Rethinking Services           Se              rvi                  ce                        Or                           ...
About This Booklet          This booklet questions our approach to services          and advocates a user-centred approach...
Contents                                                                                                                  ...
Why Re-think Services?              ?05                       06
Why We Need Good Services                                         Good, customer-oriented services must be a priority for ...
The Problem With Services                                                    Organisation-centric vs. user-centric        ...
The Problem With Services                                                          Staff Morale                           ...
What Happens When Customers                                                                               Get Angry?      ...
The Limits of                                  Service users                                                   here       ...
Who Designs The Service?                                                             The biggest mistake that large organi...
Bad User Experiences                                                                             Example 1                ...
Bad User Experiences                                                        Example 2                                     ...
Bad User Experiences                                                          Example 3                                   ...
The Customers Says... Don’t publish promises you                            Help me solve my problems by providing me with...
Dublin City Council Services                                                          Dublin City Council is a service del...
g,                                          The Voice of the User                            be ch allengin               ...
Questions to Ask                        What are the feedback                        loops from users to                  ...
About     Service Design             D         S33                    34
Introducing Service Design                                                                       Service Design is all abo...
Service Design– An Analogy                                                        Designing a Service is like staging a th...
Service Design– Key Principles                                                            User-centred                    ...
The Service Design Process                                                   1. Set up Project These are the typical steps...
The Service Design Process                                                                                                ...
The Service Design Process                                                                                             2. ...
The Service Design Process                                                                     3. Develop Ideas and Soluti...
The Service Design Process                                                                            4. Test             ...
The Service Design Process                                       5. Specify / Implement / Review                          ...
The Service Design     Toolbox53                        54
Brainstorming     The purpose of brainstorming is to draw out as many ideas     as possible, and as rich a range as possib...
The Business Model Canvas     The Business Model Canvas is a powerful tool used by     organisations and entrepreneurs to ...
Context Interviews     These are interviews with users, staff or stakeholders that     take place in the environment or co...
Customer Journey Map     The Customer Journey Map visualises the service-user’s     experience. This shows the touchpoints...
Desktop Walk-throughs                                                                  Expectation Maps     This is a smal...
Five Whys                                                                             In the User’s Shoes     The 5 Whys a...
Observation of Users                                                                                      Role Play     Th...
Scenario Building                                                                              Service Blueprint     Desig...
Six Thinking Hats                                                                                        StoryboardsThis t...
References & Appendix73                      74
References                                                                                                                ...
Appendix of Dublin City                                                                                       Appendix of ...
Appendix of Dublin City                                                                                      Appendix of D...
Produced by Una Mc Grath for The Studio at Dublin City Council.Contact una.mcgrath@hotmail.com or studio@dublincity.ie
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Rethinking Services - a User-centred Approach

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Communicates why a user-centred approach is needed for good service provision and explains the service design method to a non-design audience to include senior management, line management and staff. Was part of an assignment at Dublin City Council. Further information: Una.mcgrath@hotmail.com

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Rethinking Services - a User-centred Approach

  1. 1. Rethinking Services Se rvi ce Or ga nis ati on Us erA user-centred approach
  2. 2. About This Booklet This booklet questions our approach to services and advocates a user-centred approach. It has 4 sections: ? Why rethink Services? SD About Service Design The Service Design Toolbox References and Appendix This booklet was produced by Una McGra th while on assignment a t The Studio in Dublin Ci ty Council . Conta ct una .mcgra th@hotmail.com or s tudio@dublinci ty.ie01 02
  3. 3. Contents Contents ? Why Re-think Services? The Service Design Toolbox Why we Need Good Services……………………………………………………………..08 • Brainstorming………………………………………………………………56 The Problem with Services – Organisation-centric vs. User centric…...10 • Business Model Canvas………………………………………………..58 • Context Interviews………………………………………………………60 The Problem with Services – Staff Morale………………………………………...12 • Customer Journey Map………………………………………………..62 What Happens when Customers get Angry……………………………………....14 • Desktop Walk-through…………………………………………………63 The Limits of Operational Efficiency…………………………………………………..16 • Expectation Maps………………………………………………………..64 Who Designs the Service?.....................................................................18 • Five Whys…………………………………………………………………….65 • In the User’s Shoes………………………………………………………66 Bad User Experiences– Examples……………………………………………………...20 • Observation of Users……………………………………………………67 The Customer Says…………………………………………………………………………….26 • Role Play………………………………………………………………………68 Dublin City Council Services……………………………………………………………...28 • Scenario Building…………………………………………………………69 The Voice of the Customer in Dublin City Council……………………………..30 • Service Blueprint………………………………………………………….70 • Six Thinking Hats………………………………………………………….71 Questions to Ask……………………………………………………………………………… 32 • Storyboards…………………………………………………………………72SD About Service Design Introducing Service Design……………………………………………………………….36 Service Design – an analogy……………………………………………………………..38 Service Design – key principles………………………………………………………...40 References and Appendix The Service Design process……………………………………………………………….42 References…………………………………………………………………………….74 1. Set up Project……………………………………………………………………………….44 An Inventory of Dublin City Council Services………………………….76 2. Understand…………………………………………………………………………………..46 3. Develop Ideas and Solutions………………………………………………………...48 4. Test……………………………………………………………………………………………...50 5. Specify/ Implement/ Review………………………………………………………...52 03 04
