Converted Organics diverts food waste from going to landfills250 million tons of food waste disposed of in U.S. landfills annuallyWhen land-filled, food waste decomposes to produce methane gasMethane gas is 20x more destructive than CO2 as greenhouse gas Converted Organics fertilizer is a replacement for synthetic fertilizerConverted Organics fertilizers do not contain any chemicalsThe production of 1 ton of synthetic fertilizer requires the burning of enough natural gas to release 4.6 tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphereConverted Organics fertilizers deliver dual environmental benefitsReduce greenhouse gases by diverting food waste from landfillsReduce greenhouse gases by replacing energy-intensive synthetic fertilizers
Distribution range, delivery system, costs of processing, ease of preservation, etc., differ depending upon the processing method, which is mainly related to the differences in moisture contents.Waste gets used as animal feed.Oranges - juice - peel for cattle feedCorn - canned - husks for cattle feedFish - filleted - heads for fish bait & pet foodChicken - frozen - heads & feet for gelatine & poultry feedNuts - packaged - mulch for mushroom growing
Used mainly for cooking & lighting purposes.Used in internal combustion engines to power water pumps & electric generators.Substrate:Plant & animal biomass.Plant biomass –Animal biomass – cattle dung,manure from poultry,goats & sheep slaughter house & fishery wastes.Agricultural wastes also used
Different types of biogas plant recognized by MNES (Ministry of Non- Conventional Energy Sources). After Gate, 1999. 1. Floating-drum plant with a cylinder digester (KVIC model). 2. Fixed-dome plant with a brick reinforced, moulded dome (Janata model). 3. Floating-drum plant with a hemisphere digester (Pragati model). 4. Fixed-dome plant with a hemisphere digester (Deenbandhu model). 5. Floating-drum plant made of angular steel and plastic foil (Ganesh model). 6. Floating-drum plant made of pre-fabricated reinforced concrete compound units. 7. Floating-drum plant made of fibreglass reinforced polyester.
Fixed:A fixed-dome plant consists of a digester with a fixed, non-movable gas holder, which sits on top of the digester. Floating:Consist of an underground digester and a moving gas-holder. MASONRY CYLINDRICAL TANK ON ONE SIDE INLET FOR SLURRY OTHER SIDE OUTLET FOR SPENT SLURRY GAS COLLECTS IN INVERTED ‘DRUM’ GAS HOLDER OVER SLURRY GAS HOLDER MOVES UP & DOWN DEPENDING ON ACCUMULATION OF GAS /DISCHARGE OF GAS, GUIDED BY CENTRAL GUIDE PIPE GAS HOLDER (MILD STEEL): PAINTED ONCE A YEAR. K V I C Mumbai MEDIUM FAMILY SIZE BIOGAS PLANT HAVING GAS DELIVERY OF 3 M3 /DAY REQUIRES 12 HEAD OF CATTLE AND CAN SERVE A FAMILY OF 12 PERSONS Gas-holder floats either directly on the fermentation slurry or in a separate water jacket. The gas is collected in the gas drum, which rises or moves down, according to the amount of gas stored
The terminal stage Intermediate products of the preceding stages converted to methane, carbon dioxide, and water.These components make up the majority of the biogas emitted from the system. Methanogenic bacteria
4.2 Inter-relationship of Biogas Technology and AgricultureMore than 90 percent of the population in Nepal are engaged in agriculture. Therefore, any technology thatcan influence agriculture or gets influenced by the agricultural practices becomes a subject of concernnot only to the biogas user but also to the nation as a whole.By-products of agriculture, mainly animal wastes and crop residues, are the primary inputs for biogasplants. The digested slurry as one of the outputs of a biogas plant can be returned to the agriculturalsystem. Proper application of the slurry as organic fertilizer increases agricultural production because of itshigh content of soil nutrients, growth hormones and enzymes. Dried slurry can also safely replace a part ofanimal and fish feed concentrates. Furthermore, slurry treatment also increases the feed value of fodder withlow protein content When the digested slurry is placed into the food chain of crops and animals, it leads toa sustainable increase in farm income.This close relation between biogas and agriculture can be taken as an indicator of "environmentalfriendly" nature of the technology as shown in Chart 4.1.
Retention time: The ratio of volume of slurry in the digester to the volume fed into and removed from it per day is called retention time. Thus a 20 liter digester is fed at 4 liters per day so that the volume of digester is constant the retention time is 5 days. The required retention time is normally 30 days for mesophilic (25-35oC) conditions.
The farmer needs to use chemical fertilizer to increase his crop production. However, if only mineralfertilizers are continuously applied to the soil without adding organic manure, productivity of land willdecline. On the other hand, if only organic manure is added to the soil, desired increase in crop yield can notbe achieved. Fertility trials carried out in Nepal and elsewhere have revealed that optimum results can beachieved through the combined application of both chemical and organic fertilizers.
