Filipino Americans A

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History of Filipinos migration to America, current stats

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Filipino Americans A

  1. 1. Cover Page Philippines Sheila Teel Robinson Lest 812 Dr. Alexander Erwin Dr. Forest Toms North Carolina A&T State University
  2. 2. Agenda Overview and Origin Major Cultural Characteristics Epoch of Immigration Major Contributors And Contributions Cultural Identity Customs-Norms-Values Gender Perceptions Socioeconomic and Political Status Heritage/Historical Major Religion Language and Literature Reflection Significant Observations
  3. 3. Overview Filipinos In America <ul><li>Filipino Americans are Americans of Philippine ancestry, which trace back to the Philippines , an archipelago Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The Filipino American ( Fil-Am for short) community is the second largest Asian American subgroup the largest Southeast Asian American group. Filipino Americans are also the largest subgroup of the Overseas Filipinos </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, the Filipino American community was estimated to be at 4 million, or 1.5% of the United States population. </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the community are naturalized or American-born, the remainder are Filipino nationals or dual citizens of both the Philippines and the United States . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview Filipinos In America <ul><li>Population by State </li></ul><ul><li>Significant populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Northeast </li></ul><ul><li>West Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Southern U.S. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Major Cultural Characteristics <ul><li>American Influence -400 Year Spanish Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguished from other Asian Immigrants: Hispanic surnames/sounding names; Catholics; fluent English </li></ul><ul><li>Family cares for family </li></ul><ul><li>Family consist of mother, father, children, and parents of one or both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Share housing until financial stability established </li></ul><ul><li>Help other coming to country </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Men and women share equally in housework, care for children </li></ul><ul><li>Send money back to Philippines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Door to Door Shipments consisting of staple items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipped via Bayanihan Cargo International </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fond of pancit (noodles) adobo (marinated pork with spices and rice </li></ul><ul><li>Attending dinner receive “pauwi” something to take home </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate with festivals including folk dancing, parades, street fairs, and cultural performances attempting to preserve American Filipino culture </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic, born poets and musicians </li></ul>Major Cultural Characteristics
  7. 7. Major Cultural Identity <ul><li>Dominant traits are love for family, resilient, strong religious faith, cooperative (“bayanihan”), hard working, durable and resistant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitality world known </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New City hosts Philippine Independence Day Parade </li></ul><ul><li>First Sunday in June at Madison Avenue </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Grand Opening of Filipino Community Center in Hawaii </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Filipino-American Institution in US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserve history and culture </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Epoch of Immigration <ul><li>1763 First permanent Filipino settlements in North America </li></ul><ul><li>established in Saint Malo, Louisiana </li></ul><ul><li>“ Manilamen” seamen who jumped ship </li></ul><ul><li>Settlements in Acapulco, Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Mass migration end of 19 th century in response to labor needs of plantations of Hawaii and farmlands of California </li></ul><ul><li>and salmon canaries </li></ul>
  9. 9. Epoch of Immigration <ul><li>1903 “Pensionados” arrived as students </li></ul><ul><li>1906 Labors for plantations, farms, salmon canaries </li></ul><ul><li>Post WWII, health professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Arrivals via international marriage agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to settle in more dispersed fashion, living in diverse communities </li></ul>
  10. 10. Epoch of Immigration <ul><li>Remain largest immigrant group to date </li></ul><ul><li>75% consist of family sponsorship, remainder employment-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>However, suffer longest waiting list among immigrant groups </li></ul><ul><li>Duel Citizenship with passage of Philippine Republic Act No. 9225 </li></ul><ul><li>also known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>First employed under President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages investment in Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Vote in elections </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in international sports events </li></ul>
