Teachers, admission and the future

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Teachers, Admission Rate and the Future

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Teachers, admission and the future

  1. 1. StatiSense ® - Wale Micaiah © Teachers, Admission Rate & the Future
  2. 2. “Those who educate children well are more to be honored than they who produce them; for these only gave them life, those the art of living well.” ― Aristotle
  3. 3. “Teaching is the one profession that creates all other professions ― Unknown
  4. 4. The Education discipline is the manufacturing house of Teachers for any Nation. We have seen great and almost a perfect correlation between the State of Education and the Quality of life of its Citizens as well as the Quality if its Teaching Workforce. The Institution of Education is as old as the Nigerian state, in this presentation; an outlook of how Nigeria is producing enough Teachers for her Students, the degree of interest tertiary institution applicants show in the Education Discipline and the rate of admission in preparation for the growing student population.
  5. 5. The Education Discipline Philosophy: The philosophy of education is necessarily derived from the National Policy on Education. The national philosophy is in turn based on the following general aspirations of Nigeria as contained in Section 1 Paragraph 1 of the National Policy on Education: A free and democratic society, A just and egalitarian society, A united, strong and self-reliant nation, A great and dynamic economy, A land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens. The goals of education are in turn derived from these statements. A Faculty of Education should therefore be able to enhance the development of the following:- a) Respect for the worth and dignity of the individual b) Faith in man’s ability to make rational decisions c) Moral and spiritual values in inter-personal and human relations d) Respect for the dignity of labour and promotion of the emotional, physical and psychological health of all children.
  6. 6. e) Shared responsibility for the common good of society, f) The inculcation of national consciousness and national unity, g) The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian Society. h) The training of the mind in the understanding of the world around and the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competences both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society. To make the philosophy functional, the National Policy in sections 5 and 9 provides details of these goals under Higher Education in general and Teacher Education in particular. The provisions as contained in section 5 are as follows:- a) The acquisition, development and inculcation of the proper value- orientation for the survival of the individuals and society. b) The development of the intellectual capacities of individuals to understand and appreciate their environments. c) The acquisition of both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to develop into useful members of the community. d) The acquisition of an objective view of the local and external environments.
  7. 7. The traditional roles of the universities are namely: Teaching The dissemination of existing and new information Research The pursuit of service to the community Being a storehouse of knowledge 1 2 4 5 3
  8. 8. A Faculty of Education should therefore be able to achieve the following: Objective: To produce prospective teachers with proper leadership qualities To produce teachers with the knowledge, skills and attitudes which will enable them to contribute to the growth and development of their communities in particular and their nation in general To produce teachers who have sound mastery of their subject areas and the ability to impart such knowledge to their students To equip teachers with a mastery of problem solving skills To produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system To help teachers to fit into the social life of the community and society at large and enhance their commitment to national objectives To provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background, adequate for their alignment and to make them adaptable to any changing situation, not only in the life of their country but in the wide world To encourage the spirit of enquiry, creativity and entrepreneurship in teachers To enhance teachers commitment to the teaching profession To enhance the skills of teacher’s in the use of new technologies
  9. 9. The courses in the Education discipline are divided into; Integrated Subjects, Specialist Education, Arts and Humanities, Sciences, Social Sciences and Library Science. Integrated subjects: Language Arts Social Studies Science Education Technical Education Business Education Creative Arts/Theatre Arts Integrated Science Education Technology Specialist Education: Special Education Elementary/Primary Education Physical and Health Education Educational Administration, Guidance and Counseling, Adult and Continuing Education Home Economics Arts and Humanities: English Language/Lit, or English & Literary Studies African Languages & Literature Modern European Arabic Islamic Studies Christian Religious Studies History/International studies Music Language & Comm. Arts Sciences: Biology Chemistry Physics Mathematics Agricultural Sciences Computer Science/Statistics Mathematics/Statistics Technical Education Social Sciences: Political Science/ Government Economics Geography Library Science: Library and Information Resource Management
  10. 10. Nigeria has 128 Universities (as at July, 2013); No. Funding Total 1 Federal 40 2 State 38 3 Private 50 128 Not all these institutions offer courses in the Education Discipline. According to the National Universities Commission (NUC), there are a total of 13 Disciplines, the Faculty of Education exists in 66 of 128 Universities.
