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Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
Systems Modeling Overview
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Systems Modeling Overview

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This presentation is part of the Pacific Education Institute's content for the STEM Project Based Learning tutorial available through NH e-Learning for Educators as part of the Conservation Education …

This presentation is part of the Pacific Education Institute's content for the STEM Project Based Learning tutorial available through NH e-Learning for Educators as part of the Conservation Education series supported by the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies.

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  • 1. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Systems Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Sustainable Tomorrow: A Teachers’ Guidebook for Applying SystemsThinking to Environmental Education Curricula
  • 2. EducatorsPrior to working through this presentation:• Download Sustainable Tomorrow: A Teachers’ Guidebook for Applying Systems Thinking to Environmental Education Curricula from the Moodle site.• Download and Print:
  • 3. Educators are required to include the study of Systems (NGSS Framework)Dimensions of the Framework –Scientific and Engineering Practices –Crosscutting Concepts –Disciplinary Core Ideas
  • 4. Educators: Systems is one of 7Crosscutting Concepts (NGSS)1. Patterns2. Cause & effect: Mechanism & explanation3. Scale, proportion, & quantity4. Systems & system models5. Energy & matter: Flows, cycles, & conservation6. Structure & function7. Stability and change
  • 5. Value of Using Systems as a Crosscutting ConceptEducators: Below are excepts describing the value of “Systems and System Models” in NGSS (2011) that will guide the development of state science standards.Using systems to understand complexity: The natural and designed world is complex; it is too large and complicated to investigate and comprehend all at once. Scientists and students learn to define small portions for the convenience of investigations. The units of investigations can be referred to as ‘systems’ (National Science Education Standards).Using systems to model or mathematically represent complexity: A model of a system under study is a useful tool for representing the complexity of the system, gaining an understanding and communicating that understanding of a system to others.Using system models to examine complexity: Models are useful for predicting a system’s behavior or in diagnosing problems in the functioning of the system
  • 6. NGSS – K12 FrameworkGeneral Definition: A system is an organizedgroup of related objects or components thatform a whole. Systems can consist, for example,of organisms, machines, fundamental particles,galaxies, ideas and numbers. Systems haveboundaries, components, resources, flow, andfeedback (NGSS-K12SES: 4-7)Educators: The NGSS systems definition requires learners to addressboundaries, components (variables), resources (stocks) flow (inputs andoutputs) and feedback (negative/balance and positive/causal) found in theAFWA ‘Sustainable Tomorrow” guide.
  • 7. Educators: Another resource for educators on how systems can beintegrated into science learning:System Definition: from *Art Sussman’s Guide toScienceA system exists whenever parts combine or connectwith each other to form a whole. The whole isQUALITATIVELY more than the sum of its parts(*Page 23).Questions to ask about systems (*Page 35):1.What are the parts of the system?2.How does the system function as a whole?3.How is the system part of larger system?4.Does the system do anything when given input?*Dr Art’s guide to Science: Connecting Atoms, Galaxies and Everything in Between.Art Sussman 2006. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA www.guidetoscience.net
  • 8. KEY SYSTEMS SCIENCE PRINCIPLES• A system is a group of interacting parts thatfunctions as a whole. Educators:• Systems change over time. Which of the following are• Changes in systems can be short, slow, or cyclic. systems or parts of systems. Why or why• Interactions within a system may not always be not? Use the Systemsobvious. Science Principles to• Systems have boundaries. justify your answer.• Scientists do not yet know enough about Earth systems to determine which elements are essential •Battery and which are not. •Box of staples• Systems are parts of larger systems, which are parts of still larger systems. •Lungs• Systems are made up of subsystems, which in turn are made up of still smaller subsystems. •Leaf• Systems have inputs and outputs.Cary Sneider, Richard Golden, Katherine BarrettA New World Viewhttp://www.lhs.berkeley.edu/GSS/
  • 9. KEY SYSTEMS SCIENCE PRINCIPLES Educators:• A system is a group of interacting parts thatfunctions as a whole. Which of the following are• Systems change over time. systems or parts of systems. Why or why• Changes in systems can be short, slow, or cyclic. not? Use the Systems• Interactions within a system may not always be Science Principles toobvious. justify your answer.• Systems have boundaries. •Battery• Scientists do not yet know enough about Earth systems to determine which elements are essential •Box of staples and which are not. •Lungs• Systems are parts of larger systems, which are parts •Leaf of still larger systems. The Battery, lungs and leaf• Systems are made up of subsystems, which in turn are made up of still smaller subsystems. are all systems. The box of staples is not a system• Systems have inputs and outputs. because it does not haveCary Sneider, Richard Golden, Katherine Barrett interacting parts thatA New World View function as a whole.http://www.lhs.berkeley.edu/GSS/
  • 10. Educators: Learners are expected to progress in theirdepth of understanding of systems at each grade band Systems: A Progression of Explanatory Ideas 9-12 Predictability and Feedback: 6-8 Inputs, Outputs, Boundaries & Flows: 3-5 Complex Systems: K-2 Part – Whole Relationships:
  • 11. Educators: Here is another representation systems understanding for oflearners at each grade band Why use Systems Which Systems? Big Idea: Thinking? Physical Systems Systems thinking makes it possible to analyze and Systems is a crosscutting Earth/Space Systems understand complex concept in NGSS Living Systems phenomena. Systems-Speak K-3 Systems-Speak 4-5 Parts & Wholes Subsystems & System Function of the Part Systems Inputs & Outputs Predict Functions & Predictions Systems-Speak 6-8 Systems-Speak 9-12 Inputs & Outputs Boundaries & Flow Positive Feedback Open and Closed Systems Negative Feedback Equilibrium Courtesy: Mark Watrin, Education Service District 112 Science Coordinator , Washington State
