• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
INTUITIVE HEURISTIC BINDING PERFECTIONISM, CONTROL AND BODY SHAPE BELIEFS
 

INTUITIVE HEURISTIC BINDING PERFECTIONISM, CONTROL AND BODY SHAPE BELIEFS

on

  • 787 views

Confalonieri, L.1, 3, 4 , Ruggiero, G.M.1...

Confalonieri, L.1, 3, 4 , Ruggiero, G.M.1
Alighieri, S.2, Sacco, M.,1 Cattaneo, S.1

1Studi Cognitivi, Milan
2 Studi Cognitivi, Modena
3 Department of Human Sciences “Riccardo Massa”, University of Milan Bicocca, Milan
4 Mental Health Department, A.O. “Guido Salvini”, Garbagnate M., Italy


Eating Disorder as illusory compensation to the sense of lack of control and obsession for a self-esteem perceived as perfectionistically inadequate; this illusory compensation gets displaced onto controlling eating and body shape (Fairburn, Shafran, & Cooper, 1999).

Association between perfectionism and eating disorders, mediated by low perception of control and low-self esteem

Mainly verified by correlational studies using questionnaires (Sassaroli, Gallucci, & Ruggiero, 2008; Sassaroli & Ruggiero, 2010)

Statistics

Views

Total Views
787
Views on SlideShare
688
Embed Views
99

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

1 Embed 99

http://www.stateofmind.it 99

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    INTUITIVE HEURISTIC BINDING PERFECTIONISM, CONTROL AND BODY SHAPE BELIEFS  INTUITIVE HEURISTIC BINDING PERFECTIONISM, CONTROL AND BODY SHAPE BELIEFS Presentation Transcript

