Quality management on projects CMM v/s ISO: Quality Speaks Sumit Saha, Manager, Reliance Communications Ltd. Quality Management is a management policy that promotes a commitment to quality through theapplication of established procedures, standards, and tools throughout the project life cycle. CMM and ISO differ in their emphasis on quality improvement. Interestingly the number ofcompanies using CMM to assess their software management practices more than doubles every fiveyears (since 1987). About one third of companies engaged in CMM are located primarily in India. ‘Capability Maturity Model’ (CMM) developed by the SEI (‘Software Engineering Institute’). It’s amodel of 5 levels of organizational ‘maturity’ that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software.Organizations can receive CMM ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors.Level 1 - characterized by chaos, periodic panics, and heroic efforts required by individuals tosuccessfully complete projects. Few if any processes in place; successes may not be repeatable.Level 2 – software project tracking, requirements management, realistic planning, and configurationmanagement processes are in place; successful practices can be repeated.Level 3 – standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout anorganization; a Software Engineering Process Group is in place to oversee software processes, andtraining programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance.Level 4 – metrics are used to track productivity, processes, and products. Project performance ispredictable, and quality is consistently high.Level 5 – the focus is on continuous process improvement. The impact of new processes andtechnologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. ‘International Organization for Standards’ – The ISO 9001, 9002, and 9003 standards concernquality systems that are assessed by outside auditors, and they apply to many kinds of production andmanufacturing organizations, not just software. The most comprehensive is 9001, and this is the onemost often used by software development organizations. It covers documentation, design, development,production, testing, installation, servicing, and other processes. To be ISO 9001 certified, a third-partyauditor assesses an organization, and certification is typically good for about 3 years, after which acomplete reassessment is required. Note that ISO 9000 certification does not necessarily indicate qualityproducts – it indicates only that documented processes are followed.CMM v/s ISO: CMM and the ISO 9000 series of standards share common concerns with quality andprocess management. CMM emphasizes continuous improvement ISO deals with minimum criteria ofquality systems. An ISO 9001-compliant organization would not necessarily satisfy all of the CMM level 2key process areas (it would satisfy most of the level 2 goals and many level 3 goals). Some key practicesin CMM that are not addressed in ISO 9000, it is possible for a level 1 organization to receive 9001registration; similarly, there are areas addressed by ISO 9001 that are not addressed in the CMM. Quality Management ensures consistent delivery of work product and reduces delivery risksignificantly by adding a layer of expert review. Setting quality standards and expectations early on in theproject focuses team efforts and avoids unnecessary and costly rework. This benefits the organization aswell as the job satisfaction of team members. Furthermore, the application of sound Quality Managementprinciples and standards enables knowledge transfer during and after the project, because through thecustomer satisfaction Quality speaks.