  • 12. Making the system visible• NGSS Chapter 4-7: Models can be valuable in predicting a system’s behavior or in diagnosing problems in its functioning. A good system model for use in developing scientific explanations or engineering designs must specify not only the parts or subsystems, of the system but how they interact with one another. It must also specify the boundary of the system being modeled. In complex systems it is important to ask what interactions are occurring –like predator-prey relationships in an ecosystem – and to recognize that they all involve transfers of energy, matter, and sometimes information among parts of the system.
  • 13. Model the systems• Students can model their system through diagrams, words and mathematical relationships (NGSS-K12SES 4- 8).• The systems models provide a graphical representation indicating the mathematical relationships between the parts of the system.• NGSS: (page 4-8). Students models should incorporate a range of mathematical relationships among variables and some analysis of the patterns of those relationships.
  • 14. Make the system visible• Represent the interactions between the parts of the system through the following systems models Behavior over time graphs (page 10) Causal loop diagrams (page11- 14) Input/output diagrams (page 15) Iceberg Model (page 19- 22)Educators: Each of the systems models will be described next.
  • 15. Make the system visible• Represent the interactions between the parts of the system through the following systems models Behavior over time graphs (page 10) Causal loop diagrams (page11- 14) Input/output diagrams (page 15) Iceberg Model (page 19- 22)Educators: Check the Behavior Over Time systems model on page 10 and identify the mathematical trend (increase, decrease or equilibrium)
  • 16. Educators: Look at the behavior over time graph which demonstratesthe mathematical trends observed by scientists: read an explanationon page 10 and page 17 of Sustainable Tomorrow
  • 17. Modeling the system is important in engineering (including naturalresource management) to support developing design (and management)ideas, and sharing, testing and refining them (NGSS 2011) Mule Deer Population 1950----------------------------2012Educators: For example the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife scientistsstudy why Mule Deer Populations have declined over the past decades. TheBehavior over time graph is a mathematical representation of the system trend.
  • 18. Go to the SYSTEMS MODELING ACTIVITY PAGE:ACTIVITY 1: Represent at least one study that your statefish and wildlife agency currently conducts that can beexplained by a Behavior Over Time graph. What are theparts of the system (variables) focused on by your stateagency that change over time & needs to be managed?
  • 19. Make the system visible• Represent the interactions between the parts of the system through the following systems models Behavior over time graphs (page 10) Causal loop diagrams (page11- 14) Input/output diagrams (page 15) Iceberg Model (page 19- 22)Educators: Check the Causal Loop/Feedback systems model on pages 11- 14 and identify the mathematical relationship (increase, decrease, positive & negative feedback)
  • 20. A system is changing when one variable in the system is changing in the same (s) direction (increase or decrease) as another variable. This is a self reinforcing (R) or positive causal feedback loop Simplified positive reinforcing causal loop:Input/Event: Wildlife Output: Wildlife Births ↑Population ↑ A system is in balance (B) or equilibrium when one part of the system is increasing ↑ while another part is decreasing ↓. This is a balancing loop (page 14), typical of Predator Prey relationships
  • 21. Make the system visible• Represent the interactions between the parts of the system through the following systems models Behavior over time graphs (page 10) Causal loop diagrams (page11- 14) Input/output diagrams (page 15) Iceberg Model (page 19- 22)Educators: Check the Input/Output systems model on the page 15 and identify the mathematical relationship (increase, decrease)
  • 22. Model for System Flow with Inputs & OutputsInput Output ↓ ↓[Deer Births] → {Number of Deer} → [Deer Deaths]→ The trends are made more visible by modeling the input and output flow of the system (Pages18).Go to the SYSTEMS MODELING ACTIVITY PAGE :ACTIVITY 2: Represent the system you modeledwith the Behavior Over Time Graph by using asystem flow model that shows inputs and outputs.
  • 23. Make the system visible• Represent the interactions between the parts of the system through the following systems models Behavior over time graphs (page 10) Causal loop diagrams (page11- 14) Input/output diagrams (page 15) Iceberg Model (page 19- 22)Educators: Check the Iceberg Model on pages 19-22, linking system events, with system patterns, system structures and mental models.
  • 24. Story of State Fish and Wildlife Agencies and Programs Events: People catching and Observable behaviors releasing fish at local pondRecurring events over time Pattern: Ecosystem Balance – carrying capacity stableElements in a system that Structure: State agenciesdrive behavior manage populations: hunting & fishing regulations Held beliefs & assumptions that give rise to structures & Mental Model: We need to behaviors regulate fishing to ensure future generations have fish
  • 25. Go to the SYSTEMS MODELING ACTIVITY PAGE : ACTIVITY 3: Create an iceberg model representing some concern you are dealing with in your professional situation. Observable behaviors: Events: What we seeRecurring events over time:What we see over time Pattern:Elements in a system thatdrive behavior: What supports Structure:what we see Held beliefs & assumptions that give rise to structures & Mental Model: behaviors: What we believe.
  • 26. Systems Analysis in 6 StepsLook at issues in your professional situation through the lens of systems.Use the 6 steps for Systems Analysis described in Sustainable Tomorrow pages 8-21Practice Systems Analysis using your environmental & sustainability education lessons. These lesson typically include both science and social science disciplines
  • 27. Educators: You can apply the 6 steps of systems analysis to issuesyou address through your profession. The parts of the system that change over time Relationship between parts of the system Inputs & Outputs
  • 28. Conclusion• The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) expects STEM education to include the study of systems and applying systems analysis to problem solving.• Biologists and natural resource managers apply systems understanding and systems analysis in their role as professionals for agencies, business and industry.

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