Shared Intelligence: <br />American Painting and the Photograph<br />Columbus Museum of Art<br />February 4 – April 24, 20...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Introduction:  Making it Real<br />Jonathan Weinberg (1957...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Says Weinberg:<br />“The title Shared Intelligence suggest...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Introduction:  Making it Real<br />The relationship of Sha...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Previous studies of the relationship between painting and ...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />History of the relationship between painting and photograp...
Live and let live
Anything goes</li></li></ul><li>Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Fear and contempt<br />Fri...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Thomas Eakins (1844-1916)<br />
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Thomas Eakins (1844-1916)   Photo “sketch” &  Arcadia(1883...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946) <br />Sun Rays-Paula, Berlin ...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Edward Steichen (1879-1973) <br />Self Portrait (1891)<br ...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986)                     Street Ne...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Live and let live: Painters and photographers explored the...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Charles Sheeler (1883-1965) <br />The Artist Looks at Natu...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Ben Shahn(1898-1969) <br />Myself among the Churchgoers (d...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Anything Goes:  Artists freely appropriate mechanically-pr...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Andy Warhol (1928-1987) Marilyn Diptych (1962) acrylic on ...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />David Hockney(1937) <br />                                ...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Audrey Flack (1931-)  <br />World War II (Vanitas), Incorp...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Richard Serra (1939-)  <br />Abu Ghraib (2004)<br />One co...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Robert Bechtle (1932-)  ‘61 Pontiac (1968-9) oil on canvas...
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Richard Estes (1932-)  <br />Diner (1971) oil on canvas<br />
Shared Intelligence:  American Painting and the Photograph<br />Chuck Close (1940-)  Phil/Fingerprint (2009) Screen print ...
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Shared Intelligence

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  • As Weinberg says, the exhibit is about “painting in which veraciity of content or form is to some extent dependent on the “reality effect” of photographic sources.
  • What’s contained in the introduction is the following:
  • According to Weinberg, the first real attempt to consider the relationship between the two media did not occur until the early ‘60’s when Van Deren Coke assembled a small exhibit that identified (or outed) well known painters who had used photography in their work. A few years later, Aaron Scharf’s Art and Photography was first published. It remains the most authoritative work on the subject, but has relatively little about American artists.The Wayward Gallery exhibit in 2007 picks up where Coke’s exhibit left off. Weinberg’s problem with the exhibit is that it overemphasized the revolutionary nature of work done in the 60’s by artists with photographs. Shared Intelligence shows that work in the 60’s and later is part of a continuum that goes back much earlier.
  • He also has some quarrel with the traditional view of the relationship that can be separated roughly into 3 phases. These, we’ve summarized as…and we’ll use these divisions as we talk about various artists
  • The fear and contempt phasePeople found early images disturbing. “life-like” but eerie Then there was the fear that the photograph meant the death of art. What had artists been striving for all those centuries? Then as artists began to see the possibilities of the photograph, they were condemned as cheats; not putting in the real work. And if you want to call it cheating, here’s one of the guilty ones
  • Meet TomShared Intelligence starts with Eakins—though not this photograph
  • Besides using photo sketches like this in his work, Eakins also apparently used projection to grid his canvases. Both his wife and modern Eakins’ scholars are very defensive about this practice. Certainly Eakins never admitted it during his lifetime. His evidently frequent photographing of nude models would also have been controversial.Weinberg adds, “Bringing the camera into the art studio was both exciting and dangerous precisely because it brought with it all kinds of connotations that could not be sanitized or rendered safe.”
  • As we know, Stieglitz in his early photographic work, like many early photographers mimicked the look of paintings in his work. But this particular study, while perhaps referencing a traditional genre, is also full of references to photography. The photographs on the wall (some duplicated), on the table and the light pattern of the blinds.
  • Here Steichen who started as a painter creates a doctored photograph that looks like a painting and he appears as a pointer. What was his intent? Weinberg sees it as an attempt at some sort of reconciliation
  • O’Keeffe goes at photography in an entirely different way. She’s not after the image; she borrows the techniques. So it’s pretty ironic that later in her career she’s accused of creating meticulously finished tinted photographs in the eyes of Clement Greenberg who was horrified that she’d been given a retrospective at MOMA in 1946.
  • And Greenberg’s critique shows where painting had headed in the 30’s and 40’s. Abstraction was all. Painters who worked in the recognizable were anathema. Not only that, photographers could be criticized for being too arty.
  • But not everyone played by the rules. Charles Sheeler wanted to display his photographs along with his paintings. EdithHalpert thought it a very bad idea.According to Weinberg, Sheeler was also accused of producing “tinted photographs”.
  • Ben Shahn also kept clicking. Here in a very contemporary way, he’s taken a snapshot someone else took of him taking pictures and used the image in a painting.
  • And Greenberg’s critique shows where painting had headed in the 30’s and 40’s. Abstraction was all. Painters who worked in the recognizable were anathema. Not only that, photographers could be criticized for being too arty.
  • Shared Intelligence