  11. 11. Epoch of Immigration <ul><li>Majority live in suburbs or master planned communities </li></ul><ul><li>Some instances of close-knit neighborhoods, particularly in California and Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>“ Little Manilas…Civic and business districts tailored for Filipino American community life </li></ul><ul><li>Section of Los Angeles “Westlake” designated Historic Filipinotown (50,000 Filipino residents) </li></ul><ul><li>US Census 60,000 nationals migrate to US every year since 1990 to take advantage of professional opportunities in healthcare, technology, teaching </li></ul>
  12. 12. Major Contributions <ul><li>Byron Acohido: Pulitzer Prize Winner </li></ul><ul><li>Benny Agbayani: New York Mets’ Slugger </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel D’Umuk Aguila: Cartoonist, Painter, and Songwriter </li></ul><ul><li>Reynaldo G. Alejandro: Dancer, Choreographer, Chef, Author, and Columnist </li></ul><ul><li>Domingo T. Alvear: Pediatric Surgeon, Speaker, and Prolific Writer </li></ul><ul><li>Lilia Calderon Clemente: International Money Manager Senator </li></ul><ul><li>American Official in Clinton’s Administration Venancio Igarta: Master Colorist </li></ul><ul><li>Josephine Jimenez, CFA: Money Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Loida Nicolas Lewis: Lawyer, Author, and CEO of TLC Beatrice International Holdings, Inc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Major Contributions <ul><li>Constantino Amores, M.D.: Presidential Appointee on Arts Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Jon Amores: West Virginia State Representative Artist, The: Singer (See Prince) </li></ul><ul><li>Tai Babilonia: Former World Ice Skating Champion </li></ul><ul><li>Bobby Balcena: 1956 Cincinnati Reds’ Baseball Player </li></ul><ul><li>Bernie Ballao: Alaska Council Member Diosdado Banatao: Engineer and Inventort of Computer Chip </li></ul><ul><li>Angela Perez Baraquio: Miss America of 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Maniya Barredo: Atlanta and the Philippines’ First Prima Ballerina </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Bayle: International Model </li></ul>
  14. 14. Major Contributions <ul><li>Cecilia Manguerra Brainard: Award-Winning Writer </li></ul><ul><li>Thelma Buchhold: Alaska State Representative </li></ul><ul><li>Cielo Buenaventura: Metropolitan Section Editor, The New York Times </li></ul><ul><li>Annette Calud: Sesame Street Dance Instructor Reggie Chavez: Councilman, Tacoma Park, Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>Bobby Chouinard: Baseball Player </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Chua: Time Magazine Senior Editor </li></ul>
  15. 15. Major Contributions <ul><li>Wil and Zen Coronado: Cosmetics Magnates </li></ul><ul><li>Speedy Dado (Diosdado B. Posadas): Flyweight Boxing Champion </li></ul><ul><li>Ananias C. Diokno: Urological Surgeon, Medical Scientist, International Lecturer, Clinical Pro fessor, and Author </li></ul><ul><li>Ofelia Dirige, Ph.D., R.D.: Nutriotionist/Dietitian, Professor, Founder of Kalusugan Comunity Services, San Diego, CA </li></ul><ul><li>Vicky Manalo Draves: U.S. Diving Champion </li></ul><ul><li>Jocelyn Enriquez: Queen of Free Style </li></ul><ul><li>Ernesto M. Espaldon: M.D.: Plastic Surgeon, Six-Term Guam Senator </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin N. Cayetano: Governor, State of Hawaii Benjamin N. Cayetano: </li></ul>
  16. 16. Major Contributions <ul><li>Jose L. Evangelista: M.D.: Member, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Stella Evangelista, M.D.: Former Member, Michigan State Board of Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Gabriel: Former Los Angeles Rams’ Quarterback </li></ul><ul><li>Pat Gacoscos: Member, School Board, Union City, California </li></ul><ul><li>Ceferino Garcia: Middleweight Champion of the World </li></ul><ul><li>Tita Dioso Gillespie: Newsweek’s General Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Dennis Gonzales: Postmaster, Daly City, California Michael Guingona, Jr.: Mayor, Daly City </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Veronica De La Cruz </li></ul><ul><li>Billy Crawford </li></ul>Notables
  18. 18. Christeta Major General Comerford Antonio Taguba <ul><li>, </li></ul>Notables
  19. 19. Gender <ul><li>Filipinos-name for both male and female </li></ul><ul><li>Filipina-name for female </li></ul><ul><li>Both groups enjoy success and recognition in all fields and careers </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women share in housework, childcare responsibility </li></ul>
