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  • 1. Speech Writing
    • Objectives:
    • To analyse examples of speech writing
    • To identify the language aspects of speech writing
  • 2. Listen to the speech made by Winston Churchill
    • Read the transcript in pairs
    • Identify how this speech is persuasive
    • Think about:
      • The pronouns he uses
      • The modal verbs he uses
      • The structure of his sentences
      • Use of literary devices
    • http:// www.charleswelty.com/authors/churchill.htm
  • 3. Parallelism
    • is repeating the same syntactical structures
    • Several parts of a sentence or several sentences are similar to show that the ideas are equal in importance.
    • adds balance and rhythm and, most importantly, clarity to the sentence.
    Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace.
  • 4. Antithesis
    • establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure
    Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms.
  • 5. Anaphora
    • Repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences
    • In this example the syntax has been deliberately constructed to make it anaphoric. How and why?
    For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and travelled across oceans in search of a new life. For us, they toiled in sweatshops and settled the West; endured the lash of the whip and ploughed the hard earth. For us, they fought and died, in places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn.
  • 6. Parenthesis
    • consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence e.g.
    • This device creates the effect of immediacy: you are relating some fact when suddenly something very important arises
    • It may also be used to give some statements a context
    • What is the effect in this case?
    Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age.
  • 7.
    • Look back at the transcript of Winston Churchill’s speech
    • Can you identify any of these rhetorical features
    • Label them on the text and
    • comment on their effect
  • 8.
    • Alliteration
    • The recurrence of initial consonant sounds.
    • The repetition can be juxtaposed (and then it is usually limited to two words):
    The day consisted of troubles and triumphs
  • 9. Analogy
    • compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining an unfamiliar or difficult idea by showing how the idea or object is similar to a familiar one.
    Life is like a box of chocolates – you never know what you’re gonna get.
  • 10. Metaphor
    • compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, metaphor asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another.
    The fountain of knowledge will dry up unless it is continuously replenished by streams of new learning.
  • 11. Hyperbole
    • deliberate exaggeration for emphasis or effect. In your writing the hyperbole must be clearly intended as an exaggeration, and should be carefully restricted.
    • That is, do not exaggerate everything!
    There are a thousand reasons why more research is needed on solar energy.
  • 12. Litotes
    • A form of understatement: it is generated by denying the opposite of the word which you want to use:
    • litotes can either have the effect of understatement or become an intensifying expression.
    • Occasionally it can convey an ironic sentiment by its understatement.
    It’s not the cheeriest of weather outside.
  • 13. Listen to the speech by Martin Luther King
    • http:// www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
    • Using the transcript, look at the first few lines down to ‘unearned suffering is redemptive.’
    • Identify the persuasive language features in the text
    • In particular look for:
      • Metaphor
      • alliteration
      • Parallelism
      • Litotes
      • Anaphora
      • sentence moods
      • Use of pronouns
  • 14. I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Litotes anaphora parallelism alliteration 2 nd person Personal pronoun Imperative
  • 15. Barak Obama’s speech after winning the race for the White House 5/11/08 http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=Jll5baCAaQU Or http://filepedia.org/audio/obama-victory-speech-november-2008
  • 16. Look at the first paragraph
    • How are pronouns used?
    • How is the adverb ‘still’ used? Would the speech still mean the same if it was omitted?
    • How is a sense of unity created?
    • How are abstract nouns used?
    • What ideas does Obama want to attach himself to?
    • Identify the main clause in this sentence. What effect is created by the structure?
  • 17.
    • If there is anyone out there who still
    • doubts that America is a place where all
    • things are possible, who still wonders if
    • the dream of our founders is alive in our
    • time, who still questions the power of our
    • democracy, tonight is your answer.
  • 18. Read the next two paragraphs.
    • Why has Obama changed from a second person possessive determiner to the definite article?
    • How is personification used here?
    • Look again at determiners.
    • How are concrete and proper nouns used?
  • 19.
    • It's the answer told by lines that stretched around schools and churches in numbers this nation has never seen, by people who waited three hours and four hours, many for the first time in their lives, because they believed that this time must be different, that their voices could be that difference.
    • It's the answer spoken by young and old, rich and poor, Democrat and Republican, black, white, Hispanic, Asian, Native American, gay, straight, disabled and not disabled. Americans who sent a message to the world that we have never been just a collection of individuals or a collection of red states and blue states.
  • 20. In pairs, analyse the language in the rest of the speech
    • Lexis
    • Modal auxiliary verbs
    • Pronouns and determiners
    • Abstract and concrete nouns
    • Dynamic and stative verbs
    • Patterning
    • Rhetorical devices:
      • Rhetorical interrogative
      • Anaphora
      • Parallelism
      • Tripling
      • Juxtaposition/ Antithesis
      • Hyperbole
      • Metaphor
      • Simile
    • Syntax
      • Clause structure
      • Foregrounding
      • End focus
  • 21. Section B
    • You will be given source material from the core text.
    • You will be asked to use the information from it to produce a piece of writing of 300-400 words
    • You will then write a commentary on your own writing of 150-200 words
    • The writing is worth 25 marks
    • The commentary is worth 15 marks
  • 22. Possible writing tasks are…
    • Written mode
      • Entry for an encyclopaedia
      • Editorial
      • Leaflet
      • Report
      • Advertisement
      • Review
      • Letter
      • Magazine or newspaper article
    • Spoken mode
      • Broadcast
      • Speech
      • talk
  • 23.
    • It is important to consider:
    • Audience
    • Purpose
    • Register
    • Format
  • 24.
    • You are a member of a college discussion group. You have been asked to produce a speech arguing either for or against the statement:
    • Modern life is easier for women.
    • Read the text and make notes on the information given.
    • The text was written in the 80s. These are issues that affected your parents. How do you feel about the issues raised?
  • 25.
    • Either:
    • Write a speech for one of the leaders of the main parties
    • Imagine you are standing in elections as head boy/girl or senior students
    • Write a speech in which you argue that modern society is still prejudiced against women.
  • 26.
    • In your groups, write three paragraphs of speech using some of the techniques below.
      • Modal auxiliary verbs Parallelism
      • Pronouns Anthithesis
      • Abstract and concrete nouns Hyperbole
      • Dynamic and stative verbs Parenthesis
      • Rhetorical interrogative Alliteration
      • Anaphora Analogy
      • Tripling Litotes
      • Juxtaposition
      • Hyperbole
      • Metaphor
      • Simile
  • 27. Commentary
    • Identify:
    • Audience
    • Purpose
    • register