 33. It  shows  the  business  suffered  from vicious  cycles
  34. 34. And  not  just  one,  but many
  35. 35. Management  sawrevenues  declining
  36. 36. They  tried  to  supportimprovement  whilecutting  budgets
  37. 37. Meanwhile,  technological  pressure  was  increasingAnd  due  to  the  crisis,  economic  pressure  also  went  up
  38. 38. Needless  to  say,  this  business  wasDOOMED
  39. 39. Grow   StructurePrinzessinnengärten  Berlin  
  40. 40. „...organizaNons   which  design   systems  ...  are  constrained   to  produce  designs  which   are  copies  of  the  com-­‐ municaNon  structures  of   these  organizaNons.“  Conway’s  law
  41. 41. Darkness  Principle
  42. 42. Misfit by Thomas Grünfeld
  43. 43. Agile  Agile  Team   Startup  
  44. 44. Step  1:  Product "The  minimum  plan   necessary  to  start  a  Scrum  project  consists  of   a  vision  and  a  Product   Backlog"
  45. 45. Step  1:  Product   Co-­‐Create  the  Team   Vision  and  iniNal  Product  Backlog  with  the   Product  Owners
  46. 46. Step   2:  Journey  Lines   fosters  self-­‐organizaNon   and  cross-­‐funcNonal   behavior  because  it  reveals  a   person’s  skills,  experiences,  background.  This  way,  the  rest   of  the  team  knows  what   this  person  “brings  to   the  party.”   Journey Lines by Lyssa Adkins
  47. 47. Step  3:  Grow   Structure Co-­‐Design  the  team-­‐structure  and  decide  who  is  in  which  team,  agree  on  the   roles  and  what  the  teams   want  to  achieve   together. Meddlers Game by Jurgen Appelo (Management 3.0)
  48. 48. Step  3:  Grow   Structure Choose  team  members   according  to  interest  in  the  main  feature  area(s)   and  who  wants  to   work  together Meddlers Game by Jurgen Appelo (Management 3.0)
  49. 49. Step  3:  Grow   Structure Decide  on  structure  for   first  teams  in  fish  bowlhVp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fishbowl_(conversaLon)
  50. 50. Complexity Thinking1. Address  complexity  with  complexity2. Use  a  diversity  of  perspecNves3. Assume  dependence  on  context4. Assume  subjecNvity  and  coevoluNon5. AnNcipate,  adapt,  explore6. Develop  models  in  collaboraNon7. Shorten  the  feedback  cycle8. Steal  and  tweak
  51. 51. StartComplexity   Doing When Faith Moves Mountains by Francis Alÿs
  52. 52. For  a  book  list  and  references  write  an  e-­‐mail  to  stefan.haas@haaslab.net  or   contact  me  on  twiher  @haaslab
  53. 53. QuesNons?
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