  4. 4. Why Re-think Services? ?05 06
  5. 5. Why We Need Good Services Good, customer-oriented services must be a priority for any organisation with a services remit. Why? Because services are a key means to connect with and build trust and satisfaction among customers, citizens and stakeholders - or lose it. Because the service interface is the key space in which impressions are made in the eyes of service users. Because the service experience will let the user know . uild trust whether or not they have been well-considered. Serv ices b st. e ak tru Or b r Because years of investment in delivering good cost- ld … rs t o b ui efficient services can be undone by a bad service e s yea ea k experience. It tak ds to b r and secon07 08
  6. 6. The Problem With Services Organisation-centric vs. user-centric Successful service delivery results from balancing user satisfaction of expectations, staff happiness and operational efficiency. Most service organisation start out with the best of intentions. However service organisations, and especially government, have traditionally arranged its service delivery around its own organisational structure rather than around the needs of the service- user. This can often mean that the service user (who could be you) can find themselves experiencing a disjointed service hey and having to jump through complicated hoops, in order to es bu t t meet an apparently straightforward request. ign servic tion s des Users do This is typically because several pieces of the service have Orga nisa em. u se th been developed separately by different departments or, d o n ’t worse, by different agencies.09 10
  7. 7. The Problem With Services Staff Morale A poor service experience is bad news not just for the user but also for the service provider and for the staff providing the service. This is especially evident at the front-line where the brunt of dissatisfaction unfolds and customer trust begins to unravel. This sets up a negative interaction between service users and staff. If the problem is at the front-line, or the job the user needs done, cannot be resolved easily due to poorly integrated service elements, or unanticipated needs, staff frustrations builds. Staff morale then begins to unravel. Poor staff morale begins to impact the quality of service delivery. Thus the organisation is then being impacted negatively by both user and staff frustrations. No amount of operational efficiency in e by servic individual service elements will ever fix this. imp acted ale. T he also or Making the leap to see the service through the customer’s eyes is a taf f are aff ects m ms difficult one. Staff have a job to do within the organisation, and their Service s o ns. This op roble concern is usually with delivering their part of the service, within fru strati nh a s tw their zones of practice. But without the user view, the service ends -user atio n the up being inefficient because it ends up by not providing what is or ganis required or valued by users, or, by providing the wrong things. A strategy addressing end-to-end service delivery from the perspective of the customer, as well as the provider itself, is a means of reversing this state of affairs.11 12
  8. 8. What Happens When Customers Get Angry? ‘The top five emotions when measuring customer satisfaction are: anger, happiness, frustration, annoyance and disappointment. We’re dealing with powerful stuff here! le. 10 peop The service you get or the service you don’t get creates an ll tell 8- experience. This experience determines if you engage with om er wi l 10 -20 a brand or not. ust telA ha ppy c er will Will you recommend this to your friends? …Do you have cu stom sympathy and respect for the people who work at this hap py l as place?’ A n un yw ill tel e happ r terribl (http://www.hatchandbloom.com/) le. p eo p un s very out thei oi m er wh ople ab A custo 40 pe as yota m any ce. er To en ag e xperi on s Man Op erati W ong, - Len13 14
  9. 9. The Limits of Service users here Operational Efficiency Service Delivery An efficiency process that looks primarily at things like Channels Over-focus here Vs. digitisation, process re-engineering, back-office rationalisation and restructuring, at the expense of understanding user needs, risks neglecting the relationships with users that are so important in building trust and Business models & satisfaction. Operational efficiency is a goal, but it is not the People processes whole picture. An ‘operationally efficient’ service is ORGANISATIONAL inefficient if it does not, in the end, service the actual needs CAPABILITY Governance and priorities of users at the point of delivery. relationships & Measurement If user needs are not understood and pulled together by the organisation, how can it ever provide an integrated service Technology Functions or services? The context of services, the services themselves Budget & Structure and the needs of users are in a constant state of continuous change. Services need to be able to adapt to this change and remain in continuous dialogue with users to understand changing needs, to communicate service changes and to can maintain positive engagement. ne area ll atio n in o n overa If you review business processes only, you can make some Op timis timisatio improvement in your services. However, in the other in sub-op direction, the effect is even stronger: if you carefully result examine the services you deliver first, you will automatically align your processes better to the services.15 16
  10. 10. Who Designs The Service? The biggest mistake that large organisations make is to assume that they know what their service users and customers want. Instead, involving service users and stakeholder at the design or review stage, irons out problems upfront. It ensures that both provider- and user-needs and constraints in the equation are understood by both parties. This sets up a stronger provider-client relationship. ge h at lar w ist ake t the y kn o iggest m as sume ers Th e b ake is to d cu stom sati on s m sers an o rgani service u hat their want . w17 18
