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Reservoir Characterization: Integrating Technology and Business Practices
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High Frequency Characterization of an Outcro...
Van Dyke et al.
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input to reservoir performance prediction. An outcome
of this study has been knowledge gained of the e...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
s...
Van Dyke et al.
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A shallow seismic line has been acquired at the
top of Spine 1 (Fig. 2). The main object of acquiring
...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
(...
Van Dyke et al.
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Channel-fill sandstone #1
This sandstone, at 11m (34ft.) thick, is the thick-
est of the ten channel-f...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
F...
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by extrapolating beyond the stations. This data set was
originally processed using a plane-wave techni...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
6...
Van Dyke et al.
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Projection of the master channel and Channel-fill Sandstone #1 onto the seismic line
The seismic line ...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
s...
Van Dyke et al.
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package. Andrew Slatt completed many of the graphics
and Carol Drayton edited the paper for clarity, s...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
M...
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induction and ground penetrating radar; Carbon
County, South-central Wyoming: University of Okla-
homa...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
T...
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Figure 1. (C) shows the north-south trending Lewis Shale outcrop belt in Wyoming (A). Arrows are domin...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 3. (A) 3D spatial orientation of the 10 channel-fill sandstones. (B) Facies comprising each san...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 5. (A) Channel-fill Sandstone #1 looking toward the northeast; downlap surfaces can clearly be ...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 7. Spine 1 outcrop, looking south, showing six of the ten channel-fill sandstones. Channel-fill...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 9. (A) Conceptual diagram showing the asymmetric distribution of facies with respect to the ins...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 11. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #1. Details are provided in the inse...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 13. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #3. Details are provided in the inse...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 15. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #4. Details are provided in the inse...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 17. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #6. Details are provided in the inse...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 19. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #8. Details are provided in the inse...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 21. Base of Channel-fill Sandstone #1 based upon shallow borehole drilling, electro-magnetic in...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 23. Graphical illustration of Terrain and Elevation Corrections. Various elevations are shown, ...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 25. (A) Separate channel-fills interpreted from a sinuous bend in a subsurface channel (B and C...
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High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY
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Figure 27. 3D inclined perspective of the 10 channel-fill sandstones shown in Figure 26. The position ...
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High Frequency Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, Wyoming

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This paper presents the results of data collection, analysis, and integration to build a 3D geologic model of an outcropping leveed-channel complex. Data is from more than 120 standard measured stratigraphic sections, behind-outcrop drilling/logging/coring,
ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction surveys, and 2D shallow seismic reflection acquisition.
This leveed-channel complex, which is part of the Dad Sandstone Member of the Cretaceous Lewis Shale, Wyoming, consists of ten channel-fill sandstones, confined within a master channel. The complex is 67m
(200ft.) thick, 500m (1500ft.) wide, and has a net sand content of approximately 57 percent. Individual channel-fills are internally lithologically complex, but in a systematic manner which provides a means of predicting orientation and width of sinuosity. Although it has not been possible to completely document the threedimensionality of this system, the 3D model that has
evolved provides information on lithologic variability at scales which cannot be verified from conventional 3D seismic of subsurface analog reservoirs. This vertical and lateral variability can provide realistic lithologic input to reservoir performance prediction. An outcome of this study has been knowledge gained of the extent of manipulation required to obtain the spatially correct geometry and architecture of strata when integrating outcrop and shallow, behind-outcrop data sets.

