RETAIL IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENTPRESENTED BY DARREN STARRNATIONAL TOWN PLANNING DISCIPLINE LEADERFYFE
TOPICS TO BE COVERED1. SA PLANNING SYSTEM2. CENTRE AND RETAIL HIERARCHY3. RETAIL DEVELOPMENT AND THE DEVELOPMENT ACT4. PLANING FOR RETAIL5. TRADING HOURS6. 30 YEAR PLAN FOR GREATER ADELAIDE
INTRODUCTIONOur Urban Environment is shaped by many inputs and demandsincluding the planning and development system, consumerdemand, employment location, retail spending and disposableincomes, land costs, transport systems, settlement patterns andpopulation densities.All of these factors impact on consumer spending and confidenceand have an impact on the relative success of retail activity in oururban areas.
Strategic Planning – long term plans e.g. 30 Year Plan for Greater Adelaide.Predominately undertaken by the State Government with local council’s alsoexpressing aspirations of local communities;Policy Planning – Criteria that all development will need to address prior toapproval e.g. Local Development Plans & Development Plan Amendments (DPAs).Development Plan Amendments (DPAs) primarily undertaken by local governmentDevelopment Assessment – assessment of development applications and projectsand division of land. Assessment of development applications predominatelyundertaken by local government, major retail centres are assessed by theDevelopment Assessment Commission (DAC).
Development (as defined in the Development Act) includes manyactivities, however the key activities relating to the location and operation of retailin our urban environments are:• Change in the use of land e.g. from office to retail• Building work (construction, demolition, associatedexcavation/fill) e.g. construction or renovation of a shop orretail activityWhere the two above activities are proposed (or a variation or upgrade) then landowners must received approval from the relevant authority e.g. local governmentfor that activity to occur.
What does retail mean within the planning system?shop means—(a) premises used primarily for the sale byretail, rental or display of goods, foodstuffs,merchandise or materials; or(b) a restaurant; or(c) a bulky goods outlet or a retail showroom;or(d) a personal service establishment;
The Centres hierarchy was a well established element of the SAplanning system under the previous Planning Strategy and is still a keypart of many Development Plans: The hierarchy consisted of:•Adelaide CBD•Regional Centres e.g. Marion, Noarlunga, Tea Tree Plaza•District Centres e.g. Arndale & West Lakes•Neighbourhood Centres; and•Local Centres
Each of these classifications in the retail (centres)hierarchy outlined the level of services and facilitiesthat was appropriate. For example majordepartment stores would only be deemedappropriate in the CBD or regional centres. Whilelocal centres would accommodate local shoppingfacilities e.g. small supermarket and specialty shops.However the centres hierarchy has been somewhatsuperseded by the provisions of the 30 Year Plan forGreater Adelaide.
In addition to the centres hierarchy there are alsomany Town Centre Zones (traditionally in rural orrural fringe areas) that also outline what isappropriate from a retail and services perspective.Given these town centre zones often fall welloutside the catchment of other major centres theycan offer a range of services.
The Plan was prepared by the South Australian Government to set outa vision for the growth and development of Greater Adelaide over thenext 30 years.It outlines where people will live, where jobs will be located andwhere new transport and infrastructure will be provided.The Plan prepares for steady population growth of 560,000 people,the construction of 258,000 more dwellings and the creation of282,000 jobs, many of which will be in retail.
The 30 Year Plan for Greater Adelaide hasa focus on the creation and ongoingdevelopment of activity centres andtransit oriented development rather thanreinforcing the centres hierarchy from theprevious planning strategy. So what dothese new terms mean?
Activity Centres are concentrations of business, retail and communityuses. They are predominately the centres that were identified inprevious planning strategies with a greater emphasis on a mixture ofland uses.The clustering of land uses will be guided by the Activity Centrestrategy outlined in Appendix 3 of the 30 Year Plan for GreaterAdelaide.
Transit Corridors will along with activity centres and transit orienteddevelopment will contain the majority of housing and employment growth,including retail. Transit corridors are based around the fixed line transitsystems like rail, tram and the O-Bahn and also major road corridors.Maps D3-D5 outline the major transit corridors to be developed over thenext 30 years. Structure Plans will be prepared by the government to guidegrowth in these areas and the areas will then be rezoned.
Transit Oriented Development (TOD’s) is the development that willoccur within transit corridors and will include high density residentialdevelopment, retail and employment to support these newresidential populations.There are 14 key TOD’s identified in the 30 Year Plan (Map D5) andthey include Noarlunga, Elizabeth, Port Adelaide and Bowden.
SO WHERE IS RETAIL DEVELOPMENT APPROPRIATE ?Each Development Plan contains policies topromote development in desired locationsand is the basis upon which developmentassessment decisions are made.A zone that promotes the development ofretail or commercial activity will generally bethe best for approval of a retail development.
Examples of various zones from currentDevelopment Plans have been provided and wewill review the content of those zones todetermine suitability of various retails uses inthese different zones.•Small Scale Shopping Centre (e.g. IGA)•Cheesecake Shop•Discount Department Store (e.g. Big W)•Specialty Retail (Dick Smith)
Development Assessment is undertakenby Local Councils, the DevelopmentAssessment Commission or theMinister, (predominately) against theprovision of the local Development Plan.Common issues considered in assessingprojects include:
1. Is the location appropriate (zoning and surroundingland uses).2. Overlooking, overshadowing, visual appearance,car parking, waste disposal, proximity to services(e.g. public transport, open space and stormwater)height limits and relationship to surrounding area(urban design).3. Mix of land uses (particularly in Adelaide CBD)including residential and commercial.4. Community Consultation5. Retail Analysis
The Shop Trading Hours Act 1977 regulates the trading hours of retailshops in South Australian shopping districts. These shopping districtsconsist of:•the Greater Adelaide Shopping District;•the Glenelg Tourist Precinct and the metropolitan area generally);•35 proclaimed shopping districts in country areas.
•The Act controls public holidays trading and hours of trading.•Shops outside the Greater Adelaide Shopping District or aProclaimed Shopping District are exempt from shop trading legislationand have no restrictions on their trading hours. Other shops areexempt from the Act by virtue of the type of goods they sell orbecause they are below a certain size.•Limitations on trading hours are also often included as conditions ofapproval on development approvals.
FUTURE OF RETAIL IN ACHANGING URBANENVIRONMENT
Factors that will impact on planning for retail:• Additional 560,000 people in SA by around 2038;• Disposable income of South Australia residents compared to otherstates;• Online shopping ;• Destinations centres vs. shopping centres;
• Active street frontages in CBD and transit corridors;• Reuse of heritage buildings in commercial strips;• Further deregulation of shopping hours and conditions e.g. publicholidays and hours of operation;• Densities of populations around key areas e.g. CBD and ActivityCentres