  11. 11. Bad User Experiences Example 1 Joe uses The Bank’s services via an ATM machine to get money. He also uses The Bank to lodge his cheques by filling out an express lodgement form in-branch. The Bank recently ‘optimised’ their processes by digitising the express lodgement service. Joe can now lodge his cheques in a dedicated ATM-like machine. However, here is the service experience from a user-perspective: Sequence 1 ATM withdrawal Sequence 2 ATM cheque lodgement r le use Joe puts in his card Joe puts in his card Card in Card in pA sim He enters his pin He enters his pin ugh Pin He confirms the amount Pin The machine scans his cheque and Joe wal k-thro The machine returns his card confirms amount re Confirm Confirm t befo The machine gives his money The machine prints his receipt n upfro Return card The machine prints a receipt Receipt Joe walks away n me ntatio Receipt Joe walks away Return Card The machine returns his card imple le simp spots act th a t imp √ Success! x Failure! e rrors r Joe leaves without his card! beh aviou In the new service Joe walks away without his card because he has become familiar with using a service that returns his card before completing his intended job. The new service returns his card after his intended job. So The Bank now has to process the returns of hundreds of cards left by customers in machines on a daily basis!19 20
  12. 12. Bad User Experiences Example 2 Mary works in a local authority. She processes rent rebates for users. An internal ‘optimisation’ has directed that cheques are now only issued on Wednesdays. Mary now has to deal with significant client dissatisfaction. She and her colleagues have to handle many significant call volumes per day from irate customers who are impacted by the loss of flexibility in the service. She and her staff find it difficult to get any other work done. Mary is extremely frustrated. She now actively resents users to sub - and the calls, and feels switched off. This will eventually lead can lead to demoralisation as she cannot control the quality of her sa tion’ work. l ‘o ptimi overa ll. na ion Inter misat o p ti She feels that nobody asked for her input when considering this change. If Mary finds another job she will take it. Internal ‘optimisation’ can lead to sub-optimisation overall.21 22
  13. 13. Bad User Experiences Example 3 John runs a small business with just 1 employee and has to do a tax return. He gets the form from Revenue. It has over 400 questions. Unlike a larger company, he cannot afford to pay an accountant so he must complete the form himself. He doesn’t understand many of the questions or if they apply to him. He spends 5 days trying to understand what Revenue needs while trying to keep his business afloat. He cannot get the information he needs on their website and has to call Revenue several times. ut witho He cannot understand why Revenue did not consider the ces servi rs needs of a small business owner when designing this de sign ct on use service. rs often ve impa Pro vi d e eir n egati Providers often design services without foreseeing their eei ng th negative impact on users. fores23 24
  14. 14. The Customers Says... Don’t publish promises you Help me solve my problems by providing me with cannot keep information, advice, support and access to the services I need Don’t put me in a position where I have Please listen to what we and others tell to defend my basic rights in a situation you about your service and build on this where I am vulnerable to provide improvements Tell me what to expect, Don’t view me as don’t give me false ideas the problem. Don’t change the rules Treat me as an without telling me individual, not a number25 26
  15. 15. Dublin City Council Services Dublin City Council is a service delivery organisation providing up to 550 services to a variety of users – internal customers, citizens, business and other agencies. A full inventory of services is provided in Appendix 1. The council has delivered great impacts in communities over the years. Visible evidence can be seen in our communities through local leisure centres, playgrounds, parks, libraries, improved traffic management and innovative initiatives like Dublin Bikes etc. he However public services are currently confronted with a at t ed o; e number of complex social challenges, while at the same om er g w se rvic time, they must deal with a squeeze on government cust rythin ti ve resources. Workforce Planning and Croke Park have created g the f eve nova uncertainty and staff have had to deliver with less resource. cin eo d in els” Councils have also lost key services and could lose more, or“Pla cor ew an ann Agend a gain new ones. n h ising ivery c form These factors risk to undo the trust and satisfaction built up a xim del tor Re over years with users, citizens, businesses and other M ec stakeholders. However trust is also the one thing that l ic S Pub remains in council control. Services and the service-interface - are the means by which customer trust and satisfaction can be built. This can be done by engaging and co-involving users.27 28
  16. 16. g, The Voice of the User be ch allengin sights can for in Dublin City Council “ User in ncom fortable n g and u ost d emandi wev er the m Who is closest to the customer in Dublin City Council? anisat ions. Ho sations see It is the staff on the frontline, on the ground – receptionists, customer org gani service personnel, road maintenance crews, cleansing crews etc e rvice or 04) inno vative s py, Pa rke r 20 Who makes decisions that affect customers/ citizens? -Management. thi s.” (Hea beyond The further up the apex of the organisation, the further away from the customer and the visibility of the user journey. This is problematic. It is unfortunately typical of most large organisations. Consultation is not enough especially if it happens after the plan has already been drafted. If you were asked to put your service experience on a form or an email, would you be able to capture it? If you are asked about it in a forum outside the context of the service experience or after the service e f th e event would you be able to articulate it? ap ex o rom th he f r “If I asked customers what they wanted, they would have said a faster horse” u pt ra way e use - Henry Ford. rt her urthe yo f th fu f it Users need to be engaged and co-involved in an on-going dialogue for T he , the visibil vices. continuous service improvement. tion e er nisa n d th ugh s “User insights can be challenging, demanding and uncomfortable for o rga er a y thro organisations. However the most innovative service organisations see om rne ust beyond this. They view their service users as a resource or specialist network c jo u to draw on for development ideas” (Heapy, Parker 2004). There can be a fear about managing customers’ expectations if consulted. However if the customer is not well-considered, dissatisfaction can permeate the relationship, while the corporate mission fails.29 30
