2010 08 19 The Lean Startup TechAviv


Published on

Presentation by Eric Ries for TechAviv at the Stanford GSB August 19, 2010

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • I’m not leaving you, I’m pivoting to another man
  • Truth: The Lean Startup method is not about cost, it is about speed. Lean Startups waste less money, because they use a disciplined approach to testing new products and ideas. Lean, when used in the context of lean startup, refers to a process of building companies and products using lean manufacturing principles applied to innovation. That process involves rapid hypothesis testing, validated learning about customers, and a disciplined approach to product development.
  • Truth: The Lean Startup methodology applies to all companies that face uncertainty about what customers will want. This is true regardless of industry or even scale of company: many large companies depend on their ability to create disruptive innovation. Those general managers are entrepreneurs, too. And they can benefit from the speed and discipline of starting with a minimum viable product and then learning and iterating continuously.
  • Truth: There’s nothing wrong with raising venture capital. Many lean startups are ambitious and are able to deploy large amounts of capital. What differentiates them is their disciplined approach to determining when to spend money: after the fundamental elements of the business model have been empirically validated. Because lean startups focus on validating their riskiest assumptions first, they sometimes charge money for their product from day one – but not always.
  • Truth: Lean Startups are driven by a compelling vision, and they are rigorous about testing each element of this vision against reality. They use customer development, split-testing, and actionable analytics as vehicles for learning about how to make their vision successful. But they do not blindly do what customers tell them, nor do they mechanically attempt to optimize numbers. Along the way, they pivot away from the elements of the vision that are delusional and double-down on the elements that show promise.
  • 2010 08 19 The Lean Startup TechAviv

    1. 1. The Lean Startup#leanstartup<br />Eric Ries (@ericries)<br />http://StartupLessonsLearned.com<br />
    2. 2. What is a startup?<br /><ul><li>A startup is a human institution designed to deliver a new product or service under conditions of extreme uncertainty.
    3. 3. Nothing to do with size of company, sector of the economy, or industry</li></li></ul><li>What is a startup?<br />STARTUP <br />=<br />EXPERIMENT<br />
    4. 4. Most Startups Fail<br />
    5. 5. Most Startups Fail<br />
    6. 6. Most Startups Fail<br />
    7. 7. Most Startups Fail<br /><ul><li>But it doesn’t have to be that way.
    8. 8. We can do better.
    9. 9. This talk is about how.</li></li></ul><li>Entrepreneurship is management<br /><ul><li>Our goal is to create an institution, not just a product
    10. 10. Traditional management practices fail</li></ul>- general management” as taught to MBAs<br /><ul><li>Need practices and principles geared to the startup context of extreme uncertainty
    11. 11. Not just for “two guys in a garage”</li></li></ul><li>The Pivot<br />
    12. 12. I’<br />
    13. 13. The Pivot<br /><ul><li>What do successful startups have in common?
    14. 14. They started out as digital cash for PDAs, but evolved into online payments for eBay.
    15. 15. They started building BASIC interpreters, but evolved into the world's largest operating systems monopoly.
    16. 16. They were shocked to discover their online games company was actually a photo-sharing site.
    17. 17. Pivot: change directions but stay grounded in what we’ve learned. </li></li></ul><li>Speed Wins<br />If we can reduce the time between pivots<br />We can increase our odds of success<br />Before we run out of money<br />
    18. 18. A Tale of Two Startups<br />
    19. 19. Startup<br />1<br />
    20. 20. Stealth Startup Circa 2001<br />
    21. 21. All about the team<br />
    22. 22. A good plan?<br /><ul><li>Start a company with a compelling long-term vision.
    23. 23. Raise plenty of capital.
    24. 24. Hire the absolute best and the brightest.
    25. 25. Hire an experienced management team with tons of startup experience.
    26. 26. Focus on quality.
    27. 27. Build a world-class technology platform.
    28. 28. Build buzz in the press and blogosphere.</li></li></ul><li>Achieving Failure<br /><ul><li>Product launch failed </li></ul> - $40MM and five years of pain<br /><ul><li>… but the plan was executed well
    29. 29. Crippled by “shadow beliefs” that destroyed the effort of all those smart people.</li></li></ul><li>Shadow Belief #1<br /><ul><li>We know what customers want. </li></li></ul><li>Shadow Belief #2<br /><ul><li>We can accurately predict the future. </li></li></ul><li>Shadow Belief #3<br /><ul><li>Advancing the plan is progress.</li></li></ul><li>A good plan?<br /><ul><li>Start a company with a compelling long-term vision.
    30. 30. Raise plenty of capital.
    31. 31. Hire the absolute best and the brightest.
    32. 32. Hire an experienced management team with tons of startup experience.
    33. 33. Focus on quality.
    34. 34. Build a world-class technology platform.