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  1. 1. Reservoir Characterization: Integrating Technology and Business Practices 771 High Frequency Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed- Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, Wyoming Van Dyke, S. University of Oklahoma Aera Energy LLC Slatt, R. M. University of Oklahoma Dodson, J. University of Oklahoma Valerio, C. University of Oklahoma Occidental Oil and Gas Corp. Buckner, N. University of Oklahoma Correa-Correa, H. University of Oklahoma Shell Oil Corp. Ojo, B. University of Oklahoma Schlumberger Inc. Abstract This paper presents the results of data collection, analysis, and integration to build a 3D geologic model of an outcropping leveed-channel complex. Data is from more than 120 standard measured stratigraphic sections, behind-outcrop drilling/logging/coring, ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction surveys, and 2D shallow seismic reflection acquisition. This leveed-channel complex, which is part of the Dad Sandstone Member of the Cretaceous Lewis Shale, Wyoming, consists of ten channel-fill sandstones, con- fined within a master channel. The complex is 67m (200ft.) thick, 500m (1500ft.) wide, and has a net sand content of approximately 57 percent. Individual chan- nel-fills are internally lithologically complex, but in a systematic manner which provides a means of predict- ing orientation and width of sinuosity. Although it has not been possible to completely document the three- dimensionality of this system, the 3D model that has evolved provides information on lithologic variability at scales which cannot be verified from conventional 3D seismic of subsurface analog reservoirs. This vertical and lateral variability can provide realistic lithologic 4 3 Papers Start Author Search Help Print 8.5 x 11
  2. 2. Van Dyke et al. 772 input to reservoir performance prediction. An outcome of this study has been knowledge gained of the extent of manipulation required to obtain the spatially correct geometry and architecture of strata when integrating outcrop and shallow, behind-outcrop data sets. Introduction Deep-water, sinuous leveed-channel deposits can form important oil and gas reservoirs worldwide. Because of their lateral and vertical complexity, they can be very difficult to produce hydrocarbons (e.g., Kolla et al., 2001; Beydoun et al., 2002; Navarre et al., 2002; Posamentier and Kolla, 2002; Abreu et al., 2003). Using typical subsurface data, it can be challenging to model this level of complexity for reservoir perfor- mance prediction. Thus, either modern or outcrop analogs sometimes are sought to provide the required level of detail for this purpose. There are excellent examples of leveed-channel systems on the modern sea floor and shallow sub-bottom; for example, the Amazon Fan, Mississippi Fan, and Indus fan (Weimer and Slatt, in press). However, these systems are rarely sampled (i.e. rocks and sediments) in detail, although the side- scan sonar and shallow subsurface seismic images are excellent. By contrast, outcrop analogs provide the opportunity for detailed rock sampling, but they are often extensively weathered because of their character- istic fine-grained nature. Outcrop exceptions include some Ordovician strata in Algeria, Cretaceous Cerro Toro Formation, Chile, and the Miocene Mt. Messenger Formation, New Zealand (Weimer and Slatt, in press). Part of the Dad Sandstone Member of the Lewis Shale in Wyoming is an example of a moderately weathered, outcropping, leveed-channel system. It has been studied for several years (summarized by Pyles and Slatt, in press; Slatt et al., in press), mainly because it is a fine-grained leveed-channel system similar to those that produce hydrocarbons (Fig. 1). Because good outcrops are sporadic, special attention has been paid to acquiring data to capture the fine- to medium-scale het- erogeneity of this system using a variety of techniques, including standard outcrop stratigraphic sections (Wit- ton, 1999; Bracklein, 2000; Pyles and Slatt, 2000; Witton-Barnes et al., 2000; Minton, 2001; Van Dyke, 2003; Gonzalez, 2004; Minken, 2004; Soyinka and Slatt, in press), behind-outcrop drilling/logging/coring (CSM Strat Test Well #61) (VanDyke, 2003; Slatt et al, in press); ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction (Young et al, 2003; Stepler, 2003; Stepler et al, 2004; Correa et al, 2006) and most recently, shallow 2D seismic reflection (Witten et al., 2005). When com- bined, these techniques can be utilized to develop a 3D geologic model amenable to ‘outcrop reservoir simula- tion’ (Slatt et al., 2000; Goyeneche et al., this volume). In addition, these techniques provide data which are most commonly used in the petroleum industry (i.e., 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  3. 3. 773 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY subsurface well logs, cores and seismic), so compari- sons can be made between outcrop features and—in this case—correlative behind-outcrop, shallow subsur- face data. We have found that this comparison provides a key mental link between outcrops and reservoir (Slatt, 2000). This is especially true for those people who rarely examine outcrops, but who work routinely with subsurface data. This paper focuses on aspects of the outcrop- behind outcrop characterization that have not previ- ously been published for the Dad Sandstone. Specifically, it has been challenging to integrate the out- crop stratigraphy with the 550m (1700ft.) long, CSM Strat Test #61 behind-outcrop well and the shallow seis- mic line shot over the wellsite and behind the outcrop (Fig. 2). Below, we discuss the various steps required to