  17. 17. Questions to Ask What are the feedback loops from users to frontline staff, to backend staff and to management? How do you know if users are happy with a service or quietlyDo you engage unhappy?consistently withcustomers who don’t Are you benefittingring customer service from the collective wisdom of your Do job descriptions andlines? performance frameworks customers? Have you mapped all the recognise and reward touchpoints of your improving user service, that is, the point experiences of service? where the user meets Who in the Council is the service? responsible for sourcing ‘user intelligence’? How are they Do you design the service and connected to the management then ask users about the of your organisation? Are you ready for appropriateness of the service feedback even if it is or do you get the users to help negative? you design it at the outset?31 32
  18. 18. About Service Design D S33 34
  19. 19. Introducing Service Design Service Design is all about making the service you deliver useful, usable and desirable for clients and efficient and effective for organisations. During a Service Design project, the citizens and stakeholders are involved along with staff and management from all levels. Having all of the involved parties contribute to the process means joined-up thinking, a richer platform for solutions and new ways of thinking. It means services are better thought out, and this avoids problems later. It automatically ensures broad support for decisions, which in turn leads toIdeas and solutions get tested and re-tested in a rough low-cost greater effectiveness.format so people can experience how they work. The aim is to makeany mistakes as early as possible. This avoids costly roll-outs that By involving frontline staff, they are stimulated to makethen need re-work. effective changes. They are taken seriously, which increases their professional pride and their pleasure in their work. ByService design adds value to services by standing out from the crowd involving users, their needs are foreseen.in excellence and ensuring great experiences for users and staff andsmooth effective operations for providers. Service design is a method of listening properly, while simultaneously being a method of working to reach solutions relatively quickly and in a manner that is highly visual and comprehensible for all.35 36
  20. 20. Service Design– An Analogy Designing a Service is like staging a theatre play. Actors = Service staff Stage = The service space Audience = Service Users Props = The visible service elements E.g. signage Play = The service experience. Rehearsal = The testing of the Service Experience before the real thing rk e wo e k stag ce th But there are also backstage processes, organisation, ac n d b xperie business and preparation. a n front ence e ectly. Only when the front and backstage work together, will the nt he i a ud n g p e rf audience experience the service as working perfectly. e e ly wh i ll th worki On h er w e a s to get erv ic s37 38
  21. 21. Service Design– Key Principles User-centred Why? Because if the underlying needs of users are omitted, the service fails them. Empathy with the people you are designing for and feedback from these users is essential. Co-operative and Participatory Why? All service staff, stakeholders and users of services are the experts of their own needs. It makes no sense to design services without their involvement. Multi-disciplined experts, users and staff that touch, or are affected by the service, make up the design team. Service as journey The service is read as a journey through touchpoints over time. This is a set of interactions human-human, human-machine and machine- machine. This is relevant pre-service, during service and post-service. Make Visible Since a service, unlike a product, is largely intangible, it needs to be brought to life in a way that all parties can relate to and review. Designers help do this. Test Quickly Testing early in a rough mock-up helps identify early what won’t work and avoids costly mistakes. Holistic Always sees the wider context in which the service process takes place. It is an integrated approach to service provision. Excerpt from ‘D-School Bootcamp’ Stanford University39 40
  22. 22. The Service Design Process 1. Set up Project These are the typical steps in a Service Design The need, objective and appetite for the project get explored, and a project. This is not a linear process but can programme of work gets agreed between staff, management and a service design facilitator. repeat within stages, between stages and can begin again at the end, after all stages, in a 2. Understand. The service is explored by a multi-stakeholder group. This could be process of continuous service improvement. users, citizens, related agency representatives, suppliers, service staff - frontline and back-end, management. Through successive facilitated exercises, insights are gathered, and needs and issues get identified and the service journey is described. 3. Develop Ideas and Solution These stages are explored in the following Working with the insights, needs and issues identified, ideas for pages and reference will be made to a number potential solutions are generated by the group. of tools that can be used in the process. 4. Test Ideas and potential solutions get mocked up by the group, are tested The tools are identified by the symbol to gather feedback and re-tested until they match expectation. and are referenced and explained in 5. Specify / Implement / Review the ‘Toolbox’ section. Once the solution has been identified a service blueprint is developed and the path to implementation of service changes gets defined and agreed. The changes are implemented by staff and management and the service is reviewed post-implementation.41 42
  23. 23. The Service Design Process 1. Set up ProjectCommon Concerns NotesIf we involve the user it The process involving citizens is designed The process usually starts with staff, management and a service designmay create an to carefully manage user inputs facilitator, not the customer. Staff and management need toexpectation or demand understand the potential benefit service design can bring to theiror invite complaints service, their organisation and their reputation. They need to recognise if there exists a service issue (even if it is not yet clearlyIf it ain’t broke don’t fix If a service is problem-free there is nothing articulated).it to fix but often the issues are hidden or unspoken by users. You don’t know if you The trigger for a project could be market changes, a need for don’t ask. differentiation, or a need for efficiency with less resource or to increase value to clients.We have lost staff and The intervention is typically small in scaleresources are tight and will not require significant resource. It They need to be open to a project that explores their service from a is likely to improve staff morale because it customer viewpoint. They need to be open and ready for the changes is a participative process. Staff feel valued and feedback that may occur. for their insights. The Business Model Canvas can be used here to explore the service inWe are too busy to Being too busy can be part of the service the context of the organisational goals and its operating environment.review our services problem. If there is no time to take stock, The Customer Journey Map can be used to check staff knowledge of we cannot be sure the service is user experience. performing and cannot improve it. Sample Tools (See ‘Toolbox’)Outsiders don’t The staff service providers are indeed The Business Model Canvasunderstand what we do experts. But they are not the only experts. Stakeholder Mapslike we do Users are experts of their own experience. The Customer Journey Map An outsider can see a service with fresh eyes. Outcomes Motivation to engage Agreement to proceed A programme of work43 44
