Bullying and Cyber Bullying in America’s Middle Schools:The Perspectives of Teachers and Intervention Processes Monica Lee CI 583
INTRODUCTION Alters opportunities to learnProblems with school Disrupts the collective connections among bullying students Detracts from the constructive value of classroom experiences (Frey, Hirschstein, Edstrom, & Snell, 2009).
INTRODUCTIONObservations show an average of more than two bullying episodes occurring every hour within classrooms (Craig, Pepler, & Atlas, 2000).It has been proven that bullying can effect class participation and academics along with social and psychological issues of students and middle- school aged children.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMThis research project was conducted to determine and examine the current state of bullying in schools and on the internet, the psychological effects, and intervention programs and this study classifies students and focuses on middle-school grade levels.
RESEARCH GOALSThe goal of this research is to:• Determine how often bullying occur in the classroom on a daily basis• Determine how teachers react to the bullying to prevent it• Discover intervention programs that are currently in place and their effectiveness• Understand the short- and long-term effects of bullying in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade – Social and psychological
RESEARCH DATA CONSISTS OF…• Foundational Research• Bullies and Targets• Intervention and Prevention• Effects of BullyingClick here to view a CBS video on Cyberbullying
Foundational Research What is bullying?• A widespread problem – Alters opportunities to learn – Disrupts collective connections among students – Eliminates constructive value in the classroom• Definition – Intentional aggressive process that involves using unequal power to cause harm – The need to gain control over another, (Milsom, A., & Gallo, L., 2006).
Foundational Research What is bullying? Cont’d• Bullying can begin in many different places with many different resources – Internet, classroom, social settings outside of school• Bullies develop and emerge within groups of students – Starts with teasing and issues many see as “harmless”
Foundational Research Types of Bullying Cyber Bullying Verbal abuseGender differences Teasing/Harassment
Bullies and Targets• Perception of bullies from students and staff members (Bradshaw, Sawyer, and O’Brennan, 2007). – Popular with other students – Feared by other students – Disliked by other students
Bullies and Targets Cont’d• Why are some students targeted? – Race, grades, gifted students, and quieter students tend to be more vulnerable (Milsom & Gallo, 2006).
Bullies and Targets
Intervention Processes• What are school districts doing to eliminate bullying? – Environmental Intervention: bullying policies and procedures set up by the school to protect students • Prepare instruction to develop strategies to deal with bullying – Professional development on bullying intervention for all staff members Click here to read an article regarding the parents support in preventing bullying!
Intervention Processes Cont’d• Focus on bystanders (Davis & Davis, 2007) – Awareness, empathy, action – Supporters for the bully and the bullied – Implications for bystanders• Change requires action from teachers, school officials, and bystanders (Hazler, et. al., 2000).
Effects of Bullying • Psychological Effects – Long-term effects • Social Effects – Misunderstanding of social environments – Lack of knowledge of how to interact with others – Sensitivity – Perceptions of safety in school, ( • Physical Effects – Body dismorphia
Effects of Bullying Cont’d• Psychological Distress – Feelings that can occur from bullying: • Isolation from poor peer relationships and detachment from family – Bullies isolate victims in order to keep bystanders from intervening • Dehumanization – Slanderous, impersonal nicknames to enemies – Creates lower self-esteem • Exclusion is like isolation – Exclusion is caused by others, where as isolation is a reaction of the victim
Effects of Bullying Cont’d• Social Effects – Isolation – Exclusion – Lack of social skills – Paranoia
Effects of Bullying Cont’d• Physical Effects – Weight gain – Weight loss – Damage to one’s self – Suicide• Cyberbullying effects – Invasion of privacy – Reputation damage
CONCLUSION• Bullying is a major problem.• Bullying must be addressed.• There are short- and long-term negative effects of bullying.• Teacher training must be done to create intervention processes within schools.
BIBLIOGRAPHYBradshaw, C.P., Sawyer, A.L., & O’Brenna, L.M., (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 361-382.Craig, W.M., Pepler, D.J., & Atlas, R. (2000). Observations of bullying on the playground and in the classroom. School Psychology International, 21, 22-36.Davis, S. & Davis, J. (2007). Empowering bystanders in bullying prevention. Illinios: Research PressFrey, K.S., Hirschstein, M.K, Edstrom, L.V., & Snell, J.L. (2009). Observed reductions in school bullying, nonbullying aggression, and destructive bystander behavior: A longitudinal evaluation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(2), 446-481.Hazler, R.J., & Carney, J.V., (2000). When victims turn aggressors: Factors in the development of deadly school violence. Professional School Counseling, 4(2), 105-112Milsom, A., & Gallo, L. (2006). Bullying in middle schools: prevention and intervention. Middle School Journal. Retrieved from www.nmsa.org/publications/middleschooljournal/articles/january2006/article2/tabid/693Swearer, S.M., & Espelage D.L. (2004). A social-ecological framework of bullying among youth. In D.L. Espelage & S.M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention, 1-12. New Jersey: Erlbaum.Willard, N. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Illinois: Research Press.White, N., & Loeber, R. (n.d.). Bullying and special education as predictors of serious delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. Retrieved from http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/45/4/380.full.pdf+html