match the diverse data sets to develop a coherent image of the behind-outcrop stratigraphy and also discuss the special processing of this shallow seismic line required to make it suitable for interpretation. It is not possible to entirely verify the resulting 3D geological model from the studies cited above and described in this paper. However, the various lithologic complexities associated with sinuous leveed-channel complexes are identified in a manner amenable to reservoir performance modeling and prediction. Dad Sandstone levee-channel system The Lewis Shale and associated Fox Hills Sand- stone and Lance Formation form a third-order progradational, non-marine to ‘deep marine,’ mud- dominated, depositional system (Pyles and Slatt, in press). The Lewis Shale forms the slope facies within this system, and the Dad Sandstone member comprises leveed-channel and sheet sandstones. The Dad Sandstone in the area of study consists of 10 channel-fill sandstones which form a resistant ridge called Spine 1 (Figs. 1-3) (VanDyke, 2003). One hundred and twenty one (121) closely spaced strati- graphic sections have been measured along the ten sandstones. Locations of the sections, the base and top of each channel-fill sandstone outcrop, and significant facies boundaries are positioned in 3D space with a dif- ferentially-corrected TrimbleTM Global Positioning System (GPS), which has decimeter scale accuracy. From these data, a 3D architectural facies model has been built in GocadTM which spatially reconstructs the architecture and facies distribution of the 10 channel- fill sandstones (Fig. 3) (VanDyke, 2003). In outcrop, the areal extent and thickness of the channels decreases from the basal Channel-fill sand- stone #1 to the uppermost Channel-fill sandstone #10 (Figs. 2-3). A second ridge, called Spine 2 (Fig. 1), about 1000m (3000ft.) to the south, is held up by five leveed channel-fill sandstones (Minken, 2004). Three scales of heterogeneity have been defined for the area of these two ridges (Fig. 4) (Slatt et al, in press). 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  4. 4. Van Dyke et al. 774 A shallow seismic line has been acquired at the top of Spine 1 (Fig. 2). The main object of acquiring this line has been to determine if a basal master channel is confining the 10 channel-fill sandstones within the relatively narrow area of 500m (1,500ft.) (Fig. 1). The results of the seismic survey are discussed below, after describing the channel-fill sandstones. Channel-fill lithofacies Eight lithofacies were identified from the outcrop and shallow borehole studies (Table 1): F1 sandstone with water-escape structures (some cross-bedded); F2 structureless sandstone (without water- escape structures); F3 cross-bedded sandstone (without water- escape structures); F4 parallel to subparallel laminated sandstone (Bouma Tb); F5 rippled or climbing-rippled sandstone (Bouma Tc); F6 shale or mudstone (Bouma Td-e); F7 shale clast conglomerate; and F8 contorted and re-sedimented beds. All facies except F7 and F8 are fine-grained, moder- ately well sorted sandstone and siltstone. Criteria for defining inside vs. outside bends of sinuous channels In the Dad Sandstone, these eight lithofacies are distributed within channel-fill sandstones in a manner suggesting some similarities in processes to fluvial meandering channels (Slatt et al., in press). In particu- lar, some of the channel-fills are composed of shale clast conglomerates (F7) and contorted beds (F8) on one side and cross-bedded sandstones (F3) overlain by massive sandstones (both with and without water- escape structures; F1 and F2) on the other side (Fig. 5). Shallow seismic surveys of deep marine sinuous chan- nel systems show slump scars on the outside bends of channels (Fig. 6). Combining these characteristics, we propose that the outside bends of channels are erosional ‘cutbank-like’ features, and the slumped facies and shale-clast conglomerates (shale clasts are composed of thinly-laminated F4 lithofacies) represent the channel margin and proximal levee deposits eroded and slumped into the channel. By contrast, the inside bends, composed of cross-bedded sandstones (F3), are ‘point bar-like’ features. The overlying massive sandstones exhibit downlap patterns suggestive of lateral accretion bedding, which occur in point bar and in-channel beds 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  5. 5. 775 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY (Fig. 5). In addition, electromagnetic induction and ground-penetrating radar surveys over Channel-fill Sandstone #1 reveal a sharp bend in the sandstone, indi- cating sinuosity (Fig. 7) (Stepler et al., 2004). These channels probably have fed sand into the deeper basin contemporaneously with levee formation by overspill (Peakall et al., 2000; Keevil et al., in press). The channels are backfilled during a significantly later stage of deposition. Features of similar channel-fill sandstones in other, nearby Dad Sandstone outcrops provide evidence for this interpretation. These features include: (1) sharp, erosional and slumped contacts between the thin-bedded levee facies and coarser, sandy channel-fill facies (Fig. 8), (2) onlap of the channel fill facies onto the thin bedded facies (Fig. 8), and (3) the occurrence of shale clast conglomerates at the bases of some of the channels (Fig. 7) (Young et al., 2003). Estimation of channel sinuosity The above characteristics were used as an indica- tor of orientation of sinuosity (Fig.9). To determine the degree of channel sinuosity, we confined the channel bend to approximately the lateral limits of Spine 1 (app. 500m or 1500ft [Fig. 1]), and estimated a ratio