What do I need to reference? Any ideas taken from the work of another person Any images you refer to or copy into your work If you quote, use quotation marks “…” and citation either before or after the quotation. Images are as subject to copyright as books and journals. Your citation should be next to the image you use. If you paraphrase, you don’t need quotation marks. Cite in the flow of your text.
In the body of your work-citing the source by quoting or paraphrasing ideas
At the end of your work-listing all the sources used in one alphabetical order by author
What’s the difference between a citation and a reference? Redman (2001, p.81) describes a citation as an ‘abbreviated reference’. Citations are included in the text of the assignment. Then ‘the full reference is listed at the end’ of the assignment (Burnard, 2004, p.103). Citations and references ‘allow the reader to consult and verify your sources of information’ (Pears & Shields, 2006, p.1). Burnard, P. (2004) Writing skills in health care . Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2006) Cite them right: the essential guide to referencing and plagiarism. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Pear Tree Books. Redman, P. (2001) Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. London: Sage Publications.
For a BOOK Reference at the end of your assignment Smidt, S. (2009) Planning for the Early Years Foundation Stage . London : David Fulton. Example citations Planning is essential ‘in order to be in control of what you are doing.’ (Smidt, 2009, p.5). Smidt (2009) emphasises the importance of planning to staying in control.
There are three styles in common use as ways to highlight the key element of a reference; they are the use of bold text , underlining and italics . You should use one, and only one, of these techniques throughout your reference list.
Taylor, S. (2003). Widening adult participation: ways to extend good practice [online]. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. Available at: http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/pdf/Unpwidadpartresrep.pdf [Accessed 30/09/2010]
Coyle, M. (1996) Attacking the cult-historicists. Renaissance forum [online], 1 (1). Available at: <URL: http://www.hull.ac.uk/renforum/vlnol/coyle.htm
[Accessed 16 June 2009]
Sullo, R. (2007) Activating the desire to learn. [e-book] Alexandria, Va: ASCP. Available at: College Library/e-books site.ebrary.com/lib/merton/Doc?id=10156586 [Accessed 5 July 2008]
Exercises-deliberate mistakes William Shakespeare: The Early Years The common belief that England’s greatest playwright, William Shakespeare, was born on St George’s Day, 21 st April, 1564, is perhaps too much of a coincidence to be true. As Groom et al point out though, there is reliable evidence that a boy named William, son of John Shakespeare, glove-maker, and Mary Arden, his Catholic wife of 7 years, was baptized on 26 th April of that year at Holy Trinity Parish church, Stratford-upon-Avon. Needs Date
Exercises-deliberate mistakes William Shakespeare: The Early Years (continued) Truerod (cited in Dickson, 2005) speculates that the young boy would’ve attended King’s New School, but Amanda Mibillard ( http://www.shakespeare-online.com/biography/educ&youth ) believes he would’ve begun his education around the age of six or seven at the Stratford Grammar school. Even less is known about Shakespeare’s early adulthood, though both Millibard (no date) and “Rough Guide to Shakespeare” (2005) think that he may have worked as a lawyer’s clerk, a schoolmaster, or even a butcher. Write Year, not URL Write Author’s surname, not Title
Exercises-deliberate mistakes Reference List Andrew Dickson, (2005) Rough guide to Shakespeare. Penguin Books: York. Foakes, R.A. (1995) The repertoire of Shakespeare’s company. The Review of English Studies. 46 (182) pp.266-268. Groom, Nick; Heminge, John; Condell, Henry; Knight, Edward & Kempe, Tom (2001) Introducing Shakespeare. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Icon Books. Millibard, Amanda (no date) Shakespeare: education and childhood . Available at: < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/biography/youth > [Accessed: 25 August 2009]. Surname must come before forename City must come before publisher Write “et al” if 3+ extra Authors Don’t swap between Bold and Italics titles Needs the word “[Internet]”