College assignments, essays and project reports will need to have a list of references Several times in your studies you are required to produce a piece of written work-assignment, essay, project report, etc. This might need you to ‘research’ information sources to support your points or arguments Referencing is a form of convention that guides you to write up and present your work in an acceptable manner College assignments, essays and reports will need to have a list of references
Referencing involves two main parts. Citing: If you refer to or quote another persons work, whether from a book, website or article you must put in your essay the details of where it came from. References: A reference is the details of each individual source written in a certain format. Bibliographies: Your work must have a Bibliography, which is a list that goes at the end of your work which contains details of all your sources, including those you have used for background reading but have not referred to or quoted in your work Lists of references : Sometimes tutors require a separate list of references which is just a list of the references for sources you have directly referred to or quoted from in your assignment
Above is an example of a book reference. Rules: First rule of any referencing is that the Authors name is first, surname first, comma, and initials or first name. Next the date must appear in brackets. Next the title must be in italics, underlined , or in Bold. Next the publishers name, the place it is published and the page numbers if you have quoted. Notes: If the book was used for background reading you need not write page numbers. The publisher details will usually be found in the small print on the back of the title page. If there is more than one place e.g. London, Japan, New York, We usually use the one that appears first. If there are between 1 and 3 authors, write them all (surname first) one after the other. If there are more than three, write the first name that appears on the title page and add ‘et al’ for ‘and others’.
Make sure whichever style you choose you remain consistent. You can not have one reference using underlining, and the next in the list using italics.
If there are four or more authors or editors use the first one on the title page not the front cover.
Magazines also start with author, surname first. This time you will need two titles. The title of the magazine and the title of the actual article. The title of the article appears first, and the title of the magazine is the one that appears in Italics, Underlined , or Bold Magazines and journals are usually produced several times a year. They will often have a Volume number , and an issue number . If they do these must be written in with the year. Sometimes they just use the month or the season instead (as above example shows). These must be given as well as the year. Page numbers must always been given for articles.
Newspapers are similar to magazines. They need the author, (surname first), Title of the article, Title of the Newspaper in Italics, Underlined , Bold. Newspapers are usually published daily, so they need the date in full, and the page numbers the article appears on.
Websites are still a grey area. Not all websites provide author or date information. Online publications are the same as paper ones. They require, author, title of the article, title of the publication and the date. Additionally they need the full website address and the date you accessed the page. (in brackets) If the author information is not available use the title of the page. If it does not have a title as such, use the address. Websites may have a ‘last updated’ date. Use this for the date. Always include the date accessed, as web pages change frequently. Extension activity: Discussion on nature and reliability of the Internet and copyright restrictions.
Referencing Your Work How to use the Harvard System
What do I need to reference? Any ideas taken from the work of another person Any images you refer to or copy into your work If you quote, use quotation marks “…” and citation either before or after the quotation. Images are as subject to copyright as books and journals. Your citation should be next to the image you use. If you paraphrase, you don’t need quotation marks. Cite in the flow of your text.
In the body of your work-citing the source by quoting or paraphrasing ideas
At the end of your work-listing all the sources used in one alphabetical order by author
What’s the difference between a citation and a reference? Redman (2001, p.81) describes a citation as an ‘abbreviated reference’. Citations are included in the text of the assignment. Then ‘the full reference is listed at the end’ of the assignment (Burnard, 2004, p.103). Citations and references ‘allow the reader to consult and verify your sources of information’ (Pears & Shields, 2006, p.1). Burnard, P. (2004) Writing skills in health care . Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2006) Cite them right: the essential guide to referencing and plagiarism. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Pear Tree Books. Redman, P. (2001) Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. London: Sage Publications.
For a BOOK Reference at the end of your assignment Smidt, S. (2009) Planning for the Early Years Foundation Stage . London : David Fulton. Example citations Planning is essential ‘in order to be in control of what you are doing.’ (Smidt, 2009, p.5). Smidt (2009) emphasises the importance of planning to staying in control.
There are three styles in common use as ways to highlight the key element of a reference; they are the use of bold text , underlining and italics . You should use one, and only one, of these techniques throughout your reference list.
Taylor, S. (2003). Widening adult participation: ways to extend good practice [online]. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. Available at: http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/pdf/Unpwidadpartresrep.pdf [Accessed 30/09/2010]
Coyle, M. (1996) Attacking the cult-historicists. Renaissance forum [online], 1 (1). Available at: <URL: http://www.hull.ac.uk/renforum/vlnol/coyle.htm
[Accessed 16 June 2009]
Sullo, R. (2007) Activating the desire to learn. [e-book] Alexandria, Va: ASCP. Available at: College Library/e-books site.ebrary.com/lib/merton/Doc?id=10156586 [Accessed 5 July 2008]
Exercises-deliberate mistakes William Shakespeare: The Early Years The common belief that England’s greatest playwright, William Shakespeare, was born on St George’s Day, 21 st April, 1564, is perhaps too much of a coincidence to be true. As Groom et al point out though, there is reliable evidence that a boy named William, son of John Shakespeare, glove-maker, and Mary Arden, his Catholic wife of 7 years, was baptized on 26 th April of that year at Holy Trinity Parish church, Stratford-upon-Avon. Needs Date
Exercises-deliberate mistakes William Shakespeare: The Early Years (continued) Truerod (cited in Dickson, 2005) speculates that the young boy would’ve attended King’s New School, but Amanda Mibillard ( http://www.shakespeare-online.com/biography/educ&youth ) believes he would’ve begun his education around the age of six or seven at the Stratford Grammar school. Even less is known about Shakespeare’s early adulthood, though both Millibard (no date) and “Rough Guide to Shakespeare” (2005) think that he may have worked as a lawyer’s clerk, a schoolmaster, or even a butcher. Write Year, not URL Write Author’s surname, not Title
Exercises-deliberate mistakes Reference List Andrew Dickson, (2005) Rough guide to Shakespeare. Penguin Books: York. Foakes, R.A. (1995) The repertoire of Shakespeare’s company. The Review of English Studies. 46 (182) pp.266-268. Groom, Nick; Heminge, John; Condell, Henry; Knight, Edward & Kempe, Tom (2001) Introducing Shakespeare. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Icon Books. Millibard, Amanda (no date) Shakespeare: education and childhood . Available at: < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/biography/youth > [Accessed: 25 August 2009]. Surname must come before forename City must come before publisher Write “et al” if 3+ extra Authors Don’t swap between Bold and Italics titles Needs the word “[Internet]”