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# Research question

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• 1. The Research Question    Presents the idea that will be studied Also called the “problem statement” Research questions focus on:    Specifying the population being studied Describing variables Examining testable relationships among variables Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 1
• 2. Study Purpose, Aims, or Objectives  Purpose    Overall goal that the research can achieve Suggests the level of evidence to be obtained Aims  How this particular project will achieve the goal Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 2
• 3. Research Questions Should:    Arise from the systematic review Define specific question area Fill a gap or clarify a conflict in the literature? Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 3
• 4. Variables    Come from the literature Come from theoretical framework Something that varies    Age, weight, height, religion, ethnicity Can be observed, measured, and analyzed. One variable influences another variable   Is X related to Y? What is the effect of X on Y? Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 4
• 5. Variables  Independent variable—X—     Comes from the theory Manipulated Controlled Dependent variable—Y     Outcome within the population Varies depending on X Observed This is the variable we are interested in promoting or causing Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 5
• 6. Population   Must be clearly specified The setting is also usually clearly described    Breast cancer survivors who have completed treatment Adolescents in substance abuse treatment Nursing students in the first year of nursing school Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 6
• 7. Developing a Clinical Question  Clinical questions have four components:     Population Intervention Comparison Outcome PICO Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 7
• 8. Critiquing the Research Question    Is the population being studied described? Is there an implied relationship between two or more variables? Between an independent (X) and dependent (Y) variable? Can the implied relationships be tested? Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 8
• 9. Critiquing the Hypothesis     Might not be explicitly stated—you may have to infer it Even if stated it should be reexamined in the Results or Discussion sections Data analysis should answer the hypothesis The hypothesis should logically follow from the literature review and theoretical framework Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 9
• 10. Critiquing the Hypothesis     Might not be explicitly stated—you may have to infer it Even if stated it should be reexamined in the Results or Discussion sections Data analysis should answer the hypothesis The hypothesis should logically follow from the literature review and theoretical framework Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 9