  24. 24. The Service Design Process 2. Understand All the potential stakeholders that touch, or interact with, a service are Sample Tools (See ‘Toolbox’) identified. This can include front- and back-end staff, management, citizens, suppliers, competitors, peer agencies, government etc. From Customer Journey Maps these, a service design team is identified. The project team chosen Observation of users should ensure that internal and external knowledge is used to best advantage so that implementation and buy-in can be assured. Context Interviews, In the Users Shoes Expectation Maps The team is brought together to identify needs, issues and insights from multiple perspectives that affect, or are affected by, the service. Outcomes Gaining a clear understanding of the situation from an existing or A clear synthesis of the needs, issues, insights and potential user of the service is a key aim here. expectations identified by multiple players Quantitative research and qualitative research may be used. A prioritisation of these needs, issues, insights and expectations in line with strategy We map not just the functional interaction with the service but also the emotional experience and the expectations. We map not only the A visualisation of the customer journey through the customer journey but also inputs, suppliers, processes and outputs of existing service, the highs and lows service elements. A variety of tools can then be used here to facilitate these interactions New views and understanding of the service by all parties and to further explore user needs. It is important that the key information gets synthesised and prioritised considering objectives and the service and organisation’s strategy. This gives focus for the next stage of developing ideas. The direction taken will only be as good as the facts it is based on.45 46
  25. 25. The Service Design Process 3. Develop Ideas and Solutions Sample Tools (See ‘Toolbox’) This is the concept development stage. It is not a random Brainstorming development of ideas but based clearly on the information, needs, The Five Whys issues, insights and expectations captured in the previous phase. To Six Hats (De Bono) develop great services, different challenges need to be met with Scenario Building innovative and sensible ideas, concepts and solutions, which are true Storyboards. to the needs of users and organisations. Ideas should be made as visual and tangible as possible. Outcomes A set of workable ideas and solutions ready for testing Participants are led using various techniques from blue-sky thinking to focussed solutions to map ideas against the service journey and processes. In this stage a lot of post-its are used. There are good reasons for this. Firstly, it helps people get ideas from inside their heads onto boards so all thoughts can be shared and considered. Secondly, it is a flexible medium that helps to group and connect ideas.47 48
  26. 26. The Service Design Process 4. Test Testing is a critical part of the service design process because it allows Sample Tools (See ‘Toolbox’) one to identify potential service errors upfront at little or no cost. Desktop Walk-through The most promising ideas and solutions from the previous stage are Roleplay made tangible in a way that users can relate to and give feedback. This requires a cyclical process of test, improve, refine until the solution Outcomes meets user expectations. Clarity about what is needed A basis for service specification This usually involves developing mock-ups quickly and cheaply. Early mock-ups may involve simple sketches, storyboards or photo sequences. This could be developed further into a rough 3D model on the desktop. This enables a birds-eye walk through the service, a scenario to be played out, or a sketch of how some of the interface could look. Later mock-ups will look more realistic. This purpose of this kind of visualisation is to make sure that all team members are talking about the same thing rather than different pictures and expectation in each person’s mind. The team gets to observe how the user relates to the mock-up in a simulated environment or in the actual service delivery location. They experience the idea with customers, stakeholders or professionals in order to improve the solutions before they are realised.49 50
  27. 27. The Service Design Process 5. Specify / Implement / Review After refining the solution, this allows the team to develop a final Sample Tools (See ‘Toolbox’) service blueprint. In the same way that a product has detailed design drawings, the service blueprint specifies the service details. This Service Blueprint means every detail that is needed to plan, specify and roll out a service Business Model Canvas is recorded. Outcomes Service Blueprint To realise a service, it needs to be clear what the concept and purpose Service Guidelines is and how different components link into each other. Business Plan Roll-out plan A business plan or The Business Model Canvas can be used in conjunction with the blueprint to understand and to direct how the service system will work and the impact on the organisation and the market. Training and service guidelines are developed to ensure that staff can put the service plan into action. Briefings, service specifications, templates and role specifications ensure consistent touchpoints and experience. The process does not end with implementation. Services should be under continuous review in a process of continuous service improvement.51 52
  28. 28. The Service Design Toolbox53 54
  29. 29. Brainstorming The purpose of brainstorming is to draw out as many ideas as possible, and as rich a range as possible, from a diverse group of people. Certain rules normally apply to ensure maximum benefit from the session: Focus on quantity – participants should contribute a large quantity of ideas without too much thinking. Quality will come later. Withhold criticism – participants refrain from criticising either their own or others’ ideas until later in the session. By suspending judgement people feel free to generate unusual ideas. Welcome unusual ideas – unusual ideas can come from using fresh perspectives and suspending limits. This can open up fresh possibilities. Combine and Improve ideas – people build on other people’s ideas and combine them.55 56
