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  1. 1. BULGARIA  “Lazaruvane” is a ritual related to coming of spring. Probably the most important symbol of Bulgaria is the ritual of making and giving martenitsas for health and happiness at the beginning of March. For Bulgarians this is a symbol of the year’s renewal, again intended to promote health and successful harvests.  Especially Saints’ name days are also highly respected in the country, the most famous ones being St. John’s day, St. George’s Day, and St. Dimitar’s Day.
  2. 2. GERMANY Oktoberfest is the world's largest fair held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It is a 16-day festival running from late September to the first weekend in October with more than 6 million people from around the world attending the event every year. The Oktoberfest is an important part of Bavarian culture, having been held since 1810. Other cities across the world also hold Oktoberfest celebrations, modeled after the original Munich event. Bavaria statue above the Theresienwiese and Horse race at the Oktoberfest in Munich 1823
  3. 3. St. Nicholas Day is celebrated on December 6th in Germany as well as in other European countries. On the evening before the 6th, children place their newly cleaned shoes in front of the door in the hope that Nicholas might fill them with nuts, fruits, chocolate and sweets.
  4. 4. RUSSIA  Ballet is a highly prized art form in Russia.  One tradition in Russia is to eat milk pudding and cheesecake on Christmas.
  5. 5. FRANCE Bastille Day is the French national holiday which is celebrated on 14 July each year. It commemorates the 1790 storming of the Bastille fortress- prison was seen as a symbol of the uprising of the modern nation, and of the reconciliation of all the French inside the constitutional monarchy which preceded the First Republic, during the French Revolution.
  6. 6. In France, Christmas is a time for family and for generosity, marked by family reunions, gifts and candy for children, gifts for the poor, Midnight Mass, and le Réveillon.
  7. 7. ITALY  Christmas and Easter are major holidays.  Italy is the home to the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Pope lives in Vatican City in Rome.  Opera is a very popular form of performing arts, that originated in Italy.
  8. 8. TURKEY  9 May the Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day, is an annual Turkish national holiday  The Republic Day of Turkey is one of the celebrated on May 19 to commemorate public holidays in Turkey and Northern Mustafa Kemal's landing at Samsun Cyprus, commemorating the proclamation of on May 19, 1919, which is regarded as the republic in 1923. the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence in the official historiography.
  9. 9. SPAIN  Flamenco probably is the most famous Spanish tradition - but so often misunderstood. Flamenco actually is is a musical style, with far more emphasis on the guitar, vocals and rhythm than the dancing.  Bullfighting, the most controversial of Spanish traditions, is a mixed blessing for Spain. Many tourists are very curious to see it and view it as a fascinating insight into Spanish culture, but it is also a stain on the country's reputation for others.
  10. 10. DENMARK  Great Prayer Day is a special Danish festival falling on the fourth Friday after Easter Sunday, i.e. at the earliest on 17 April and at the latest on 21 May.  Shrovetide is a children’s festival, they dress up – usually on Quinquagesima Sunday – and go around with their collection tins which they try to get filled with money.
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