  20. 20. Discrimination <ul><li>Indigenous residents were called “indio” based on the belief that Spanish explores thought they had arrived in India </li></ul><ul><li>Term “indio” carried negative racial tones and discrimination and stereotypical implications that individuals were lazy ignorant savages, discriminated against because of brown skin </li></ul><ul><li>Early 20 th century Filipinos barred from marrying white women </li></ul><ul><li>Secret marriages, particularly in California and in the south in 1920s and 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Racial segregated in small areas and forbidden to travel </li></ul><ul><li>Worse after St. Louis World Fair and the Philippine-American War which perpetuated negative stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>“ Little Brown Men”, “Ching, Ching, Chang” “Mail Order Bride” </li></ul><ul><li>Cases of unreasonable deportation and visa ejection </li></ul><ul><li>Greater scrutiny upon reentrance </li></ul>
  21. 21. Discrimination <ul><li>Suspicion as collaborators to extremist Philippine Islamist group Abu Sayyaf </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level of scrutiny </li></ul><ul><li>US Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) dissolved </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced with US Citizenship and Immigration Service-hopes of preventing visa fraud </li></ul>
  22. 22. Economic Status <ul><li>Majority in upper middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to other Asians, highest household income, exceeding non-Hispanic white households and general US population </li></ul><ul><li>Largest senders of US dollars to Philippines (2006-8 billion dollars, 57% of earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Business owners-restaurants, medical fields, telemarketing business </li></ul><ul><li>125,000 Filipino owned businesses </li></ul>
  23. 23. Political Status <ul><li>Conservative in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Divided by Democratic and Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Men preferring Democratic party </li></ul><ul><li>Women preferring Republican party </li></ul><ul><li>Group assimilation may be cause for lack of political power representation </li></ul><ul><li>1990 only 100 Filipino Americans held elected offices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invisibility of representation or role models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in greater community or media </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Education <ul><li>High priority for Filipino families </li></ul><ul><li>Value instilled in children </li></ul><ul><li>Some of highest educational attainment rates in US </li></ul><ul><li>47% over age of 25 having Bachelors Degree </li></ul><ul><li>Recent wave of Filipinos filling job shortage areas particularly in the healthcare, education, and information technology </li></ul>
  25. 25. Educational Attainment (Percent of Population 25 and Older 27.0% 83.9% Total US 29.7% 88.6% Whites 50.% 90.2% Koreans 43.7% 93.4% Japanese 50.2% 80.8% Chinese 47.9% 90.% Filipinos Bachelor’s Degree + High School Graduation Rate Ethnicity
  26. 26. Education <ul><li>Filipino physicians comprise 2 nd largest group of foreign trained physicians in US </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino dentist trained in Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>11% US licensed from Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino trained nurses in US comprise 52% </li></ul>
  27. 27. Heritage <ul><li>Over three centuries of Spanish and American influence colonial rule </li></ul><ul><li>Latin and Catholic characteristics from Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Culture based on cultures of various tribes including with Spain, Mexico, China, India and America </li></ul><ul><li>Asian in race and geographic location with strongest influence being Asia culture </li></ul><ul><li>Largest ethnic group North Marianas Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Filipinos creation of what is know as the blending of the east and west in Filipino vein </li></ul><ul><li>(Edraline, 2002) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Religion <ul><li>Rooted in Christian Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly Roman Catholic ; minorities of Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>Islam (Filipinos of Arab decent-Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism , Taoism (Filipinos of Chinese and Japanese decent </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism (Filipinos of Indian decent </li></ul><ul><li>Atheism and Agnosticism some existence, not popular </li></ul><ul><li>First church for Filipinos San Lorenzo Ruiz Church established in New York in 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First in US and second in the world to be named after a church in Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named for First Saint of Philippines </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Language <ul><li>Tagalog, Bikolano, Visayan languages, Ilokano, Kapampangan spoken at home </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of Filipino Americans speak fluent language </li></ul><ul><li>Tagalog is the fifth most-spoken language in the US approximately 1.3 million