  11. 11. While the University produce Teachers for Secondary and Tertiary Education, the Colleges of Education produce Teachers for the Basic and Primary Education category. According to the UTME 2013 Application records; there were a total 116 Colleges of Education listed for admission. They serve as complementary training institutions to their University counterparts for the production of Teachers. He who opens a school door, closes a prison - Victor Hugo
  12. 12. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) Data for 2010 show that a total of 1.7 million additional primary teaching positions will need to be created by 2015. Between 2010 and 2015, 114 countries will need to create a total of at least 1.7 million new teacher posts to ensure quality primary education for all children. Sub-Saharan Africa (993,000 or 58.41%) Arab States (248,000 or 14%), North America & Western Europe (174,000 or 10%) South and West Asia (114,000 or 7%) Central and Eastern Europe (5%), Central Asia (1%), East Asia and the Pacific (4%), and Latin America and the Caribbean (1%)
  13. 13. 29 countries are with severe teacher gaps – which need to grow annually by at least 3.0% during the 2010 to 2015 period. Mainly located in sub-Saharan Africa, these countries will have to address the challenge of training and recruiting a sufficient number of teachers in order to meet the goal of (Universal Primary Education) UPE by 2015. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa with increasing primary enrolment will need to recruit the equivalent of 63% of their current teaching workforce within the period 2010-2015.
  14. 14. Analysis of Applicants’ Choices with respect to Faculty of Education in Universities & Colleges of Education
  15. 15. Most Sought-after Courses – University Year 2011 Total Education & Economics 5,889 Business Education 5,351 Education & English Lang. 5,095 Library & Info. Science 4,014 Education & Biology 3,055 Guidance & Counselling 2,577 Education & Political Sci. 1,454 Educational Mgt. 1,378 Education & Social St. 1,337 Agric. Sci. & Education 1,191 Education & Islamic St. 1,160 Health Education 1,144 Adult Education 1,029 PHE 997 Education & Mathematics 888 Year 2012 Total Education & Economics 6,410 Education & English Lang. 6,224 Business Education 5,640 Theatre Arts 5,037 Education & Biology 4,102 Guidance & Counselling 2,965 Education & Social Studies 2,524 Education & Political Sci. 2,516 Agric. Sci. & Education 1,973 Library & Info. Science 1,470 Education & Mathematics 1,188 Education & Islamic St. 1,180 Educational Management 1,166 PHE 1,105 Health Education 1,097 Year 2013 Total Education & Economics 7,929 Education & English Lang. 7,242 Business Education 5,439 Library & Info. Science 4,557 Education & Biology 3,926 Guidance & Counselling 3,077 Education & Political Sci. 2,724 Educational Management 1,999 Education & Social St. 1,915 Agric. Sci. & Education 1,763 Education & Islamic St. 1,541 Health Education 1,227 Educational Admin. 1,225 Adult Education 1,041 Education & Mathematics 1,027 Economics Education is the most sought-after course
  16. 16. Year 2011 Total Business Education 342,381 Biology/Chemistry 186,339 English/Social Studies 65,468 Biology/Int. Science 64,660 Economics/Social St. 58,888 Comp. Sci. Edu. /Math 55,217 Pol. Science/Social St 50,212 Mathematics/Physics 50,167 Chemistry/Physics 48,008 Economics/Pol. Sci. 44,221 Comp. Edu. /Physics 39,659 English (double Major) 34,008 Economics/Math 29,136 Agric Sci.