  30. 30. The Business Model Canvas The Business Model Canvas is a powerful tool used by organisations and entrepreneurs to work collaboratively to describe, analyse, design or tweak new or existing business models. It can be used in any sector, public or private. The canvas consists of nine sections which represent the key building blocks of a successful business model: Key Partners Key Activities Value Proposition Customer Relationships Customer Segments Key Resources Cost Structure Channels Revenue Streams Teams can work in roundtable with the canvas to generate possibilities under each of the nine sections and clarify existing and potential new business or focus areas. It can help departments or organisations see themselves as a service-focussed business and can bring clarity to strengths, weaknesses, possibilities and priorities in the organisation against its operating environment.57 58
  31. 31. Context Interviews These are interviews with users, staff or stakeholders that take place in the environment or context in which the service process of interest occurs. Discussing work or service routines is always easier when the conversation takes place in the place where they unfold. An interviewer will spot activity that the interviewee takes for granted and probe that activity. It helps the interviewee remember the kind of specific details that can get lost in a traditional focus group setting. People are more comfortable providing insights into their thoughts and behaviours in when in a familiar environment. These can be validated or expanded upon by the observations of the interviewer in context. The interviewer can also notice more about the physical and social environment of the service process in context. The interview will be documented by text, video or audio and this gives powerful material to present back to the service provider project team.59 60
  32. 32. Customer Journey Map The Customer Journey Map visualises the service-user’s experience. This shows the touchpoints where the user interacts with the service and the accompanying emotions. Touchpoints can be face to face between people, virtual through website or mobile phone, or physical such as a trip to a building, reading signage etc. The customer journey should be drawn from the customer rather than from staff. The internal business model process of the service will not capture all of the service touchpoints, because the customer may be interacting with relating agencies or services before the decision to even use the service in question. Interviews work well here or the customers can document their service journey themselves. The map can be based around particular personas showing different journeys on each map. The map gives a high-level insight into the factors influencing the user’s experience constructed from their own perspective. This enables the identification of problem areas, success areas or opportunities for innovation. Different service expectations or perceptions from different customer groups can also be identified.61 62
  33. 33. Desktop Walk-throughs Expectation Maps This is a small three-dimensional model of a service An expectation map involves investigating and mapping environment using props such as stick figures and simulated what customers expect when they interact with a service at physical elements in the service environment. Common each stage of the service or at particular stages requiring situations can then be acted out by moving the figures insight. around the model or to insert different personas. The material for this can come from media reviews, The same scene can be acted out several times, changing interviews with users, complaint logs etc. physical elements or character elements. They are used to gain a shared understanding of the service situation among The map can then be compared to existing service routines the group and create a service situation in which all team to highlight gaps. This will identify areas in need of members can input in an engaging manner. particular attention from the point of view of the user. Expectations across the different stages or mediums can also be compared.63 64
  34. 34. Five Whys In the User’s Shoes The 5 Whys are a chain of questions used to dig below the Here people (usually staff) are asked to go out and outward symptoms of a user experience, or the outward experience a service in order to understand the common explanation for a situation, in order to find the root cause. issues and needs of service users. It is used to tease out a specific problem by producing a This could involve experiencing the specific service under convincing explanation of the cause pathway from the review, other services in the same sector, a similar service current situation to the root cause. environment in another sector, or a variety of services. This can help uncover service stages that the user doesn’t They will be asked to explore examples of what they think usually see or user actions that the service provider doesn’t are good or bad services and to record their experiences. usually see. This helps people to understand the factors that are common to any positive service experience.We have abandoned 3,000 customer calls. Why? These insights are then used to develop opportunities forWe didn’t have the right number of staff. Why? service improvement or innovation.There were more calls than expected. Why?Lots of bills went in the post on the same day. Why?We didn’t print any for a week. Why?Because we recently optimised the system to print billsonly once a week65 66
  35. 35. Observation of Users Role Play This involves team researchers immersing themselves in the This technique, drawn from the field of drama, involves an lives of users, front-line staff, or back-room staff to interactive training experience that helps staff contribute to understand their behaviour and experiences. People the improvement of the service experience while playing naturally exhibit behaviours unconsciously so this method the role or observing the acted role of different service shows up things that would not be apparent or articulated actors. Staff enact various service situations, and play the in an interview. role of customer, staff or management. It helps to video- record the role-play and then to review and analyse the Text, video and photographs can be used here to capture material in a follow-up workshop. activity. This technique helps staff to develop the tools and skills to It allows observers to spot problems that the person being respond to customers’ needs or particular service situations. observed may not even be aware of even recognise as a It helps to identify which props, guidelines or artefacts problem. It can identify when a person says one thing but would be useful in the specific service situation. It can bring does another. kinaesthetic learning or empathy into the service situation. The acting can also be performed by corporate actors instead of staff members who will be prompted by or observed by staff. A similar process can be applied to users, acting out the roles of staff, in order to provide insight into the service using a different viewing point.67 68