Experiments in China have shown that compared to fresh dung, theammonical nitrogen in the digested slurry increases by 260 percent whereas it decreases by 17.5 percent inthe FYM. The slurry thus has more free ammonia than available in composted manure.The experiment has revealed that the digested slurry from biogas plant provides 10 to15 percent of the total feed requirement of swine and cattle, and 50 percent for ducks (Gunnerson andStuckey, 1986). Dried sludge could be substituted In cattle feed with satisfactory weight gains and savings of50 percent in the feed concentrate used (Alviar. et al.. 19X0). The growth and development of Salmonellachloreasuis and Coli bacillus were inhibited under anaerobic fermentation.
Biogas can be used to inhibit the process of post-maturation of fruits and vegetables and thus increase theirsafe storage time. When biogas is filled for the first time in the storage tank, box or bin, the valve on theexhaust tube should be opened in order to exhaust air or gas in the jar as completely as possible. When ailother gas are pushed out by the biogas in the bin, the valve should be closed. In this way, all the pests canbe destroyed (Biogas Technology In China, 1989).
Impact of food waste on
Recycling system ( Biogas and organic
Msc of Microbial Biotechnology
Food wastage – Why is it
• Each year, about ⅓ of all food produced for human
consumption in the world is lost or wasted
• The model has also calculated 2 types of food wastage
Volumes for the edible and the non-edible parts of food;
Food wastage for only the edible part of food.
"UNEP and FAO have identified food waste and loss --food
“United Nations Environment Programme”
What is the environmental
impact of food wastage?
The later in the life cycle a product is wasted, the greater the impacts
of its useless production and transformation
• The global volume of food wastage in 2007 is
estimated at 1.6 Gt of “primary product
• The food wastage for the edible part of food only
is 1.3 Gt
• The carbon footprint of food wastage is estimated to
3.3 Gt CO2 eq., equivalent
• to more than twice the total GHG emissions of USA
road transportation in 2010
• If food wastage was a country, it would rank as the 3rd
Wastage of cereals in Asia is a significant problem, with major impacts
on carbon emissions and water and land use. Rice's profile is particularly
noticeable, given its high methane emissions combined with a large
level of wastage.
• While meat wastage volumes in all world regions is comparatively low,
the meat sector generates a substantial impact on the environment in
terms of land occupation and carbon footprint, especially in high-income
countries and Latin America, which in combination account for 80
percent of all meat wastage. Excluding Latin America, high-income
regions are responsible for about 67 percent of all meat wastage
• Fruit wastage contributes significantly to water waste in Asia, Latin
America, and Europe, mainly as a result of extremely high wastage
• Similarly, large volumes of vegetable wastage in industrialized Asia,
Europe, and South and South East Asia translates into a large carbon
footprint for that sector.
Causes and Prevention of
food losses and waste
• Poor storage facilities, packaging and lack of infrastructure
cause postharvest food losses in developing countries.
Prevention: investment in infrastructure, packaging and
• Unsafe food is not fit for human consumption and therefore is
Prevention: develop knowledge and capacity of food chain
operators to apply safe food handling practices.
• Lack of processing facilities causes high food losses in
Prevention: - improve investment climate for agro-industry
- develop contract farming linkages between
processors and farmer
Food waste harms climate,
water, land and biodiversity
• 11 September 2013-1.3 billion tonnes of food per year is
not only causing major economic losses but also
wreaking significant harm on the natural resources that
humanity relies upon to feed itself, says a new FAO
• Among its key findings: Each year, food that is produced
but not eaten guzzles up a volume of water equivalent to
the annual flow of Russia's Volga River and is
responsible for adding 3.3 billion tonnes of
greenhouse gases to the planet's atmosphere.
• Primary (closed loop) recycling: materials
are turned into new products of the same
• Secondary recycling: materials are
converted into different products.
• Used tires shredded and converted into
rubberized road surface.
• Newspapers transformed into cellulose
Conversion to Less
• Biological Methods:
• Bioremediation: bacteria or enzymes help
destroy toxic and hazardous waste or
convert them to more benign substances.
• Phytoremediation: involves using natural
or genetically engineered plants to absorb,
filter and remove contaminants from
polluted soil and water.
The use of food waste as a protein
source for animal feed - current status and
technological development in Japan
• Ensiling is another method of processing food waste for feed.
However, it is not practically utilized in swine production due to: 1)
cost of preparation and transportation of silage, and 2) silage cannot
be delivered through conventional feeding systems for concentrate
• Liquid feeding is not popular in Japan in comparison with the
situation in Europe. There are only a few farmers using liquid feed
from food waste. It requires a high investment to renew the feeding
system. However, it has great potential to exploit high moisture food
waste as an animal feed. As dehydration of the food waste is
unnecessary, the cost of processing is considerably lower and little
protein is lost during the low temperature process
• Fermented liquid feeding is a process that involves fermentation to
decrease pH and extend shelf life. During the process of
fermentation, anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and non starch
polysaccharide, can be broken down by either endogenous or
• The dry matter of products processed by these methods
ranged from 70 to 97 percent. Farmers can feed it to swine
without any modification of their feeding system if feed
composition is appropriate, or the products can be used as
ingredients for commercial concentrate feeds.
