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  • 1.
    • Speaker, Tone, and Theme
  • 2. SOAP — S peaker, O ccasion, A udience, P urpose or Dramatic Situation
    • First, focus on the speaker .
    • -Who is speaking?
    • -Why is he or she speaking (occasion/purpose)?
    • -To whom is he or she speaking?
    • -What is the speaker’s emotional state (this will help you determine tone)?
  • 3. Tips on figuring out speaker, dramatic situation
    • - Figure out the situation being described
    • - Determine the conflicts or tensions in this situation
    • - Decide what ideas the speaker is trying to communicate
    • In some poems the speaker is obviously a persona, or fictitious character , not the poet, but the poet’s creation. No law decrees that the speaker in a poem even has to be human: good poems have been uttered by clouds, pebbles, and cats.
  • 4. A Theme– General subject of the poem
    • Each piece of poetry has a theme:
    • First love Nature
    • Lost love Loss
    • War Loneliness
    • Anti-War Fear
    • Poverty
    • Hardship
  • 5. Dramatic Situation
    • I, Too
    • I, too, sing America.
    • I am the darker brother.
    • They send me to eat in the kitchen
    • When company comes,
    • But I laugh,
    • And eat well,
    • And grow strong.
    • Tomorrow,
    • I’ll be at the table
    • When company comes.
    • Nobody’ll dare
    • Say to me,
    • “ Eat in the kitchen,”
    • Then.
    • Besides,
    • They’ll see how beautiful I am
    • And be ashamed—
    • I , too, am America Langston Hughes
  • 6. I, Too
    • Identify SOAP—Speaker, Occasion, Audience, and Purpose.
    • What is the theme of this poem?
  • 7. Tone “ Mister, I don’t like the tone of your voice.”
  • 8. “ Didn’t like the tone of his voice”
  • 9.
    • Like the tone of voice, the tone in literature often conveys an attitude toward the person addressed. Like the manner of a person, the manner of a poem may be friendly or belligerent toward its reader, condescending or respectful. Again, like tone of voice, the tone of a poem may tell us how the speaker feels about himself or herself ; humble or arrogant, sad or glad.
  • 10.
    • But usually when we ask, “What is the tone of a poem?” we mean, what attitude does the poet take toward a subject or a theme?” Is the poet being affectionate, hostile, earnest, playful, sarcastic, or what?
  • 11.
    • Strictly speaking, tone isn’t an attitude ; it is whatever is in the poem that makes an attitude clear to us; the choice of certain words instead of other, the picking out of certain details. To perceive the tone of a poem, we need to read the poem carefully, paying attention to whatever suggestions we find in it.
  • 12. Diction is
    • The poet’s use of words
    • Examine the words in the poem for all their possible meanings
    • How do the meanings combine to create the overall effect?
    • OH
  • 13. Diction and tips on studying diction
    • Underline or highlight the words that seem important
    • Denotation : dictionary meaning
    • Connotation : the subjective, emotional association that a word has for one person or a group of people
    • Notice how the words contribute to the speaker’s tone—look for the
    • EMOTIONALLY CHARGED WORDS
  • 14. Word Choice
    • Quick review: Connotations are the feelings, attitudes, images, and associations of a word or expression. Connotations are usually said to be positive or negative.
  • 15. Harlem (A Dream Deferred)
    • What happens to a dream deferred?
    • Does it dry up
    • Like a raisin in the sun?
    • Or fester like a sore-
    • And then run?
    • Does it stink like rotten meat?
    • Or crust and sugar over-
    • Like a syrupy sweet?
    • Maybe it just sags
    • Like a heavy load
    • Or does it explode? Langston Hughes
  • 16. HARLEM (A Dream Deferred)
    • Highlight the emotionally charged words and explain how they add to the meaning of the poem.