  36. 36. Scenario Building Service Blueprint Designing scenarios helps bring potential service situations In the same way a product will have specification drawings detailing to life. They are hypothetical stories which can involve how a product is to be manufactured, a service blueprint gives particular personas or user types in a specific service detailed information about all aspects of how a service should be context. Scenarios can be presented using plain text, performed. This will be a visual schematic incorporating the perspectives of user, service provider and other key players, showing storyboards or video. front-end and back-end relationships. Scenarios enable a shared understanding and knowledge The blueprint is not a static document but a living one and should be sharing within a group. They can be applied to any area of continually revised in a process of continuous service improvement. the service that has a particular problem to explore that The document can be developed collaboratively, with all service service stage from various viewpoints or in a variety of players having input, in order to capture the full picture of the service. situations. It should be drafted roughly at the beginning of the project, and developed and refined throughout the project. As new ideas become appropriate solutions and service experiences get articulated the blueprint gets updated. The final blueprint is a roadmap for the actual service delivery.69 70
  37. 37. Six Thinking Hats StoryboardsThis technique developed by Edward De Bono is used to tap into thecollective wisdom of a team in order to develop a shared vision. Theprocess avoids the conflicts that can occur through differentpersonality and thinking types in a team. The technique guides theteam through six thinking modes. During each mode the teammembers ‘wear only that hat’, that is they exclusively in that mode.The 6 modes are:Information (White) - considering purely what information isavailable, what are the facts?Emotions (Red) - intuitive or instinctive statements of emotionalfeeling (but not any justification)Judgement (Black) – devil’s advocate Borrowed from the film industry, storyboards are a series of drawingsOptimism (Yellow) - identifying benefits, seeking harmony or pictures that visualise a sequence of events that occur within aCreativity (Green) – focus on possibilities, alternatives, ideas service journey.Managing the process (Blue) – used to reflect on the process. A common visualisation is the comic-strip. The storyboard will bring in key details so that anyone viewing it can have a clear understanding of what is going on in the service without having to be in the service environment. It can present a real-life situation or an imaginary situation to explore possible ideas and variations. This can be used to provoke discussion among users or providers about what works or doesn’t work.71 72
  38. 38. References & Appendix73 74
  39. 39. References ReferencesRecommended Reading Recommended ReadingFor Those Interested in the Service Design Method For Decision-makers in Local GovernmentMortiz, S. 2005. Service Design. Pra ctical Access to an Evolving Field [Online]. A key accessible text is Heapy & Parker.Available from: http://stefan-moritz.com/welcome/Service_Design_files/Practical%20Access%20to%20Service%20Design.pdf Department of Public Expenditure and Reform 2011. Public Service Reform Plan [Online]. Available from: http://per.gov.ie/wp-content/uploads/Public-Service-Stickdorn M., Schneider J. 2011. This is Service Design Thinking. New Jersey USA: Reform-181120111.pdfWiley Gaskarth, G. 2010. Small Is Beautiful. Innovation fro m the Frontlin e in Lo calWebsites Govern ment [Online]. Available from: http://www.nesta.org.uk/library/documents/ Small_is_Beautiful.pdfTassi, R 2009. Service Design Tools. Communication Methods Supporting DesignProcesses [Online]. Available from: http://www.servicedesigntools.org [Accessed Helsinki design Lab 2011. In Studio: Recip es for Systemic Change [Online]. Available7 th May 2012]. from: http://helsinkidesignlab.org/instudio/http://www.mind-lab.dk/en/methods Heapy, J., Parker S. 2006. The Journey to the Interfa ce . How Public Service design can connect users to reform [Online]. Available from: http://www.demos.co.uk/files/http://www.servicedesigntoolkit.org/ journeytotheinterface.pdf?1240939425http://www.stby.eu/ Metropolis 2011. IDEO takes on the Govern men t [Online]. Available from: http:// www.ideo.com/images/uploads/news/pdfs/Metropolis_IDEO_govt_June2011_1.pdf UK Cabinet Office 2004. Service Design Principles. A pocket Guide [Online]. Available from: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:// www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/cabinetoffice/corp/assets/publications/ delivery_council/pdf/service_design070524.pdf Websites http://publicpolicylab.org/ http://www.mind-lab.dk/en 73 74
  40. 40. Appendix of Dublin City Appendix of Dublin City Council Services Council Services Accounts, financial management, financial planning, fund management, Fire and rescue, - attending automatic alarms, - attending fires, attending road management and control, spending plans, Animals, dog bins, dog fouling, traffic accidents, community safety, emergency medical services, fire horses, registration, warden services, inspection, pest control, stray Archaeology, certificates, fire safety education, hazardous chemical (HAZCHEM) incidents, advice, consultancy, excavation, survey Architecture, advice, consultation, hydrants maintenance, post-incident support, regulations enforcement, special design, project management Archives, access, enquiries, general information, services, workplace regulation, Freedom of Information, Grants, Arts, loans, donations bequests and sales Arts, development, information, facilities, community, community facilities, cultural, home renovation, sports, talented and grants, Biodiversity, information, policy Business, advice, rates, annual gifted individuals, voluntary organisations, Health and safety, Housing - notification Business Process improvement, Car parks, council, private, staff allocation, decision, system, change of tenancy, information, registering, Children and young people, drop in activities, organised activities, playgrounds alterations by tenants, rehousing , mutual exchange, Housing - tenants, Advice and play facilities, Civil emergencies, business continuity, advice, emergency and support, clearance, , community safety, caretaking, communal heating, plan, flooding, major accident, hazards Coastline protection Community tenancy arrears, deeds, evictions, home insurance, maintenance and repairs, centres, facilities management programming supporting health and safety modernisation schemes, rents, sale of council housing, unauthorised occupants, Community development, regeneration projects, resource procurement, nuisance and threatening behaviour, tenancy issues, Housing - homeless Community planning assemblies, groups and committees , consultation, services, Housing - improvements, adaptations of council property, disability engagement, support policies, ABCS Community