• In Sapporo city, the Sapporo Kitchen Garbage Recycle
Centre was set up. This collects 50 tonnes of garbage from a
total of 188 schools, hospitals and companies and processes
it into dehydrated feed by fry-cooking. Fry cooking is a new
system of dehydrating food waste according to the method of
Templar 21 in which it is cooked in waste vegetable oil
under reduced pressure at relatively low temperature (about
• Mixture of gases.
• Produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter.
• Consist of CH4 ,CO2 ,traces of H2 & other gases.
Composition of Biogas
• Fixed dome type
• Floating drum type
FREQUENCY OF FILLING SUBSTRATE
• Batch type
• Continuous type
Results in further breakdown of the
remaining components by acidogenic
Ammonia, H2, CO2, H2S, shorter volatile
fatty acids, carbonic acids, alcohols, as
well as trace amounts of other byproducts
Simple molecules created through
the acidogenesis phase further
digested to acetic acid, carbon
dioxide and hydrogen.
Creation of anaerobic conditions
• Acidic medium lowers methane formation.
• Fluctuation ↓ methane formation – inhibit
growth of methanogens.
• ↑ N2 - ↓ growth of bacteria - ↓ CH4
• Micro organisms in a biogas plant needs both N
nitrogen and C carbon.
• Research has shown that the methanogenic bacteria
work best with a C/N ratio 30:1.
1) Removal of H2S • The gas coming out of system is heated to
150 degree C
• and over ZnO bed, maintained at 1800 C
leaving process gas free of H2S.
• ZnO + H2S = ZnS + H2O.
• ZnSO4 + 2NaOH = Zn (OH) 2 + Na2SO4
2) Removal of CO2 –
• CO2 is high corrosive when wet and it has no
• value so its removal is must to improve the
• The processes to remove CO2 are as follows
• a) Caustic solution, NAOH – 40%
• NAOH + CO2 = NAHCO3
• b) Renfield process – K2CO3 - 30 %
• K2CO3 + CO2 = 2KCO3
3) Removal of NH3:• The chemical reaction is as:
• NH3 + HCL =NH4Cl
4) Removal of H2O:• For the removal of moisture, pass the gas
• reaction, through the crystals of white
Importance of Slurry for Crop
Organic matter plays an important role because of its beneficial
effects in supplying plant nutrients,
enhancing the cation exchange capacity,
improving soil aggregation,
increasing water holding capacity of soils,
stabilizing its humic content and increasing its water holding
Organic soil amendments support biological activities and also
control root pathogens.
Biogas slurry has proved to be a high quality organic manure
Compared to FYM, digested slurry will have more nutrients,
because in FYM, the nutrients are lost by volatilization
(especially nitrogen) due to exposure to sun (heat) as well as by
• Only approximately 10 percent of the total nitrogen
content in fresh dung is readily available for plant
growth A major portion of it has first to be
biologically transformed in the soil and is only then
gradually released for plant use.
• When fresh cow dung dries, approximately 30 to
50 percent of the nitrogen escapes within 10 days.
While nitrogen escaping from digested slurry
within the same period amounts to only 10 to 15
percent Therefore, the value of slurry as fertilizer,
if used directly in the field as it comes out of the
plant, is higher than when it is used after being
stored and drie d
• Many extensive experiments performed in China have
proved that the digested slurry, when used as fertilizer,
has strong effects on plant tolerance to diseases such as
potato wilt (Pseudomonas salanacearum. late blight,
cauliflower mosaic, etc. and thus can be used as biochemical pesticide.
• the coldresistant property of early season rice
seedling are effectively enhanced by soaking
seeds with digested slurry.
The survival rate increased by 8 to 13 percent
and the quality of seedlings raised by soaking
seeds with digested slurry is much higher than that
of the control group during the recovering period
after low temperature stress. The seedlings
germinated faster, grew well and resisted diseases
(Biogas Technology In China, 1989).
• Foliar application of diluted slurry increases
rate of wheat plant growth,
• in grapes have been found to increase yield,
length of fruityear,sugar content, fruit size,
colour, and resistance to mildew diseases.
• In cucumbers, it has been observed to
increase resistance to wilt diseases.
• In peach, it develops better fruit colour and
• Digested slurry can effectively control the
spreading and occurrence of cotton's weathered
disease. It decreases the rate of the disease
with an efficiency rate of 50 percent for one year.
70 percent for more than two years along with
increase in production.
• Wheat aphids are effectively cured when
digested slurry mixed with a 30 to 40 percent of
Rogor is sprayed saving the cost of Rogor
chemical which also has an adverse
• FOOD INDUSTRYWASTES ASSESSMENT ANDRECUPERATION
• Toolkit of FAO
• Sustainability Pathways Food loss and waste (FAO)
• PROTEIN SOURCES FOR THE ANIMAL FEED INDUSTRY
• IranWheat MainFrame
• Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations News
• FAO - News Article Food waste harms climate, water, land and
biodiversity – new FAO report
• FAO - detail Waste Not, Want Not
• C FAO recycle
• From Farm to Fork to Landfill- Food Waste and Consumption in
Causes and prevention of food losses and waste
UTILIZAITON OF SLURRY AS FEED AND FERTILIZER (FAO/TC
Food Manufacturing - Impact on the environment