of the thalweg length of a single bend wavelength over the axial length of the same single bend wavelength (Fig. 10). With this calculation, lower numbers repre- sented less sinuosity (1.0= straight channel), while progressively higher numbers represented progressively greater degrees of sinuosity. These values were applied to the ten channel-fill sandstones, resulting in the curved channels illustrated in Figures 11-13 and 15-20; channel parameters are given for each channel on each figure. Description of channel-fill sandstones Below are presented brief descriptions of each of the ten channel-fill sandstones. Details are provided by VanDyke (2003). Each of the sandstones is separated by thin-bedded, very fine sandstone/mudstone strata (Fig. 2). These thin-bedded strata are considered to be levee beds associated with each of the 10 channel-fill sandstones (Fig. 4). 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  6. 6. Van Dyke et al. 776 Channel-fill sandstone #1 This sandstone, at 11m (34ft.) thick, is the thick- est of the ten channel-fill sandstones (Fig. 2). It is the stratigraphically lowest channel-fill sandstone within the Spine 1 outcrop, although sheet sandstones crop out stratigraphically beneath (Witton, 1999). This sand- stone crops out in three dimensions, so has been studied in more detail than the other sandstones. The base of this channel, as mapped from ground-penetrating radar lines (Young et al., 2003), electromagnetic induction (Stepler et al., 2004), and shallow borehole drilling (VanDyke, 2003), is irregular in shape (Fig. 21), and makes a sharp bend behind the outcrop toward the southwest (Fig. 7), indicating it is a sinuous channel. Shale-clast conglomerate beds (F7) are interbedded with slumped beds (F8) in the northern part of this sandstone, while cross-bedded sandstones (F3) occur on the southern part (Fig. 5). As stated above, this asymmetric lateral distribution of sandstones indicates the northern part is the ‘cutbank’ side of a channel-fill. The southern part of the sandstone represents the inner or ‘point bar’ side of this channel-fill (Fig. 11). The northern channel margin has been removed by post- Cretaceous erosion. Channel-fill sandstone #2 The northern part of this channel-fill sandstone is dominated by shale-clast conglomerates (F7). The southern part contains laterally continuous, cross-bed- ded sandstone (F3). On this basis, the interpreted orientation of the channel is shown in Figure 12. Channel-fill sandstone #3 Shale clast conglomerates (F7) occur in the northeastern and southeastern parts of this channel-fill, representing the outer bend of the channel (Fig. 13). Channel-fill sandstones #4/#5 Channel-fill Sandstones 4 and 5 are amalgamated (Fig. 14). The southernmost part of the lower Channel- fill Sandstone #4 consists of cross-bedded sandstone (F3) and the northern part contains shale-clast con- glomerate (F7). Overlying the F3 beds along the southernmost side is an erosional contact, overlain by 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  7. 7. 777 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY F7, indicating this is part of separate Channel-fill Sand- stone #5 that is amalgamated to Channel-fill Sandstone 4 (Fig. 14). This dramatic change in orientations of the two channels is compared in Figures 15 and 16. Channel-fill sandstone #6 The primary diagnostic facies comprising this channel-fill is cross-bedded sandstone (F3), indicating the outcrop is in an area of the inner-side of a channel bend (Fig. 17). Channel-fill sandstone #7 The western part of this sandstone contains facies F3, and the eastern part contains some slumped facies F8. The orientation of the channel bend is displayed in Figure 18. Channel-fill sandstone #8 The eastern side of this sandstone is dominated by shale-clast conglomerate (F7) and the western side contains cross-bedded sandstone (F3) facies. The orien- tation of the channel bend is displayed in Figure 19. Channel-fill sandstone #9/#10 These sandstones are small and not well exposed. The northern part contains cross-bedded sandstone (F3) facies. The orientation of the channel bend is displayed in Figure 20. Correlation of outcrops with seismic line Acquisition and processing of seismic line A behind-outcrop, shallow seismic line was acquired using a 48 channel Geode recording system and a sledge hammer and aluminum plate as the source (Fig. 22). The 28 Hz geophones were spaced 4 m (13 ft) apart with the source points located between geo- phones. Two additional sources were established off each end of the seismic line. The receiver locations and elevations were mapped with the TrimbleTM differen- tial GPS unit. Source locations and elevations were mapped by interpolating between receiver stations, or 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  8. 8. Van Dyke et al. 778 by extrapolating beyond the stations. This data set was originally processed using a plane-wave technique (Witten et al., 2005). The plane-wave technique was developed to be fast and easy to use, with less time and expense than is the case with conventional seismic acquisition techniques (Witten et al., 2005). However, for this seismic line, we applied a more traditional seis- mic data processing workflow, which, although requiring more time and geophysical skill, provides improved stratigraphic detail to be used in behind-out- crop, shallow seismic studies. Processing was performed using ProMAXTM software. The sequential workflow was as follows: 1. convert from SEG2 to SEGY format, 2. apply geometry, 3. refraction statics, 4. trace balancing, 5. velocity analysis, 6. radon filter (for noise reduction), 7. deconvolution, 8. 