Recently, the term Gamification is resounding throughout the Adland. As so often, hypes and buzz are loosing their real meaning when used too often.Gamification is no exception. Nowadays, it’s too often used synonymously to gaming. This, however, is wrong. This presentation will tackle this misunderstanding and hopefully clarify that gaming can be part of Gamification but that the concept is much much broader than this.
Today’s consumer are bombarded with an innumerable number of marketing messages every day. It’s no news anymore, that in this cluttered environment attention spans are ever shorter and marketers have a harder time than ever to generate cut through and engagement. Gamification’s main goal is to achieve exactly that: Engagement, cut through and as we shall see motivation and behaviour change. Therein lies the value of Gamification for brands.
Even though Gamifiaction is currently a buzzword within the field of Marketing and Advertising, its core is more often than not not mentioned. As a phenomenon, Gamification represents a much more fundamental, underlying shift in the way consumers and companies interact with each other.
Gamification is a big concept and cannot be pigeonholed into one singular discipline. Instead, Gamification can happen in a lot of different ways that differ in their complexity. The least complex form of Gamification is to harness and integrate a brand into existing gaming platformsThe next level is to create ones own gameThe last step, and arguably the most complex but also most rewarding type of Gamification, is genuine Gamification, in which game mechanics are integrated in to general marketing initiatives that are by no means always restricted to computer and online games
Traditionally, the computer gaming market was huge in terms in terms of revenues but closed and restrained to the typical gamer: Male, 15-30 years.Also, it was difficult for brands to gain access to this market since developers didn’t allow brands to advertise themselves in the games
Meanwhile, however, the emergence of Social Gaming has unlocked a new demographic of gamers and with it a new market.Demographically, the Social gaming market has shifted toward older gamers and females.
Social and online gaming is not restricted to computers. Increasingly, the mobile medium is often used by consumers to indulge in gaming experiences
Gamification main asset is that it can motivate and hence lead to certain, intended behavioursThere are 6 main game mechanics that lead to this motivationGames offer rewards: By offering rewards for effort, games lead to the release of Serotonin, a chemical substance that is related to well-being and happiness. NOTE: These rewards don’t always need to be of monetary nature. Instead, very often, direct monetary rewarding can kill off motivation.Feedback: Similarly, direct, real-time and clear feedback triggers the brain’s reward centre. Human beings like to receive direct feedback in order to adjust behaviour and strategiesGoals: Good games offer both short term and long term goals. Short term goals make sure that the gamer comes back to the game and stays engaged. Long term goals help the user to get an overall sense of accomplishmentExperience: Another buzzword in Marketing, games create experiences. This is important since rational (and even emotional) messaging has lost much of its power to impact consumersUncertainty: A certain level of uncertainty is crucial to a good reward scheme since research has shown that novel and unpredictable rewards lead to a much bigger release of Serotonin than predictable rewards. The human brain is intrigued by the task to look for a pattern in unpredictable situations. This keeps the user engagedOther people: Good games are social, which plays an important role in a reward scheme. Status and sharing are intrinsic human needs. Hence, the ability to share achievements with other people goes a long way to engage users.
Research by Daniel H. Pink has shown that motivation is not triggered by predictable if-then rewards (such as salary)Much more, human beings are motivated by three things:Autonomy: A human being wants a certain level of freedom when making decisions Mastery: Human beings like the feeling of mastering things. Seeing their own progress motivates themPurpose: Human beings like to see the bigger picture of what they do. Translated to the world of Marketing Communications this means that consumers want to do more than simply buying a product.Good games combine these three elements!!!
The danger with buzz concepts such as Gamification is that they come to be seen as silver bullets for every problemThis view is inherently wrongHence, before engaging in Gamification, brands need to clearly define what their problem is.Is, e.g. a website too difficult to browse for consumers, Gamficiation per se won’t help much. The solution would be to increase the ease of use.Since Gamification usually leads to motivation, a lack of engagement and motivation is usually the problem that it solves best!!!
Now that we know the theory behind the Gamification, let’s quickly recap on how Gamification can work.
The first level of Gamification are tie-ins with existing gaming platforms. This can happen as:In –game advertising: Not really a part of gamificationPartnerships: An initial step towards gamification is to partner up with different games. A case in point is Citi Bank that tied in its loyalty scheme with Zynga’s Farmville. This will allow customers to use ThankYou Points from the Citi® ThankYou Rewards Program, to pay for limited edition virtual goods, as well as physical and virtual game cards for Zynga's gamesLicensing: Licensing is a form of fully integrating a brand into a social gaming platform and thereby making the brand not an add-on but an integral part of the game. Cases are:Honda Car Town: To promote the U.S. launch of its CR-Z coupe, Honda initiated a two-month advertising campaign in Car Town, a newly released Facebook game that allows players to use virtual currency to purchase, customize and store hundreds of vehicles in their own virtual garages. Players can then use these vehicles to take road trips and complete challenges to earn points to purchase additional vehicles and car-related products and services. It generated 238,103 reviews,6,923,603 monthly active users,1,535,318 likesToyota Monoploy: For 12 months a branded integration of Toyota into Monopoly on Facebook features the Toyota Prius and Toyota Prius Eco-Greenhouse as giftable virtual items within. The integration of the Toyota Prius and Toyota Prius Eco-Greenhouse represent a re-imagining of the original game pieces featured in the beloved board game. As players navigate their way around the MONOPOLY Millionaires game they can express their commitment to the environment by collecting and displaying the Toyota Prius mover and Toyota Prius Eco-Greenhouse.