safety, community policing facility grant for a private property, renovation grants, Housing - legal advice and forums, lane closures, intoxicating liquor fines, public lighting Complaints, support, Housing - private, Registration for Private Rented tenancies, Rent procedures, appeals Conference, hall and meeting room, Hire. Public and private Assessment Scheme, shared ownership – low cost home ownerships, Housing - use, Council Events, civic and public events, Council Planning, policy and sheltered, council tenants, homeless people, housing association tenants, non- making of regulations, corporate and other plan and policies Council Customer council tenants, older people, Housing - special needs - , Capital grants, Housing information services, Phone, web, advertising and communication, Council - associations, Housing - Repairs - , communal areas, council property, emergency consultation and community engagement, Facilities Management , air handling out of hours repairs, surveying and major repairs, Housing- social housing policy, units, catering services, council offices, energy and fuel, equipment, internal Information Communication Technology, business continuity, data management, mail , internal room, maintenance, printing and copying, reception, staff/visitor hardware, helpdesk, networks, peripheral, software, webs site, policy, telephony, car parking, vehicle maintenance, Council Festive decoration, Council Information management, Jobs, employment, training initiatives, equal communication, Media, web, press management, publications, internal opportunities, local authority vacancies, vetting of contract and supplier staff, communication, Council Permissions, to host events, film and photograph, Land and property, -area search service, availability lists, building control. Council procurement, - contracts lists, contract management, expenditure, policy, commercial lettings, compulsory acquisition, out of hours emergencies, Council Risk management, Insurance claims, policies, business continuity, dangerous structures, demolitions, property enquiries, property searches, derelict Councillors , General information, minutes, agenda reports, meeting properties, estate management, grass cutting, improvement, securing, historic management, Death, coroner’s court, exhumations, mortuaries, Disabled people sites, statutory development plans, valuations, Languages, translating and , accessibility, home adaptations, parking bays - parking permits, specialist interpreting services Irish Language services, sign language, Law, legal advice, equipment, Education , -early years facilities, higher education grants, free CCTV procedures for the release of evidence, litigation support, coroners sudden school meals, Elections, electoral nominations, electoral register, postal votes, death investigations results publication, voting, Environmental information, Exhibitions, permanent and temporary Facilities,75 76
  41. 41. Appendix of Dublin City Appendix of Dublin City Council Services Council Services Leisure and sport, Indoor and outdoor activities, Libraries -, catalogues, childrens permits, zones, Traffic lights systems and management, Roads, Kerbs, footpath services, computers and the internet, fines , information services loans and dishing, verges, maintenance, Safety, health and safety - accident reporting; renewals, local collection, mobile library service, online information resource, occupational health services; advice and training ; petrol delivery and storage; prison library service, reserving books and other items, sale of publications, Safety - syringes – disposal, Sports, Development, facilities, information and school libraries, special collections, special needs, Licences, Bridges, buildings, booking, pitches and courts, Staff, annual leave , appraisal, apprenticeships , beams and cables over or along highway, markets and casual trading, Fats Oils disciplinary procedures grievance, job analysis, payroll procedures, redeployment, and Greases, obstruction, scaffolding, hoarding, skip operators, street café, street reorganisations, sickness management , continuing professional development, trading, road opening, Local economy, development, reports and forecasts, Lord Statistics, census information, economic information and analysis, usage, Mayor, Administration, support, expenses, Markets, cleaning, information, stall telemetry, Sustainable development, Town twinning, Transport, abnormal rental, Members, allowances, committee membership, declaration of interests, loads, bus stops and shelters positioning, journey planning, Travelling people, minutes, agendas and reports, secretariat, Members of the Oireachtas TDs, provision of sites and housing, Vandalism, fly posting and graffiti - reporting and Senators MEPS , General information and communication, Memorials and removal, Vehicles - abandoned, Reporting and removal, Wastewater, general statues, maintenance and policy, Motor tax, -Drivers, provisional, commercial information, new connection, effluent licences, fats oil and grease, flood and lost licences - Vehicle taxation services, Museums and galleries, enquiries, planning, drainage studies, gully cleaning, maintenance, Water, new water information, loans donation, bequest, shops, Older people, Activities, Parks and connections, quality and testing, provision, leakage repair, reservoir and storage open spaces, events, general information, landscaping, maintenance, outdoor, management Planning, development control; advertisement control; allotments; building and landscape design services; building control; conservation advice; conservation areas; consultation , decision notices, statutory register, development control enforcement, land use proposals; landscape character assessment; listed buildings; - statutory register; Local Development Frameworks; local plans; environmental policies; rights of way enforcement and maintenance; street names and numbering; transport policy; tree management and preservation, zoning, planning applications, Pollution control, air quality, construction, contaminated land, inspection and regulation, noise, nuisance, water, water quality, Public toilets, Recycling, bags and containers; composters; information; residential collections ; recycling sites, Refuse, spillage; collection permits, flytipping, hazardous waste movement permits, disposal sites, special collections for large items, Litter - enforcement, fines, removal, litter bins, Refuse, skip- permits and services, Roads, Safety - cameras, cycle training, cycling and walking to school, - dangerous road junctions, pedestrian crossings, school crossings speed bumps, spillages, traffic schemes , speed limits, weigh limits, Street cleaning programme, Street Furniture Policy, acquisition, Provision, maintenance and licensing, Street lighting, Street parking, clamping and removal, enforcement, residents and disk parking, pavement,77 78
  42. 42. Produced by Una Mc Grath for The Studio at Dublin City Council.Contact una.mcgrath@hotmail.com or studio@dublincity.ie

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