    1. 1. Shared Intelligence: <br />American Painting and the Photograph<br />Columbus Museum of Art<br />February 4 – April 24, 2011<br />The Georgia O’Keeffe Museum<br />May 20 – September 11, 2011<br />
    2. 2. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Introduction: Making it Real<br />Jonathan Weinberg (1957-) <br />Artist & art historian <br />Critic, Yale School of Art<br />The Surfer (2003)<br /> Acrylic on canvas<br />
    3. 3. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Says Weinberg:<br />“The title Shared Intelligence suggests communication”, but not, perhaps, communication between the closest of friends.<br />The exhibit “focuses on particular paintings in which the veracity of content or form is to some extent dependent on the ‘reality effect’ of photographic sources”.<br />
    4. 4. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Introduction: Making it Real<br />The relationship of Shared Intelligence to prior scholarship and exhibits of art and photography<br />The nature of the relationship between art and photography over the past 180 years<br />Introduction to some of the artists and works included in the exhibit<br />
    5. 5. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Previous studies of the relationship between painting and photography…<br />The Painter and the Photograph from Delacroix to Warhol<br />Small 1964 traveling exhibition (Van Deren Coke)Relatively small number of examples of individual 19th & 20th century artists’ use of photographs (an expose)<br />Art and Photography (1968/1986)byAaron Scharf (1922-1993)<br />Scholarly and historic look at how photography was viewed and then used by various European and American artists<br />Hayward Gallery, The Painting of Modern Life (2007)<br />Exhibit that picked up where Coke exhibit left off (1960’s) with 100 works by 22 artists using photography in a variety of ways. Here the emphasis on the image, not the medium<br />
    6. 6. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />History of the relationship between painting and photography—the traditional view<br /><ul><li>Fear and contempt
    7. 7. Live and let live
    8. 8. Anything goes</li></li></ul><li>Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Fear and contempt<br />Frightening images<br />Death of art<br />Artists who “cheat”<br />
    9. 9. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Thomas Eakins (1844-1916)<br />
    10. 10. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) Photo “sketch” & Arcadia(1883)<br /> Albumen print on cream woven paper<br /> Oil on canvas<br />
    11. 11. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946) <br />Sun Rays-Paula, Berlin (1889)<br />Gelatin silver print<br />Vermeer (ca.1632-1675)<br />Girl Reading a letter at an Open Window (ca. 1658)<br /> Oil on canvas<br />
    12. 12. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Edward Steichen (1879-1973) <br />Self Portrait (1891)<br />Gum bichromate<br />
    13. 13. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986) Street New York No.1(1926) oil on canvas <br />Red Canna(1919) oil on canvas<br />
    14. 14. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Live and let live: Painters and photographers explored the nature of their respective media<br />Painting goes anti-image<br />Photography goes anti-arty<br />
    15. 15. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Charles Sheeler (1883-1965) <br />The Artist Looks at Nature (1943) Oil on canvas<br />Self Portrait at easel (1931)<br />Gelatin silver print<br />
    16. 16. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Ben Shahn(1898-1969) <br />Myself among the Churchgoers (detail) (1939) Tempera on masonite<br />Unidentified artist <br />Ben Shahn, Jersey Homesteads (ca. 1936-9)<br />Gelatin silver print<br />
    17. 17. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Anything Goes: Artists freely appropriate mechanically-produced images for their work<br />Incorporation of political subjects into painting through the inclusion of photos<br />Hyperrealism of painting<br />
    18. 18. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Andy Warhol (1928-1987) Marilyn Diptych (1962) acrylic on canvas<br />
    19. 19. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />David Hockney(1937) <br /> California Copied from 1965 Painting in 1987<br /> (1986) Acrylic on canvas <br />Brian Los Angeles<br /> Sunday 21st March 1982 <br />(1982) Composite Polaroid<br />
    20. 20. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Audrey Flack (1931-) <br />World War II (Vanitas), Incorporating a portion of the <br />photograph Buchenwald, April 1945 (Copyright Time Inc.), (1976-77)<br />Gelatin silver print<br /> Oil over acrylic on canvas <br />
    21. 21. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Richard Serra (1939-) <br />Abu Ghraib (2004)<br />One color lithograph<br />
    22. 22. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Robert Bechtle (1932-) ‘61 Pontiac (1968-9) oil on canvas<br />
    23. 23. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Richard Estes (1932-) <br />Diner (1971) oil on canvas<br />
    24. 24. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Chuck Close (1940-) Phil/Fingerprint (2009) Screen print in twenty-five colors<br />Working Photograph for Phil (1969)<br />Gelatin silver print<br />
    25. 25. Shared Intelligence: American Painting and the Photograph<br />Conclusions:<br />Argument of Shared Intelligence is that artists have used and will continue to use photography to go on painting, not destroy painting.<br />Conversion of the instantaneous “taking” of pictures into the slow and handmade labor of “making” pictures.<br />Willingness of these artists to risk the autonomy of their craft to create compelling images. <br />

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