    35. 35. Build buzz in the press and blogosphere.</li></li></ul><li>Startup<br />2<br />
    36. 36. IMVU<br />
    37. 37. IMVU<br />
    38. 38. New plan<br /><ul><li>Shipped in six months – a horribly buggy beta product
    39. 39. Charged from day one
    40. 40. Shipped multiple times a day (by 2008, on average 50 times a day)
    41. 41. No PR, no launch
    42. 42. Results 2009: profitable, revenue > $20MM</li></li></ul><li>Making Progress<br /><ul><li>In a lean transformation, question #1 is – which activities are value-creating and which are waste?
    43. 43. In traditional business, value is created by delivering products or services to customers
    44. 44. In a startup, the product and customer are unknowns. We need a new definition of value for startups: validated learning about customers</li></li></ul><li>Traditional Product DevelopmentUnit of Progress: Advance to Next Stage<br />Waterfall<br />Requirements<br />Specifications<br />Design<br />Problem: known<br />Solution:known<br />Implementation<br />Verification<br />Maintenance<br />
    45. 45. Agile Product DevelopmentUnit of Progress: A line of Working Code<br />“Product Owner” or in-house customer<br />Problem: known<br />Solution:unknown<br />
    46. 46. Lean StartupUnit of Progress: Validated Learning About Customers ($$$)<br />Customer Development<br />Hypotheses, Experiments,<br />Insights<br />Problem:unknown<br />Data, Feedback,<br />Insights<br />Solution:unknown<br />Agile Development<br />
    47. 47. Minimize TOTAL time through the loop<br />
    48. 48. There’s much more…<br />Build Faster<br />Unit Tests<br />Usability Tests<br />Continuous Integration<br />Incremental Deployment<br />Free & Open-Source<br /> Components<br />Cloud Computing<br />Cluster Immune System<br />Just-in-time Scalability<br />Refactoring<br />Developer Sandbox<br />Minimum Viable Product<br />Learn Faster<br />Split Tests<br />Customer Interviews<br />Customer Development<br />Five Whys Root Cause<br />Analysis<br />Customer Advisory Board<br />Falsifiable Hypotheses<br />Product Owner<br />Accountability<br />Customer Archetypes<br />Cross-functional Teams<br />Semi-autonomous Teams<br />Smoke Tests<br />Measure Faster<br />Funnel Analysis<br />Cohort Analysis<br />Net Promoter Score<br />Search Engine Marketing<br />Real-Time Alerting<br />Predictive Monitoring<br />Measure Faster<br />Split Tests<br />Clear Product Owner<br />Continuous Deployment<br />Usability Tests<br />Real-time Monitoring<br />Customer Liaison<br />
    49. 49.
    50. 50. Myth #1<br />Myth<br />Lean means cheap. Lean startups try to spend as little money as possible.<br />Truth The Lean Startup method is not about cost, it is about speed. <br />
    51. 51. Myth #2<br />Myth<br />The Lean Startup is only for Web 2.0/internet/consumer software companies.<br />Truth The Lean Startup applies to all companies that face uncertainty about what customers will want. <br />
    52. 52. Myth #3<br />Myth<br />Lean Startups are small bootstrapped startups.<br />Truth Lean Startups are ambitious and are able<br /> to deploy large amounts of capital. <br />
    53. 53. Myth #4<br />Myth<br />Lean Startups replace vision with dataor customer feedback.<br />Truth Lean Startups are driven by a compelling vision, and are rigorous about testing each element of this vision<br />
    54. 54. Thanks!<br /><ul><li>Startup Lessons Learned Blog
    55. 55. http://StartupLessonsLearned.com
    56. 56. In print: http://bit.ly/SLLbookbeta
    57. 57. Getting in touch (#leanstartup)
    58. 58. http://twitter.com/ericries
    59. 59. eric@theleanstartup.com
    60. 60. Additional resources
    61. 61. Lean Startup Wiki http://leanstartup.pbworks.com
    62. 62. Lean Startup Circle http://leanstartupcircle.com</li></li></ul><li>How to build a Lean Startup<br /><ul><li>Let’s talk about some specifics.
