Central America

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  • Central America

    1. 1. Central America COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS
    2. 2. CENTRAL AMERICA IS AN ISTHMUSA NARROW BODY OF LAND WITH WATER ON BOTH SIDES THAT CONNECTS 2 LARGER BODIES OF LAND.
    3. 3. PHYSICAL MAP - NOTICE THE TOPOGRAPHY REMEMBER THIS IS A TROPICAL CLIMATE. THE MOUNTAINS AND PROXIMITY TO THE OCEANS MAKE FOR 3 DISTINCT REGIONS:1) THE MOUNTAINOUS CORE; 2) THE CARIBBEAN LOWLANDS; 3) THE PACIFIC COASTAL PLAIN.
    4. 4. MOUNTAINOUS CORE MOUNTAINS RUN THE LENGTH OF CENTRAL AMERICA, SOME OVER 13,000 FEET, AND MANY ARE VOLCANOES. THEY ARE DIFFICULT TO CROSS AND PROVIDE A SERIOUS CHALLENGE TO TRANSPORTATION IN THE REGION. BECAUSE THE MOUNTAINS ARE TALL, THERE ARE 2 CLIMATE ZONES: 3000’-6000’ YEAR-ROUND, SPRINGLIKE CONDITIONS, FROST FREE, CORN AND COFFEE GROW HERE; ABOVE 6000’COLD, FREQUENT FROST, ONLY POTATOES AND BARLEY CAN GROW HERE.
    5. 5. CARIBBEAN LOWLANDSTROPICAL WET CLIMATE(OVER 80” OF RAIN/YEAR) BECAUSE OF NE TRADE WINDS OFF OF THE CARIBBEANCREATE DENSE RAIN FOREST VEGETATION AND POOR SOIL CONDITIONS
    6. 6. PACIFIC COASTAL PLAIN WHAT WOULD NORTHEAST TRADE WINDS FROM THE CARIBBEAN, AND A CENTRAL CHAIN OF MOUNTAINS CREATE, CLIMATICALLY?...A RAIN SHADOW EFFECT THAT PRODUCES BOTH A WET AND DRY TROPICAL CLIMATE WITH GRASSLAND VEGETATION.NORTHEAST TRADE WINDS BLOW VOLCANIC ASH WESTWARD WHERE IT SETTLES, CREATING FERTILE SOILS.
    7. 7. WEATHER HAZARDSHURRICANES AND STRONG STORMS FROM THE ATLANTIC AND THEPACIFIC (LIKE HURRICANE MITCH THAT HIT HONDURAS IN 1998) PRESENT A REAL HAZARD TO CENTRAL AMERICANS.BECAUSE OF POVERTY, WEAK INFRASTRUCTURE, AND STEEP MOUNTAINSIDES, FLOODING AND MUDSLIDES CAN BE DEVASTATING.
    8. 8. HUMAN CULTURE IN CENTRAL AMERICA EUROPEANS AND MESTIZOS - FROM SPANISH CONQUEST IN 1500S. MESTIZOS ARE PEOPLE OF MIXED ANCESTRY (EUROPEAN AND NATIVE). COSTA RICA HAS LARGEST POPULATION OF EUROPEANS WHILE EL SALVADOR AND NICARAGUA HAVE THE LARGEST MESTIZO POPULATIONS PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT LIVE INDIANS - PEOPLE WHO HAVE LIVED IN CENTRAL AMERICA ALONG CARIBBEAN COAST. THE CAME THE LONGEST. FROM CARIBBEAN ISLANDS TO WORK GUATEMALA HAS THE LARGEST NUMBER OF INDIANS. ON BANANA PLANTATIONS OR PANAMA CANAL IN EARLY 1900S.
    9. 9. WEALTH AND POVERTY MOST CENTRAL AMERICANS ARE VERY POOR. THE WEALTHY, MOST OF THEM EUROPEAN OR MESTIZO, ARE LARGE PLANTATION OWNERS AND DOMINATE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS. 66% OF CENTRAL AMERICANS ARE POORWITH LITTLE OR NO POLITICAL POWER. MOST ARE OF INDIAN OR AFRICAN DESCENT ARE ARE LABORERS ON FARMS AND IN FACTORIES.THE MIDDLE CLASS IS SMALL BUT GROWING. THESE PEOPLE OWN SMALL SUBSISTENCE FARMS OR WORK IN URBAN INDUSTRY OR SERVICES. ECONOMICS FARMING IS THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN CENTRAL AMERICA. CASH CROPS ARECOFFEE, BANANAS AND COTTON, AND MOSTOF THESE CROPS ARE EXPORTED TO THE US OR EUROPE.
    10. 10. POLITICAL CONFLICT CONFLICT IN CENTRAL AMERICA ARISES FROM 2 REALITIES:1) A LACK OF LAND TO GROW SUFFICIENT FOOD FOR THE POPULATION2) A LARGE GAP BETWEEN WEALTHY LANDOWNERS/POLITICIANS, AND WORKERS. GUERILLA WARFARE IS AN UGLY BY-PRODUCTESPECIALLY IN EL SALVADOR, NICARAGUA, AND GUATEMALA (CENTRAL AMERICA’S MOST POPULOUS COUNTRY

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