2nd iteration velocity analysis, 9. stack, and 10. migration. After the processing was complete, the logs from the CSM Strat. Test #61 well were tied to the seismic data using Hampson RussellTM software (Fig. 22). Projection of the channel-fill complex onto the seismic line In order to spatially project each outcropping channel-fill sandstone onto its proper position on the 2D seismic line, the following four calculations first had to be made for each sandstone: 1. structural dip correction, 2. terrain correction, 3. ground surface slope correction, and 4. depositional dip correction. Structural dip correction The structural dip of the sandstones is 12° south- west, so each sandstone must be projected 12° from its base to coincide with its actual location on the seismic line (Fig. 23). Since the seismic line was shot in a northwest-southeast orientation, the 12° dip does not have to be corrected for azimuth. Therefore a simple trigonometric function has been used to calculate the proper depth to which the base of each channel-fill sandstone would project onto the seismic line. This depth also has been converted to two way seismic travel time (Fig. 22). Terrain correction Unlike the structural dip correction, the terrain correction varies for each channel-fill sandstone. The seismic line was shot at a ground elevation of (2260m) 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  9. 9. 779 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY 6780ft (Fig. 23). s each channel-fill sandstone crops out at a different ground elevation, a calculation must be applied. The outcropping base of Channel-fill Sand- stone #1 is at an elevation of 2235m (6705ft.) (Fig. 23). The elevation difference of 25m (75ft.) was converted to 20ms (Fig. 22) and applied to the seismic line. Slope correction This slope correction and the following deposi- tional dip correction are made to project the proper location of the channel-fill sandstones as seen in out- crop and the GocadTM 3D architectural facies model to their position on the seismic line. Since the seismic line, by its nature, only records the events directly beneath it, it does not take into account the depositional dip of the beds that it records. Since we are trying to project dip- ping bedding planes that are laterally offset from the seismic line’s location, these corrections must be calcu- lated so that their proper location can be determined; i.e., a sloping bed will occur at different X, Y, Z loca- tions as its lateral position shifts – this is the fundamental basis for this correction. This calculation takes into account the 2° south depositional dip of the depositional slope (Pyles and Slatt, in press). The far- thest point from all outcropping channel-fill sandstones to the seismic line is ~443m (1329ft) (Fig. 23). The same equation has been used to correct for the 12° southwest dip was applied for this 2°. Since the seismic line trends northwest-southeast, an azimuth correction of 1.5° south has been applied, so that the equation used is: tan 1.5° x 443m = 11.6m (34.8ft) or ~20ms. Depositional dip correction This next correction is superfluous; however, its recognition is important to mention. Because the struc- tural dip of beds is 12° southwest, the outcrop face is at an angle to true depositional dip. The thickest part of Channel-fill Sandstone #1 from its base to its top is 11.6m (34ft) in the stratigraphic plane, so the calcula- tion to determine the true vertical depth is (cos12o x 11.6m) = 11.1m (33.25ft) or ~20ms. Since this correc- tion is 97.8 percent of the original value for the maximum thickness of any channel-fill sandstone, this calculation is discarded. For example, the average thickness of the other channel-fill sandstones is 3.3m (10ft) or 10ms (Fig. 2), which is equivalent to the thick- ness of a wavelet exhibited on the seismic line. Thus, the wavelet approximates the thickness of all of the individual channel-fill sandstones with the exception of the thicker Channel-fill Sandstone #1. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  10. 10. Van Dyke et al. 780 Projection of the master channel and Channel-fill Sandstone #1 onto the seismic line The seismic line was acquired principally to determine whether a master channel was present which would have confined the ten channel-fill sandstones to a narrow portion of the sea floor during deposition. Based upon calibration of the CSM Strat Test #61 well syn- thetic seismogram to the seismic line (Fig. 22), and the presence of truncated reflections on the seismic line, a master bounding channel was identified across the seis- mic line (Fig. 24). The master channel is beneath the base of Channel-fill Sandstone #1, which is the strati- graphically lowest channel-fill sandstone in outcrop (Figs. 2 and 24). Witton (1999) showed that the base of Channel-fill Sandstone #1 occurs at approximately 83m (250ft) (90ms TWT) at the outcrop. However, the cal- culations for all projection corrections presented in this paper indicated that the base of Channel-fill Sandstone #1 could occur as deep as 110-120ms TWT [e.g., 25m (~30ms) + 80m (~80ms) = 105m or 315ft ~ 110ms]. Coupling these two interpretations allowed us to approximate the basal portion of Channel-fill Sandstone #1 between 90 and 120ms TWT) (Fig. 24). Projection of the other channel-fill sandstones onto the seismic line For the projection of the other channel-fill sand- stones onto the seismic line, a 30:1 width:height ratio is used (Clark and Pickering, 1996). The sinuosity of each channel-fill sandstone is projected to the location of the seismic line (Figs. 11-13 and 15-20). The thickness of each sandstone is converted to two-way travel time, and the assumption is made that this thickness remains con- stant over the distance of the outcrop. Since each sandstone (except Channel-fill sandstone #1) is about the thickness of a wavelet peak (3.3m or 10ft. or 10ms), wherever a peak crosses the seismic line, it should closely represent the X,Y, Z position of one of the chan- nel-fill sandstones seen in outcrop, at that same two- way travel time (depth). Crossing points of each chan- nel-fill sandstone at the seismic line are listed in Table 2. 