(double Major) 27,406 Comp. Sci. Edu/Int. Sci. 26,492 Year 2012 Total Business Education 340,840 Biology/Chemistry 195,788 English/Social Studies 67,765 Biology/Int. Sci 67,233 Math/Physics 56,989 Econs/Social Studies 52,423 Chemistry/Physics 50,844 Pol. Sci./Social St. 49,481 Comp. Sci. Edu./Math 47,714 Economics/Pol. Sci. 41,325 English (double Major) 40,748 Comp. Edu./Physics 39,669 Agric. Sci. (double Major) 28,348 Chemistry/Int. Sci. 24,470 Economics/Math 23,830 Year 2013 Total Business Education 397,231 Biology/Chemistry 242,186 Biology/Int. Sci. 74,566 English/Social St. 74,467 Math/Physics 68,780 Econs /Social St. 57,658 Chemistry/Physics 56,093 Pol. Sci./Social St. 55,878 English (Double) 51,728 Comp Sci. Edu./Math 49,057 Comp Edu./Physics 43,551 Econs/Pol. Science 42,520 Agric. Sci. (Double) 32,093 Chemistry/Int. Sci. 26,905 English/Pol. Sci. 25,406 Most Sought-after Courses – College of Education Business Education is the most sought-after course
  17. 17. NECO Year Total Min of 5 Credit (Math & Eng) % June- July 2003 902,464 247,437 27.42% 2004 897,573 147,810 16.47% 2005 877,138 83,411 9.51% 2006 953,786 258,649 27.12% 2007 1,015,396 309,811 30.51% 2008 1,158,103 649,548 56.09% Nov /Dec 2003 335,311 33,663 10.04% 2004 293,883 60,712 20.66% 2005 266,905 37,200 13.94% 2006 368,598 50,783 13.78% 2007 363,931 21,503 5.91% WAEC 2003 1,039,028 200,148 19.26% May / June (2003 - 2008) 2004 1,051,246 191,938 18.26% 2005 1,091,763 203,991 18.68% 2006 1,184,223 110,417 9.32% 2007 1,275,832 98,133 7.69% 2008 1,369,171 127,147 9.29% Performance of Students in National Examination
  18. 18. More Teachers are required in the Sciences for subjects such as:  Mathematics  Physics  Chemistry  Biology Admission to tertiary institution requires each candidate to have at credit levels 5 relevant subjects, Mathematics and English language inclusive. Besides, the quantity require, quality of Teachers also matters.
  19. 19. Education Disciplines: How Appealing to Applicants? Year 2000 % Education 3,343 0.80 Total 416,381 Year 2001 Education 6,681 0.89 Total 749,417 Year 2002 Education 12,484 1.26 Total 994,380 Year 2003 Education 16,427 1.45 Total 1,132,392 Year 2004 Education 15,405 1.83 Total 841,878 Year 2005 % Education 23,649 2.58 Total 916,371 Year 2006 Education 23,491 2.92 Total 803,472 Year 2007 Education 32,222 3.53 Total 911,653 Year 2008 Education 36,590 3.47 Total 1,054,060 Year 2009 % Education 44,346 3.75 Total 1,182,381 Year 2011 Education 51,494 3.58 Total 1,439,084 Year 2012 Education 72,437 4.82 Total 1,503,889 Year 2013 Education 86,936 5.01 Total 1,735,729 There is a growing interest in the Education discipline as shown from Year 2000 to 2013 with less than 1% application in Year 2000 to 5% application in Year 2013. However, this is far too low compared to the requirements for the Teaching profession in Nigeria.
  20. 20. Though application is low, Faculty of Education however records the highest in terms of Admission Ratio, averaging of 60% admission from 2000 to 2007 academic Sessions. FACULTY 2000 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 Total Application 3,343 12,484 16,427 23,649 23,491 32,222 Total Admission 2,840 5,816 14,117 13,855 12,665 13,484 Admission Rate 84.95% 46.59% 85.94% 58.59% 53.91% 41.85% From the foregoing table; total candidates admitted for 6 academic sessions = 62,777. This means these Teachers in Training would only able to enter into the profession after at least 5years of training.
  21. 21. Prospectively, all things being equal, it is expected that Teachers entering the Teaching profession would be as follows: Year 2005 2007 2008 2010 2011 2012 Count 2,840 5,816 14,117 13,855 12,665 13,484 It expected that those who were admitted in Year 2000 would enter the teaching workforce in year 2005, having completed the compulsory National Service programme. This is also applicable for year 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2007. This addition should increase the number of Teachers in service, however, while some are entering the workforce, some others are also leaving the profession for obvious reasons.