Instead of using existing gaming platforms, brands can also develop their own games. This, however, is a difficult undertaking. According to Fogg’sBehaviour Model games must be easy enough to understand and motivating enough to trigger action. If a game fails to achieve this, this form of Gamification is at best an expensive mis-investment and at worst of detriment to a brand and its image.
For Sunpower, Ogilvy developed a Social Media Strategy to educate consumers. At the core of it was a Facebook based game, the “Social Discovery Game” through which users could familiarise themselves with the benefits of Solar Energy. The game was an educational quiz that tested users’ knowledge about solar energy. Weekly updates of the questions and bi-weekly prize giveaways ensured that users would come back to the game. The person with the highest number of points (earned by answering questions correctly) would get the Grand Prize of complete SunPower Solar Energy System worth up to USD 25,000.RESULTS: The game created 2x higher interest for an in-home consultation vs. brand website; average time spent per session with game: 17.48 minutes vs. 6.5 minutes brand website; 600 fans a weekThis case beautifully showcases how Gamification lead to increased motivation. Ease of use, awareness etc of Solar energy weren’t the problem that needed to be solved. It was much more about making a dry topic engaging and fun. That’s why this case became a great success.
As mentioned before: Creating games is a risky and potentially expensive undertaking. As anecdotal evidence, the example of Angry Birds can be brought up.It is reported that before the success of Angry Birds, the developers of Rovio developed 50 games that were all complete failures and never took off!
Frequent Flyer schemes are probably among the most prominent examples of gamified marketing initiatives. The status bar is an interactive way to turn the collection of loyalty points into a competition-like endeavour. It provides real-time feedback, it shows what has been achieved, it indicates goals and communicates rewards. These are all elements of game mechanics.Also, pay attention to the language used in this Miles and More example: The word “Senator” in conjunction with the golden colour clearly evokes a feeling of status, which is a way to evoke social feelings. Traditionally, Frequent Flyer schemes aren’t social by nature (since they don’t include open competitions with others). But consumers might well use the Senator status as a social badge.
Besides Social Gaming platforms, there is an increasing number of online services that offer badge-based reward schemes that brands can buy into to integrate them into the web presences. These can be a good way to gamify a website presence and hence increase the “stickyness” of this website.Services like Foursquare operate in a similar way by handing out badges to users that have achieved certain things. There is a battery of examples in which brands have piggy-backed this system and connected these badges to rewards
But Badging is often a misunderstood gamification technique. Badging is marginally interesting as a measure of my accomplishments, but increase in importance if my peers can see my progress. Instead of being an end in themselves, badges can be transformed into a means to a more meaningful end. An example is the “Buy Life Campaign” by the HIV/AIDS charity “Keep a Child a Life”. T-Shirt that featured celebrities (Serena Williams in the picture above) were sold. Each t-shirt was a badge in itself with a bardcode which, if scanned, would lead to an invitation to donate. This was meaningful end/purpose the badge served and that people could use to show their commitment to a good cause (instead of just being the mayor of a restaurant in Foursquare)
The most sophisticated, expensive and difficult form is true Gamification, i.e. the infusion of game dynamics into normal marketing activities.We have chose three cases that have successfully done this:BMW Mini Cooper Stockholm Getaway: For the launch of the new Mini Countryman, an iPhone based app, the Mini Stockholm Getaway, enabled users to play a reality game in Stockholm for 7 days offering the chance to win a Mini Countryman. Players must chase a virtual Mini using the GPS and LBS enabled app. The real challenge begins once they catch it, as they now need to escape and stay at least 50 meters away from everybody else in the city. The gamer who succeeds in having the virtual MINI in his iPhone after the game week is over wins a real new MINI Countryman. Results:11000 participants, average gaming time: 5 hours / person, distance the virtual Mini was transported: 1500kmNew York City Library Find the Future: The NYC Public Library offered 500 invited people to compete in a smart-phone based challenge for a library night game encouraging players to explore and reflect upon the objects from the library’s collection. Again, motivation was the right issue to tackle in this case, which is why the approach of Gamification proved successful.Jay Z Decoded launch: Probably one of the most prominent, complex and successful cases for Gamification is the launch campaign for Jay Z’s autobiography Decoded. As part of a scavenger hunt, jay Z teamed up with Droga 5 (creds must be given for this amazing piece of work) and hid all 320 pages of his book in 13 cities across, e.g on a rooftop in New Orleans, a pool bottom in Miami, cheeseburger wrappers in NWY, and more. Each page was hidden at a place that somehow related to the page. The winner could not only read all 320 pages before the actual launch of the book but also win 2 tickets to any Jay Z concert anywhere, for life. The whole initiative was connected to Microsoft’s search engine Bing, whose map function had to be used to find the clues that would lead the people to the hidden pages.via PSFK: http://www.psfk.com/2010/10/mini-getaway-stockholm.html#ixzz1bKefRV7Q