speakers (Standard version is Filipino) </li></ul><ul><li>Over 170 languages in the Philippines belonging to the Austronesian language family </li></ul><ul><li>In America, these languages tend to be lost by the second and third generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English Official language in Philippines and taught in schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates language barrier between older and younger generations </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Reflections <ul><li>Reprisals for inter mingling with white race </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of racial attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to return to the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Economic impact of billions of dollars being sent back to Philippines each year </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of duel citizenship burdens on American economy </li></ul><ul><li>High value placed on education </li></ul>
  31. 31. Significant Observations <ul><li>Third largest English speaking country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience to maintain Filipino culture and heritage despite discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of communities seems to be a trend </li></ul><ul><li>War Promises from WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minority service, then little or no recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy rate is 96% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English most widely used, particularly in areas of education, business, and by professionals </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Significant Observations <ul><li>Philippines most westernized country in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Continued discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Silent Minority (Assimilation Practices) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly Intellectual/Industrious </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration trend will continue in light of need for employees, particularly in medical field </li></ul>
  33. 33. Significant Observations <ul><li>Intelligent, retentive memory, quick perception, and talents for art and science </li></ul><ul><li>Gentle, friendly, cheerful, known for their hospitality and romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical climate, abundant rainfall and gentle winds </li></ul><ul><li>Population of 91,077,286 </li></ul><ul><li>Despite tumultuous history of revolts, wars, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and epidemics, Filipinos remained durable </li></ul>
  34. 34. References <ul><li>Bautista, Veltisezar 2 nd Ed. (2002) The Filipino Americas (1763-Present): Their </li></ul><ul><li>History, Culture, and Traditions. Illinois: Bookhause Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Edraline, M. (2008) The Philippines, Filipino History, Culture and Heritage: Emergence of the Filipino People. Retrieved January 19, 2008, from http://utexas.edu/asnic/countries/philippines/philippines.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino American. (2008, April 11). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia . </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieved 09:35, April 14, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php. </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine History (2008). Pinas: Your Gateway to the Philippines. Retrieved from Internet http:// pinas.dlsu.edu.ph/history/ history.html. </li></ul><ul><li>Rand McNally (2008) Quick Reference: World Atlas. Rand McNally &Co. </li></ul><ul><li>United States Census Bureau Columbia Encyclopedia: Philippine History (2008). Retrieved February 5, 2008, from http://dlsu.edu.ph/history.html . </li></ul><ul><li>United States Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook-Philipines. Retrieved February 1, 2008 from ( https:www.cia.gov/library/publications/the </li></ul><ul><li> worldfactbook/geos/rp.html ). </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia (2008) Retrieved February 4, 2008, from http://en.wikipedic.org/wiki/Filipino_people . </li></ul>
  35. 35. Questions Questions Questions Questions Questions
  36. 36. References Columbia Encyclopedia: Philippine History (2008). Retrieved February 5, 2008, from http://dlsu.edu.ph/history.html . Edraline, M. (2008) The Philippines, Filipino History, Culture and Heritage: Emergence of the Filipino People. Retrieved January 19, 2008, from http://utexas.edu/asnic/countries/philippines/philippines.html . Philippine History (2008). Pinas: Your Gateway to the Philippines. Retrieved from Internet http:// pinas.dlsu.edu.ph/history/ history.html. Rand McNally (2008) Quick Reference: World Atlas. Rand McNally &Co. United States Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook-Philipines. Retrieved February 1, 2008 from ( https:www.cia.gov/library/publications/the worldfactbook/geos/rp.html ). Wikipedia (2008) Retrieved February 4, 2008, from http://en.wikipedic.org/wiki/Filipino_people .

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