Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply



Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Chapter 12 Power
  • 2. Objectives
    • Upon completion of this chapter, the reader should be able to:
      • Define power, and describe it at the personal, professional, and organizational levels
      • Describe each of the following sources of power, and analyze its relative strength for an entry level nurse: coercion, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, information, and connection
  • 3. Objectives
      • Apply an understanding of power to help nurses improve their effectiveness
      • Analyze how new nurses can increase their power
  • 4. Definitions of Power
    • The ability to create, get, and/or use resources to achieve one’s goals 
    • Power can be defined at various levels
      • Personal, cultural, professional, or organizational
    • Power at the personal level is closely linked to how an individual perceives power, how others perceive the individual, and the extent to which an individual can influence events
  • 5. Levels of Power
    • Personal
      • Derives from characteristics of the individual
    • Professional
      • Conferred on members of the profession by one another and the larger society to which they belong
    • Organizational
      • One’s position in an organizational hierarchy
      • Being authorized to function powerfully within an organizational culture
  • 6. Power and Accountability
    • Accountability is considered one of the major hallmarks of the health care professions
    • Nurses have accountability and direct responsibility for decisions made and actions rendered
    • Effective nurses see power as positive and view their ability to understand and use power as a significant part of their responsibilities to patients, coworkers, the nursing profession, and themselves
  • 7. Sources of Power
    • Diverse, and vary from one situation to another
    • A combination of conscious and unconscious factors that allow an individual to influence others to do as the individual wants
    • Multiple types of power
  • 8. Expert Power
    • Derived from the knowledge and skills a nurse possesses
    • The less acknowledged that experts are in a group, the less effective their expert powers become
    • Visible reciprocal acknowledgment of expertise among group members balances power and enhances productivity
  • 9. Legitimate Power
    • Power that is derived from a position a nurse holds in a group, and it indicates the nurse’s degree of authority
    • The more comfortable nurses are with their legitimate power as nurses, the easier it is for them to fulfill their role
    • Nurses in authority are expected to use what authority they have and may be punished for not doing so
  • 10. Referent Power
    • Power derived from how much others respect and like any individual, group, or organization
    • Nurses who are identified with respected, trustworthy individuals or groups will benefit from referent power by virtue of such identification
  • 11. Reward Power
    • The ability to reward or punish others, as well as to create fear in others to influence them to change their behavior
    • Also referred to as coercive power
    • Rewards are not likely to permanently change attitudes
    • Withholding rewards or achieving a goal by instilling fear in others often results in resentment
  • 12. Connection Power
    • The extent to which others are connected with others
    • Leaders can dramatically increase their influence by understanding that people are attracted to those with power and their associates
    • Nurses should work to resolve issues at the appropriate level before they take their concerns to a higher level of authority
  • 13. Information Power
    • The ability to influence others with the information they provide to the group
    • Nurses must share knowledge that is both accurate and useful
    • Information sharing can improve patient care, increase collegiality, enhance organizational effectiveness, and strengthen one’s professional connections
  • 14. Positive Personal Orientation to Power
    • A person’s desire for power takes one of two forms
      • An orientation toward achieving personal gain and self-glorification
      • An orientation for achieving gain for others or the common good
  • 15. Empowerment
    • A process of power sharing by involvement in the decision-making process
    • A process of personal growth and development
    • Something positive, or highly desirable to be aspired to, advocated for, or attained
    • Nurses disempower themselves if they see nurses or nursing as powerless
  • 16. Power and the Media
    • There is a relationship between power and perception
    • The media can be used to create or change perceptions
    • The way the media present nursing to the public will empower or disempower nursing
    • Nurses must work to consistently use the media as effectively as other more powerful occupational groups
  • 17. Power Development
    • Understanding power from a variety of perspectives is not just important for nurses professionally, it is important for them personally as well
    • It allows nurses to gain control of their work and personal lives
    • Three ways to imagine the future
      • What is possible
      • What is probable
      • What is preferred
  • 18. Power and the Limits of Information
    • To make good decisions, nurses must be able to gather enough information and realistically interpret its value, as well as share and apply information in a safe competent manner
    • Effective nurses understand time constraints and set priorities to ensure that what is most important receives the most attention
  • 19. A Framework for Becoming Empowered
    • Personal
      • Find a mentor
      • Introduce yourself to powerful people in your personal and professional life
      • Find and maintain evidenced-based sources of ongoing information
      • Seek answers to questions
      • Notice who holds power in your personal, professional, and organizational life
      • Make and evaluate a plan
  • 20. A Framework for Becoming Empowered
    • Professional
      • Assess patient’s condition using relevant objective measurements
      • Collaborate with administrators, other nurses, physicians, and other health care workers involved in the care of your patients
      • Join your professional nursing organization
      • Collaborate with significant others, friends, and members of the patient’s family
  • 21. A Framework for Becoming Empowered
    • Organizational
      • Actively monitor and improve patient care quality
      • Volunteer for committee assignments that will challenge you to learn and experience more than what is expected of you in a staff nurse role
      • Evaluate your plans
      • Volunteer to be involved with health care at the local, state, and national levels
  • 22. Power and Decision Making
    • Power and decision making are intricately connected
    • Emphasis on cost containment in health care has created opportunities for nurses
    • Nurses’ knowledge allows them to participate in health care and cost-containment discussions, giving them more opportunities for decision making
    • This, in turn, gives nurses greater power
  • 23. The Power of Critical Thinking
    • Critical thinking enables nurses to understand more and to find better information
    • Effective nurses can take information they have acquired in the past and apply it to their present situation
    • Power is associated with transforming thought into action