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Level 1: What is gamification
What is Gamification? Gamification refers to the „gamifying‟ of traditionally non- game processes through the purposeful introduction of mechanics that are designed to elicit specific, predictable behaviours, while simultaneously absorbing individuals in the experience by making it engaging and compelling. -Alberts and Findlay, 2011 N
What is Gamification NOT?Gamification is not simply gaming N
Engagement and cut throughGamification‟s main goal is to generate engagement and cut through Today‟s Stimulus overflow and consumer short attention spans N
Gamification is only the tip of the icebergThe current popularity of the term reflects three shifts in the world of communications Gamification Visible phenomenon Underlying tectonic shifts From consumers to audience From messaging to meaning From impressions to engagement N
Different ways of GamificationThere are different ways a brand can engage in Gamification Examples Increasing level of complexity Doing genuine Gamification Creation of own games Integration of a brand in gaming platforms N
A time line of games Gamification Various “Pong” by 32 bit Social board Atari games Games gameszAncient 1952 1972 1980s 1995 2005 2007 2010 future Rome “OXO” by A. Brands re- Sandy Golden age discover Douglas of arcade gaming games N
Asians are passionate gamersAsians are passionate gamers – both offline and online Online and offline gaming N
Gaming is prominent in Asian markets Percentage of people who rankedeach online activity as most important Size of Chinese online gaming market in billion USDNews Knowledge and Planning Gaming 5.82 Email 5.3 SNS 4.75 4.19 3.55 2.69 5% 19% 24% 36% 43% Philippines 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 N Source: TNS Digital Life, 2011; n=50000 Source: IDC, 2010
Gaming is prominent in Asian marketsSize of China‟s SNS gaming market in million Global SNS gaming market in million USD CNY 2850 835 1632 490 780 240 240 420 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2008 2009 2010 N Source: JP Morgan, 2011 Source:InsideVirtualGood.com, 2011
Video gamer 1.0 The typical gamer as we know him: male, 15-30 years. N There are about 250 million of them.* * eConsultancy, 2011
Video gamer 2.0Social Gaming has unlocked a whole new demographic of players! Social Gamers by Age and Gender 15% 15% 14.5% 12% 53% 47% 11% 10% 18-25 25-34 35-44 N Source: Flurry Analytics, 2011 Male Female
Gaming conquers the mobile world Instant Messaging 71.8% News 62.6% Search 59.9% Music 45%Even more still comparatively Education 43.3%small, Social Gaming on SNS 41.1%mobile platform is a force tobe reckoned with! Blogging 34% Gaming 27.3% Email 24.4% Video 21.3% Payment 7.3% Banking 7.1% M-Commerce 5.5% N Source: CNNIC, 2011
Different ways of GamificationThere are different ways a brand can engage in Gamification Increasing level of complexity Doing genuine Gamification Creation of own games Integration of a brand in gaming platforms N
Stage 1: Tie-ins with existing platformsMany platforms exist that give brands the opportunity to experiment with Gamfication Cases include: Initial stages of Gamification • Honda Car Licensing Town • Toyota Monopoly Cases include: Partnerships • Citi Bank with Farmville In-game advertising N
Stage 2: Building your own game 1/2Games must tick certain boxes to be successful according to Fogg‟s Behaviour Model High Games need to be engaging enough to be motivating and easy enough to be attractive Motivation Action No Action Action threshold Low Ability Hard to do Easy to do N
Stage 2: Building your own game 2/2More experienced (or adventurous) brands can create their own games N
Building a game is a risky and difficult taskRovio developed 50 games that never took off before Angy Bird N
Stage 3: True GamificationThe 3rd and by far most sophisticated step is to engage in true Gamification. Merging of offline and online Increasing level of complexity Social Media Gamification Non-Social Media Gamification N
Non-Social GamificationGamification existed long before the inception of Social Media Game mechanics of the status bar: • clear, real-time feedback • level of achievement • Presentation of clear goal N
Social Media GamificationThere are several ways to gamify marketing and business offers with Social Media tools N
“Badgification”The increasing number of easy-to-use offers lead to the risk of simple “badgification” Pointless badgification Meaningful badgification Buy Life Campaign Badge as stand-alone measure of Badge as a means to a greater, accomplishment more meaningful end N
Merging online and offline worldsTrue Gamification means the infusion of unique game mechanics into marketing Mini Cooper Stockholm Getaway NYC library Find The Future Jay Z – Decoded launch N
Why did these cases work so well? Concert tickets, reading the book for free and just the chance to take part in something big! Allocation into Rewards teams to compete in the library Real time GPS update of enemies Social Feedback who want to steal the Mini Not Having the Mini knowing where Not knowing where term: a new Short Cooper “stolen” page 3 t imes a day. from you Long term: Unlock the whole book Uncertainty Goals Not knowing where the next page is Experience N
The paramount role of Social MediaSocial Media constitutes a unique bridge between offline and online worlds Online Offline Social Experience Goals Rewards Feedback Uncertainty N