  22. 22. How Many Teachers Are Needed? Of the countries reported with Teacher shortage, 3 would need to recruit more than 200,000 teachers in total by the year 2015. In Nigeria, more than one-half of the demand (212,083) is associated with the need to expand teaching workforces by creating new posts. Total UPE Teachers needed by 2015 in Nigeria is 786,161 Teachers needed in 2015: 786,161 Teacher in Stock (2010): 574,078 Needed: Total Recruitment 375,479 New Posts: 212,083 163,396 Replacement for Attrition:
  23. 23. New Posts: 212,083 163,396 Replacement for Attrition: 786,161 Nigeria UPE Teacher Requirement
  24. 24. Total Recruitment Needed Of Which New Posts Replacement for Attrition 375,479 212,083 163,396 Per Year 75,096 42,417 32,679 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 75,096 150,192 225,287 300,383 375,479 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 42,417 84,833 127,250 169,666 212,083 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 32,679 65,358 98,038 130,717 163,396 Total Recruitment Needed New Posts Replacement for Attrition
  25. 25. Country Population Stock in 2010 Teachers needed in 2015 AVG Annual Growth rate (%) Total Recruitment Needed Of Which New Posts Replacement for Attrition Nigeria 177,096,000 574,078 786,161 6.49 375,479 212,083 163,396 Ghana 24,658,823 124,359 128,746 0.87 36,022 4,387 31,636 Ethiopia 86,614,000 252,232 352,053 6.90 172,197 99,821 72,376 Egypt 84,605,000 380,111 405,816 1.32 103,243 25,705 77,538 DRC 74,618,000 285,640 364,088 4.97 157,323 78,448 78,874 Tanzania 45,950,000 165,856 247,056 8.3 130,139 81,200 48,939 Algeria 38,295,000 141,994 148,214 0.86 42,335 6,220 36,115 Uganda 35,363,000 172,403 213,713 4.39 88,365 41,310 47,054 Sudan 35,150,000 123,633 192,382 7.65 104,761 68,749 36,011 Nigeria require (of the average), an annual growth of 6.49% in Teachers’ recruitment in order to meet up with the required number of teacher needed for UPE by 2015. UPE Teachers Requirement: Selected Sub-Saharan Africa
  26. 26. Country Population Stock in 2010 Teachers needed in 2015 AVG Annual Growth rate (%) Total Recruitment Needed Of Which New Posts Replacement for Attrition Finland 5,439,741 24,736 25,137 0.32 7,881 401 7,481 S. Korea 50,219,669 158,056 131,391 -3.63 10,084 - 10,084 Japan’s 127,547,000 399,424 372,423 -1.39 83,561 - 83,561 UK 63,705,000 245,879 243,828 -0.14 59,588 - 59,588 Ireland 4,585,400 32,043 33,727 1.03 9,862 1,684 8,177 Poland 38,533,299 238,741 221,721 -1.23 43,970 - 43,970 Germany 80,493,000 241,845 219,387 -1.93 35,714 - 35,714 Belgium 11,156,136 65,668 67,614 0.49 18,524 1,946 16,578 USA 316,517,000 1,794,812 1,913,874 1.29 579,518 119,062 460,456 Hungary 9,906,000 37,108 37,283 0.08 9,467 175 9,292 Countries with the Best Education System *Some countries such as Singapore, Denmark, Hong Kong were omitted for lack of data Teachers requirement (New Posts) for most of these countries are almost non-existence except for the USA. While majority need to replace Teachers lost due to attrition.
  27. 27. With Nigeria tertiary institutions having a carrying capacity of 520,000: Carrying Capacity 520,000 Speculation University 300,000 Polytechnic 220,000 150,000 College of Education 70,000 Others Clearly, it is impossible to produce and recruit the yearly minimum required to meet up the 2015 teaching workforce projection by UNESCO UIS as there are no enough interest shown by applicants in Education disciplines as well as lack of enough incentives to attract and retain the existing teaching workforce.
  28. 28. Nigeria: In Dire Need of Teachers
  29. 29. 10,500,000of these School-age Children are from Nigeria
  30. 30. These Children may be crying for food today, what about their Future? They Need Teachers who will equip them for the Future
  31. 31. "A Teacher is a compass that activates the magnets of Curiosity, Knowledge, and Wisdom in the pupils." ~ Ever Garrison
  32. 32. StatiSense ® - Wale Micaiah © Freely share, freely use and freely recognize the source – © Wale Micaiah Data source: Analysis by: Wale Micaiah w. www.statisense.info e: walegate@yahoo.com b: walemicaiah.blog.com m: 08078001800 www.jamb.org.ng | www.nuc.edu.ng | UIS INFORMATION BULLETIN NO.10: The Global Demand for Primary Teachers – 2012 Update Projections to Reach Universal Primary Education By 2015
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