    • INTUITIVE HEURISTIC BINDING PERFECTIONISM, CONTROL AND BODY SHAPE BELIEFS Confalonieri, L. 1, 3, 4 , Ruggiero, G.M. 1 Alighieri, S. 2 , Sacco, M., 1 Cattaneo, S. 1 1 Studi Cognitivi, Milan 2 Studi Cognitivi, Modena 3 Department of Human Sciences “Riccardo Massa”, University of Milan Bicocca, Milan 4 Mental Health Department, A.O. “Guido Salvini”, Garbagnate M., Italy
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK One of the constraint of human cognitive functioning is categorization and assessment of probability that certain token (events, features, exemplars) belong to a type/category Extentional rational formal reasoning based on laws of probability : e.g. Conjunction rule : P (A&B) < P (B) (Kyburg, 1983; Zadeh, 1978) Intuitive heuristic reasoning violation of the conjunction rule and representativeness heuristic : “ the probability of an event is evaluated by of the degree of correspondence between an instance (token) and a category (type)”; Tversky & Kahneman, 1983
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Representativeness Heuristic
      • To assess the probability that Linda belong to a category (feminist, bank-teller) individuals evaluate the
      • TIPICALITY OF LINDA’S DESCRIPTION RELATIVE TO DIFFERENT CATEGORIES:
      • highest typicality for “feminist” (A)
      • “ Bank-teller (B) & feminist (A)” HIGHER TYPICALITY than “Bank-teller” (B)
      • Probability (A&B) “Bank teller & feminist” HEURISTICALLI GREATER THAN P(B) “Bank-teller”
      • VIOLATION OF CONJUCTION RULE
      ? “ Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations”
      • Bank-teller
      • Teacher
      • Feminist
      • Bookseller
      • Feminist & Bank-teller
      • Eating Disorder as illusory compensation to the sense of lack of control and obsession for a self-esteem perceived as perfectionistically inadequate; this illusory compensation gets displaced onto controlling eating and body shape (Fairburn, Shafran, & Cooper, 1999).
              • Association between perfectionism and eating disorders, mediated by low perception of control and low-self esteem
              • Mainly verified by correlational studies using questionnaires (Sassaroli, Gallucci, & Ruggiero, 2008; Sassaroli & Ruggiero, 2010)
      03/01/12 L. Confalonieri THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      • If correlation studies highlight the association between perfectionism and eating disorders mediated by low perception of control and low-self esteem,
      • Do heuristic processes exist which generate cognitive prototypes associating perfectionist personality and belief of body thinness ?
      03/01/12 L. Confalonieri RESEARCH QUESTION Which belief about body shape has greater probability to be associated to a perfectionist personality prototype?
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri GOAL and HYPOTHESIS Goal: Verify the existence of intuitive heuristics binding pathologic perfectionism, beliefs on body shape and control exerted in everyday experiential domain/situations Hypothesis: We hypothesized that prototypes of perfectionist and controlling personality would be associated with higher probability to body-shape belief of thinness than to overweight body shape belief (heuristic content) This heuristic content originates from intuitive heuristic cognitive processes more than from formal extensional reasoning
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri METHOD
      • Exploratory study
      • Sample: n. 21 healthy Caucasian females, mean age = 18 y.o. (s.d.= 0,66 y.o.)
      • Task: modified version of Kahneman & Tversky (1982) task for the assessment of probability in social perception
      • Introduction of personality sketches of pathologic perfectionism (personal high standards, concern over mistakes; Frost et al., 1990)
      • Assess the probability of randomized sentences regarding the person described in the sketch:
        • sentence rationally coherent to the profile: “the person controls to achieve perfectionist standards”
        • sentence about body-shape of thinness: “the person is thin”
        • sentence about body-shape of overweight: “the person is overweight”
        • sentence rationally coherent to profile (controlling) and thinness
        • sentence rationally coherent to profile (controlling) and overweight
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri
      • Sylvia cannot stop to perfectly tidy up her house  control: sentence rationally coherent with the profile
      • Sylvia is overweight  overweight body shape
      • Sylvia is thin  thinness body shape
      • Sylvia is overweight and cannot stop to perfectly tidy up her house  control (sentence rationally coherent with the profile) + overweight
      • Sylvia is thin and cannot stop to perfectly tidy up her house  control (sentence rationally coherent with the profile) + thin
      Sylvia is 33 y.o. and she is employed in a multinational corporation. She does not tolerate untidiness and dirty at home and in the office; she likes have everything organized and exactly tidy. Entering in her house it seems to be in a picture of furniture fashion magazine. For Sylvia, being extremely tidy, clean and organized is crucial for being a worthy person. 3 randomized perfectionist personality sketches in cleaning and work domains. EXAMPLE:
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri ENCOURAGING RESULTS
      • “ Controlling tidiness” considered of highest probability (sig .002): sentence rationally coherent
      • “ Thin” more probable than “Overweight” (sig .000): intuitive associative heuristic
      • “ Thin and controlling tidiness” and “Controlling tidiness” are considered similarly probable (sig .737): intuitive heuristic prevailing on conjunction probability rule !
      • “ Thin” considered more probable than “Overweight and controlling tidiness” (sig .000): even with a rationally coherent cue subjects assess more probable “Thin” than “Overweight and controlling tidiness”
      Lower scores = higher probability
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri … RESULTS
      • “ Controlling documents” considered of highest probability (sig .001): sentence rationally coherent
      • “ Thin” assessed as more probable than “Overweight” BUT NOT STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT
      Lower scores = higher probability
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri … RESULTS
      • “ Controlling article” considered of highest probability (sig .000): sentence rationally coherent
      • “ Thin” assessed as slightly more probable than “Overweight” BUT NOT STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT
      Lower scores = higher probability
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri
      • Associative binding between body-shape belief of thinness and perfectionism in the domain of “cleaning and hygiene” but not in the professional domain : higher salience and typicality of body-shape belief of thinness for the “cleaning perfectionism” than “professional perfectionism”
      • Non-clinical young females show intuitive heuristics associating the prototype of perfectionist personality to body-shape beliefs of thinness, in cleaning domain
      • Prevalence of intuitive heuristics on extensional rational reasoning : greater attention and salience to the belief of body thinness than to the rational cue coherent to the perfectionist profile (“controlling”): selective attention on thinness that leads to ignore even the rational coherent cue if associated to overweight (“controlling and overweight”)
      • Intuitive heuristic prevailing on conjunction probability rule : “Controlling tidiness” and “Thin and controlling tidiness” equally probable even if “Thin and controlling tidiness”: the conjunction can be more representative than
      • one of its constituents
      DISCUSSION: WHAT DO RESULTS TELL US?
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      • Enlargement of non-clinical sample
      • Enlargement to clinical Eating Disorder sample
      • Comparison with healthy young males
      • Moderator effects of “perfectionism” and “perception and desire of control”, measured via MPS (Frost et al., 1990) and ACQ-R (Kyrios, 2003) on the occurrence of heuristics and prototypes associating perfectionism and thinness
    • 03/01/12 L. Confalonieri [email_address]