3D geological model of the Spine 1 leveed-channel system Detailed interpretation of 3D seismic horizon slices has documented the laterally offset and vertically stacked characteristics of subsurface sinuous leveed- channel systems (Fig. 25). What is more difficult to evaluate from seismic intervals is the lithologic vari- ability that is imaged, since closely spaced wells are not drilled within these systems, nor is their sufficient seis- mic resolution to image small-scale features, even though such features can effect reservoir performance. Overlay of the ten Dad Sandstones channel-fill sand- 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  11. 11. 781 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY stones comprising Spine 1 shows similarities to subsurface examples, but adds knowledge of the litho- logic variability at multiple scales (Fig. 4). In this case, the ten channel-fills are confined lat- erally within a 500m (1500ft.) swath owing to the presence of a master channel during their deposition (Fig. 24). Both the lateral (Fig. 25) and vertical (Fig. 26) distribution of the channel-fill system is very complex. Most of the channel-fills are vertically com- partmentalized owing to the presence of intervening thin-bedded, finer grained, internal levee deposits; this compartmentalization comprises Level II heterogeneity in Figure 4. Similarly, the lateral lithologic variability within any one channel-fill has been documented, and is expressed as Level III heterogeneity in Figure 4. The lithologic detail provided at both levels can not be readily obtained from subsurface data, so this outcrop provides an analog for in-putting realistic lithologic het- erogeneities into a 3D geologic model for reservoir performance prediction. Conclusions This paper presents the results of data collection, analysis, and integration to build a 3D geologic model of an outcropping leveed-channel system. Although the 3D model has only been partially documented, it pro- vides the basis for inputting realistic lithologic parameters into production performance simulations of subsurface analog reservoirs. It is important to note that the scale of the model is of the same magnitude as sub- surface leveed-channel deposits and reservoirs (for example, Fig. 25). To build the outcrop model from a diverse outcrop and behind-outcrop, shallow subsurface data set requires considerable manipulation of the X, Y, Z coordinates of outcrop and behind-outcrop points to obtain the spatially correct geometry and architecture of the system. This extra effort is essential for building realistic geologic models from outcrop/behind-outcrop charac- terizations for subsurface application. Acknowledgements All of the authors except R. M. Slatt and J. Dod- son contributed research presented in this paper while graduate students in the School of Geology and Geo- physics at University of Oklahoma. Funds for the research were provided by Conoco-Phillips Co., Shell International Exploration and Production, and Total Exploration and Production Inc. Seismic processing was performed under an academic license agreement with Landmark Graphics, Inc. for ProMAXTM . Logs from the CSM Strat Test #61 well were tied to the seis- mic data using Veritas DGC's Hampson RussellTM 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  12. 12. Van Dyke et al. 782 package. Andrew Slatt completed many of the graphics and Carol Drayton edited the paper for clarity, style, and format. References Abreu, V., M. Sullivan, C. Pirmez, and D. Mohrig, 2003, Lat- eral accretion packages (LAPs): an important reservoir element in deepwater sinuous channels, in E. Mutti (convener), G. Steffens, C. Pirmez, M. Orlando, D. Roberts, eds., Turbidites; models and problems: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 20, no. 6-8, p. 631- 648. Beaubouef, R.T., 2004, Deep-water leveed-channel com- plexes of the Cerro Toro formation, Upper Cretaceous, southern Chile, AAPG Bulletin, v. 88, p. 1471-1500. Beydoun W., Y. Kerdraon, F. Lefeuvre, and J.P. Bancelin, 2002, Benefits of a 3-DHR survey for Girassol Field appraisal and development, Angola: The Leading Edge, v. 21, p. 1152-1155. Bracklein, C.C., 2000, Outcrop characterization of a channel- levee/overbank complex in the Dad Member of the Lewis Shale, Washakie Basin, Wyoming: Colorado School of Mines M.Sc. thesis, 127p. Clark, J.D., and K.T. Pickering, 1996, Architectural Elements and Growth Patterns of Submarine Channels: Applica- tion to Hydrocarbon Exploration: AAPG Bulletin, v. 80, no. 2, p. 194–221. Correa, H.A.C, R. A. Young, and R.M. Slatt, 2006, 3D char- acterization of a channel system in an outcrop reser- voir analog derived from GPR and measured sections, Rattlesnake Ridge, Wyoming: SEC Annual Meeting Abstract. Gonzalez, A.P., 2004, Stratigraphic framework of the Fox Hills Sandstone and Lewis Shale, Great Divide Basin, Wyoming: Colorado School of Mines M.Sc. thesis, 146p. Goyeneche, J.C., R.M. Slatt, A.C. Rothfolk, and R.J. Davis, 2006, Systematic geological and geophysical charac- terization of a deepwater outcrop for ‘reservoir simu- lation’: Hollywood Quarry, Arkansas: GCSSEPM Foundation 26th Annual Bob F. Perkins Research Con- ference, this volume. Keevil, G.M., J. Peakall, J.L. Best, and K.J. Amos, (2006), Flow structure in sinuous submarine channels: veloc- ity and turbulence structure of an experimental subma- rine channel: Marine Geology, 229, p. 241-257. Kolla V., P. Bourges, J.M. Urruty, and P. Safa, 2001, Evolu- tion of deep-water Tertiary sinuous channels offshore Angola (West Africa) and implications for reservoir architecture: AAPG Bulletin v. 85, no. 8, p. 1373– 1405. Mayall, M., and I. Stewart, 2000, The architecture of turbid- ite slope channels: GCSSEPM Foundation 20th Annual Bob F. Perkins Research Conference, p.578- 586. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  13. 13. 783 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Minton, G.E., 2001, Subsurface study of the Lewis Shale in the southern Washakie and Sand Wash Basins using borehole image logs, core, well logs, and seismic data: Colorado School of Mines M.Sc. thesis, 220p. Minken, J.D., 2004, Deep-water depositional elements: a comparison between outcrops of the Dad Sandstone Lewis Shale, Wyoming and 3D seismic of slope Pleis- tocene deposits, Gulf of Mexico: University of Okla- homa M.Sc. thesis, 290p. Navarre, J-C., D. Claude, E. Liberelle, P. Safa, G. Vallon, and N. Keskes, 2002, Deepwater turbidite system analysis, West Africa: Sedimentary model and implications for reservoir model construction: The Leading Edge, v. 21, p. 1134-1139. Peakall, J., W.D. McCaffrey, B.C. Kneller, C.E. Stelting, T.R. McHargue, and W.J. Schweller, 2000, A process model for the evolution of submarine fan channels; implications for sedimentary architecture, in A.H. Bouma and C.G. Stone, eds., Fine-grained turbidite systems: AAPG Memoir 72/SEPM Special Publica- tion 68, 73-88. Posamentier H.W and V. Kolla, 2002, Anatomy and Evolu- tion of Deep-Water channels: Case studies from Nige- ria and Gulf of Mexico: AAPG Bulletin, v. 86, no. 13, p. 142-143. Posamentier, H.W., and V. Kolla, 2003, Seismic geomorphol- ogy and stratigraphy of depositional elements in deep- water settings: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 73, p. 367–388. Pyles, D.R., and R.M. Slatt, 2000, A high-frequency sequence stratigraphic framework for shallow through deep-water deposits of the Lewis Shale and Fox Hills Sandstone, Great Divide and Washakie basins, Wyo- ming: GCSSEPM Foundation 20th Annual Bob F. Per- kins Research Conference, p.836-861. Pyles, D.R., and R.M. Slatt, in press, Stratigraphic evolution of the Upper Cretaceous Lewis Shale, southern Wyo- ming: Applications to understanding shelf to base-of- slope changes in stratigraphic architecture of mud- dominated, progradational depositional systems, in T.H. Nilsen, R. D. Shew, G.S. Steffens, and J.R.J. Studlick, eds., Atlas of deep-water outcrops: AAPG Studies in Geology 56. Slatt, R.M., J. Minken, S.K. VanDyke, D.R. Pyles, A. J. Wit- ten, and R.A. Young, in press, Scales of heterogeneity of an outcropping leveed-channel system, Cretaceous Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, Wyoming, U.S.A., in T.H. Nilsen, R. D. Shew, G.S. Steffens, and J.R.J. Studlick, eds., Atlas of deep-water outcrops: AAPG Studies in Geology 56. Slatt, R.M., 2000, Why outcrop characterization of turbidite systems?, in A.H. Bouma, C. Stelting, and C.G. Stone. Eds., Fine-grained turbidite systems: AAPG Memoir 72/SEPM Special Publication 68, p. 181-186. Slatt, R.M., H.A. Al-Siyabi, C.W. VanKirk, and R.W. Will- iams, 2000, From geologic characterization to “reser- voir simulation” of a turbidite outcrop, Arkansas, U.S.A., in A.H. Bouma and C.G. Stone, eds., Fine- Grained Turbidite Systems: AAPG Memoir 72/SEPM Special Publication 68, p.187-194. Soyinka, O.A., and R.M. Slatt, in press, Identification and micro-stratigraphy of hyperpycnites and turbidites in Cretaceous Lewis Shale, Wyoming: Sedimentology. Stepler, R., 2003, Three-dimensional imaging of a deep marine channel beneath outcrop with electromagnetic 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  14. 14. Van Dyke et al. 784 induction and ground penetrating radar; Carbon County, South-central Wyoming: University of Okla- homa M.Sc. thesis. Stepler, R.P., A.J. Witten, and R.M. Slatt, 2004, Three dimen- sional imaging of a deep marine channel-levee/over- bank sandstone behind outcrop with electromagnetic induction and ground penetrating radar: The Leading Edge, p. 974-978. Van Dyke, S., 2003, Fine scale 3D architecture of a deepwa- ter channel complex, Carbon County, South-central Wyoming: University of Oklahoma M.Sc. thesis,. Weimer, P., and R.M. Slatt, in press, Introduction to the petroleum geology of deepwater depositional systems: AAPG Special Publication. Witton, E.M., 1999, Outcrop and subsurface characterization of the Lewis Shale, Carbon County, Wyoming: unpub- lished M. Sc. thesis, Colorado School of Mines, 214p. Witton-Barnes, E.M., N.F. Hurley, and R.M. Slatt, 2000, Out- crop and subsurface criteria for differentiation of sheet and channel-fill strata: Example from the Cretaceous Lewis Shale, Wyoming: GCSSEPM Foundation 20th Annual Bob F. Perkins Research Conference, p. 1087- 1105. Witten, A.J., B.R. Witten, and R.M. Slatt, 2005, Seismic reflection processing by plane-wave synthesis: Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, v. 2, p. 1-7. Young, R.A., R.M. Slatt, and J.G. Staggs., 2003, Application of ground-penetrating radar imaging to deepwater (turbidite) outcrops: Marine Geology, v. 20, p. 809- 821. Table 1. Facies Descriptions (applies to any one channel). Facies Description and Average Abundance (%) F1 (blue) Sandstone with water-escape structures (average: 20%) F2 (yellow) Structureless sandstone (without water-escape structures) (average: 53%) F3 (magenta) Cross-bedded sandstone (average: 21%) F4 (dark gray) Parallel to sub-parallel laminated sandstone (average: 4%) F5 (dark green) Rippled or climbing-rippled sandstone (average: 1%) F6 (blue-violet) Shale or mudstone (average: trace) F7 (red) Shale clast conglomerate (average: 4%) F8 (white) Slumped beds (average: 1%) k 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  15. 