    • Many of the emotionally charged words deal with rot or decay; a delayed dream is like a heavy burden—we sink under the weight of it. Not being able to realize a dream is compared to images of rotting flesh or decaying flesh. The unfulfilled dream festers and continues to “eat away” at the person.
    • What is the tone of this poem?
  • 17. Tips on Writing about Tone
    • Here is a tip for how to write about tone. Take two adjectives (or an adjective and a noun) that don’t obviously go together but you think fit the poem.
    • This will make your CM about tone easier to write and it will elevate the quality of your CM.
  • 18. Let’s try it The Dance
  • 19. Tone
    • The DANCE
    • Looking back on the memory of The dance we shared beneath the stars above For a moment all the world was right How could I have known you'd ever say goodbye And now I'm glad I didn't know The way it all would end the way it all would go Our lives are better left to chance I could have missed the pain But I'd of had to miss the dance Holding you I held everything For a moment wasn't I the king But if I'd only known how the king would fall Hey who's to say you know I might have changed it all And now I'm glad I didn't know The way it all would end the way it all would go Our lives are better left to chance I could have missed the pain But I'd of had to miss the dance Yes my life is better left to chance I could have missed the pain but I'd of had to miss the dance
    • Garth Brooks
  • 20. Highlight all of the emotionally charged words and phrases/ important passages
  • 21.
    • The DANCE
    • Looking back on the memory of The dance we shared beneath the stars above For a moment all the world was right How could I have known you'd ever say goodbye And now I'm glad I didn't know The way it all would end the way it all would go Our lives are better left to chance I could have missed the pain But I'd of had to miss the dance Holding you I held everything For a moment wasn't I the king But if I'd only known how the king would fall Hey who's to say you know I might have changed it all And now I'm glad I didn't know The way it all would end the way it all would go Our lives are better left to chance I could have missed the pain But I'd of had to miss the dance Yes my life is better left to chance I could have missed the pain but I'd of had to miss the dance
    • Garth Brooks
  • 22. The Dance
    • What is the dramatic situation/SOAP?
    • 2. What is the tone of this song (use two adjectives or an adjective and a noun)?
  • 23.
    • Regretful gratitude
    • Emotional longing
    • Thankful melancholy
    • Bewildered appreciation
    • Philosophical appreciation
    • Insightful gratitude
    • Weighty musing
    • Thoughtful contemplation
  • 24. Mood
    • A feeling the reader gets from the work.
  • 25. My Papa’s Waltz
    • The whiskey on your breath
    • Could make a small boy dizzy;
    • But I hung on like death:
    • Such waltzing was not easy.
    • We romped until the pans
    • Slid from the kitchen shelf;
    • My mother’s countenance
    • Could not unfrown itself
    • The hand that held my wrist
    • Was battered on one knuckle;
    • At every step you missed
    • My right ear scraped a buckle.
    • You beat time on my head
    • With a palm caked hard by dirt,
    • Then waltzed me off to bed
    • Still clinging to your shirt.
  • 26. My Papa’s Waltz
    • 1. Highlight the emotionally charged words. How do these words make you feel? What mood does this poem evoke in the reader?
  • 27. Portfolio Assignment #1: Your Turn
    • Write a poem that clearly expresses a tone to evoke a mood—carefree, angry, sad, longing, joy. . .any tone.
    • Requirements: 10-14 lines
    Footloose and fancy free Worried and annoyed
  • 28.
    • Remember tone and mood refer to author’s attitude and the feelings the reader gets from reading the poem—if the poem is about a loved one dying, the tone might be longing/yearning and the mood might be sadness/grief.
  • 29. Recap
      • Tone is the author’s attitude toward the subject. Tone is the way an author presents his attitude and feelings to us with words because we don’t have the luxury of hearing his voice. Therefore, we have to listen with words.
      • A hint to figuring out tone: To uncover a poem’s tone, look for the emotionally charged words (words with positive or negative connotations) . Again, the author cannot speak to you directly, so his word choices speak volumes.
  • 30. Homework: Compose poem #1