    63. 63. Minimum viable product
    64. 64. Five why’s
    65. 65. Rapid split-tests
    66. 66. Continuous Deployment</li></li></ul><li>Minimum Viable Product<br />Learn Faster<br />Customer Development<br />Five Whys<br />Build Faster<br />Continuous Deployment<br />Small Batches<br />Minimum Viable Product<br />Refactoring<br />Measure Faster<br />Split Testing<br />Actionable Metrics<br />Net Promoter Score<br />SEM <br />
    67. 67. Why do we build products?<br /><ul><li>Delight customers
    68. 68. Get lots of them signed up
    69. 69. Make a lot of money
    70. 70. Realize a big vision; change the world
    71. 71. Learn to predict the future</li></li></ul><li>Possible Approaches<br /><ul><li>“Maximize chances of success”
    72. 72. build a great product with enough features that increase the odds that customers will want it
    73. 73. Problem: no feedback until the end, might be too late to adjust
    74. 74. “Release early, release often”
    75. 75. Get as much feedback as possible, as soon as possible
    76. 76. Problem: run around in circles, chasing what customers think they want</li></li></ul><li>Minimum Viable Product<br /><ul><li>The minimum set of features needed to learn from earlyvangelists – visionary early adopters
    77. 77. Avoid building products that nobody wants
    78. 78. Maximize the learning per dollar spent
    79. 79. Probably much more minimum than you think!</li></li></ul><li>Minimum Viable Product<br /><ul><li>Visionary customers can “fill in the gaps” on missing features, if the product solves a real problem
    80. 80. Allows us to achieve a big vision in small increments without going in circles
    81. 81. Requires a commitment to iteration
    82. 82. MVP is only for BIG VISION products; unnecessary for minimal products.</li></li></ul><li>Techniques<br /><ul><li>Smoke testing with landing pages, AdWords
    83. 83. SEM on five dollars a day
    84. 84. In-product split testing
    85. 85. Paper prototypes
    86. 86. Customer discovery/validation
    87. 87. Removing features (“cut and paste”)</li></li></ul><li>Fears<br /><ul><li>False negative: “customers would have liked the full product, but the MVP sucks, so we abandoned the vision”
    88. 88. Visionary complex: “but customers don’t know what they want!”
    89. 89. Too busy to learn: “it would be faster to just build it right, all this measuring distracts from delighting customers”</li></li></ul><li>Five Whys<br />Learn Faster<br />Five Whys Root<br />Cause Analysis<br />Code Faster<br />Continuous Deployment<br />Measure Faster<br />Rapid Split Tests<br />
    90. 90. Five Whys Root Cause Analysis<br /><ul><li>A technique for continuous improvement of company process.
    91. 91. Ask “why” five times when something unexpected happens.
    92. 92. Make proportional investments in prevention at all five levels of the hierarchy.
    93. 93. Behind every supposed technical problem is usually a human problem. Fix the cause, not just the symptom.</li></li></ul><li>Rapid Split Tests<br />Learn Faster<br />Five Whys Root<br />Cause Analysis<br />Code Faster<br />Continuous Deployment<br />Measure Faster<br />Rapid Split Tests<br />
    94. 94. Split-testing all the time<br /><ul><li>A/B testing is key to validating your hypotheses
    95. 95. Has to be simple enough for everyone to use and understand it
    96. 96. Make creating a split-test no more than one line of code:</li></ul>if( setup_experiment(...) == "control" ) {<br /> // do it the old way<br />} else {<br /> // do it the new way<br />}<br />
    97. 97. The AAA’s of Metrics<br /><ul><li>Actionable
    98. 98. Accessible
    99. 99. Auditable</li></li></ul><li>Measure the Macro<br /><ul><li>Always look at cohort-based metrics over time
    100. 100. Split-test the small, measure the large</li></li></ul><li>Continuous Deployment<br />Learn Faster<br />Customer Development<br />Five Whys<br />Build Faster<br />Continuous Deployment<br />Small Batches<br />Minimum Viable Product<br />Refactoring<br />Measure Faster<br />Split Testing<br />Actionable Metrics<br />Net Promoter Score<br />SEM <br />
    101. 101. Continuous Deployment<br /><ul><li>Deploy new software quickly
    102. 102. At IMVU time from check-in to production = 20 minutes
    103. 103. Tell a good change from a bad change (quickly)
    104. 104. Revert a bad change quickly
    105. 105. And “shut down the line”
    106. 106. Work in small batches
    107. 107. At IMVU, a large batch = 3 days worth of work
    108. 108. Break large projects down into small batches</li></li></ul><li>Cluster Immune SystemWhat it looks like to ship one piece of code to production:<br /><ul><li>Run tests locally (SimpleTest, Selenium)
    109. 109. Everyone has a complete sandbox
    110. 110. Continuous Integration Server (BuildBot)
    111. 111. All tests must pass or “shut down the line”
    112. 112. Automatic feedback if the team is going too fast
    113. 113. Incremental deploy
    114. 114. Monitor cluster and business metrics in real-time
    115. 115. Reject changes that move metrics out-of-bounds
    116. 116. Alerting & Predictive monitoring (Nagios)
    117. 117. Monitor all metrics that stakeholders care about
    118. 118. If any metric goes out-of-bounds, wake somebody up
    119. 119. Use historical trends to predict acceptable bounds
    120. 120. When customers see a failure
    121. 121. Fix the problem for customers
    122. 122. Improve your defenses at each level</li></li></ul><li>Thanks!<br /><ul><li>Startup Lessons Learned Blog
    123. 123. http://StartupLessonsLearned.com
    124. 124. In print: http://bit.ly/SLLbookbeta
    125. 125. Getting in touch (#leanstartup)
    126. 126. http://twitter.com/ericries
    127. 127. eric@theleanstartup.com
    128. 128. Additional resources
    129. 129. Lean Startup Wiki http://leanstartup.pbworks.com
    130. 130. Lean Startup Circle http://leanstartupcircle.com</li>