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  • 1. crossroads plus sign (poss denote christianity and therefore connote crucifix suffering or oppression or sacrifice)
  • 2. Pierce – Divide SIGNS up into 4 different kinds:Arbitrary: no relationship between sign and signified e.g word‘daffodil’ and actual daffodilIconic: resemble what they signify e.g. photo of daffodil, icon ofJesus resembles actual Jesus, some computer iconsIndexical: act as evidence of the signified e.g. smoke of fire,sweat of effort, spots of measlesSymbolic: linked arbitrarily to referents e.g. crown as symbol ofmonarchy
  • 3. This biohazard sign is acompletely conventionalsymbol with no inherent relationship to what it represents.
  • 4. Also CONVENTIONALsigns e.g. ‘NO’ circlewith cross through it
  • 5. Roland Barthes - French semiologistDenotation = literal or obvious meaningConnotation = potential or suggestedmeaning e.g. + is sign which has manyliteral and potential meanings.
  • 6. ‘Let us deconstruct this text’
  • 7. Iconic sign (it is a photo of a real person, Symbolic – the photo was widely circulated and tanks etc and visually resembles its interpreted. Became a symbol of western referent.) democracy/consumerism vs. totalitarian communism Indexical sign ( the light and shadow act asevidence of time of day, weather etc. The photo and video shot at same time used as political evidence too.
  • 8. Some definitions you should know:DenotationConnotationPolysemicOpen/closed textPreferred readingAberrant decodingAnchorage – fixed usually with captionIntertextuality
  • 9. Intertextuality
  • 10. Anchorage (used wrongly)