15. 785 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Table 2. Shot-point locations of channel-fill sandstones across the seismic line. Channel-fill sandstone Shot point locations of channel margins Master channel Entire seismic line #1 215-257 #2 203-250 #3 Does not intersect seismic line #4 209 -251, while the crossing points for #5 #5 257-295 #6 248-294 #7 Does not intersect seismic line #8 Does not intersect seismic line #9/10 204-257 k 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  16. 16. Van Dyke et al. 786 Figure 1. (C) shows the north-south trending Lewis Shale outcrop belt in Wyoming (A). Arrows are dominant pale- ocurrent directions measured from sedimentary structures. Red box shows the main location of the study, which is enlarged in (D) and (E). Beds dip 12o to the southwest. The locations of the Spine 1, Spine 2, and Rattlesnake Ridge outcrops are shown in (D). (B) An orthophoto projection in 3D showing Spines 1 and 2 and the distribution of the chan- nel-fill sandstones (E). A B C Sheet (Frontal Splay) SS Thin-beds Channel SS 12o D E 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  17. 17. 787 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 2. 3D digital elevation model of Spine 1 with the different colors representing elevations (see bar scale at bottom of figure). The 10 channel-fill sandstones are shown in brown in their spatially-correct positions. Maximum thicknesses of each channel sandstone and intervening shale are tabulated, from which Net Sandstone was calculated. Vertical yel- low line is the location of the CSM Strat Test #61 well. Orange line is the location of the N-S trending 2D seismic line discussed in this paper. Red dashed line is the position of a master channel predicted prior to seismic acquisition. Channel Max. Max. Sand. Sh. Thick. (ft.) (ft.) 10: 8 9: 8 8: 12 7: 10 19 6: 8 4/5: 16 3: 8 22 2: 10 22 1: 34 Thick. 6 3 9 3 Total Sandstone = 114 ft. Total Shale = 85 ft. 199ft. Net Sandstone = 57% OU Seismic Line CSM Strat Test #61 6600’ 6620’ 6640’ 6660’ 6680’ 6700’ 6720’ 6740’ 6760’ 6780’6600’ 6620’ 6640’ 6660’ 6680’ 6700’ 6720’ 6740’ 6760’ 6780’ k 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help
  18. 18. Van Dyke et al. 788 Figure 3. (A) 3D spatial orientation of the 10 channel-fill sandstones. (B) Facies comprising each sandstone. Facies color code is provided in Table 1. Erosional remnants N A B 6600’ 6620’ 6640’ 6660’ 6680’ 6700’ 6720’ 6740’ 6760’ 6780’ 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  19. 19. 789 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 4. Depositional model for the Dad Sandstone Spine 1-2 area. Two sheet sandstones that outcrop there are shown as two yellow bars underlying the leveed-channel deposits. Figure modified from Mayall and Stewart (2000) and Beaubeouf (2004). 1km Scales of heterogeneity Dimensions Applications to drilling (I) Leveed-channel system 1-2km wide Channel complexes separated by levees; not connected. (II) Leveed channel complex 0.5km wide; Channel sands not connected. 50-70m thick (III) Leveed-channel sand <0.5kwide Internal variability in facies 3-12m thick and reservoir quality. 70m Sheets or splays levees Channel fill Channel fill 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  20. 20. Van Dyke et al. 790 Figure 5. (A) Channel-fill Sandstone #1 looking toward the northeast; downlap surfaces can clearly be seen. (B) Same sandstone looking west. C = ‘cutbank-like’ side of sandstone. P = ‘point bar-like’ side of sandstone. Red dashed line is estimated depth to base of the channel. Note the interpreted asymmetry of the channel-fill. Downlap surfacesDownlap surfaces ~150 m C C P P A B 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  21. 21. 791 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 6. Amplitude extraction map on interpreted horizon showing raised channel-fill due to differential compaction. Of particular importance here are the small slump scars which appear to be concentrated on the outside bends of sinu- ous channel. After Posamentier and Kolla (2003). Raised channelRaised channel--fill is due to differential compactionfill is due to differential compaction Small slump scarsSmall slump scars 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  22. 22. Van Dyke et al. 792 Figure 7. Spine 1 outcrop, looking south, showing six of the ten channel-fill sandstones. Channel-fill Sandstone #1 is labeled. The red rectangle shows the location and orientation of a ground-penetrating radar line which imaged the base of Channel-fill Sandstone #1, and the position where it emerges at the ground surface (near shot-point 175). The EMI horizon is horizontal, and images the bend in the channel sandstone toward the south, where the sandstone emerges at the ground surface. Proximal levee beds occur in outcrop adjacent to the position of the channel-fill bend. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  23. 23. 793 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 8. (A) Ground penetrating radar line shot behind a channel-fill sandstone at Rattlesnake Ridge (B) which shows the downlap of the channel base and the onlap of the channel-fill. (C) The contact zone shown in A. The red dashed area is composed of thin-beds which are contorted and slumped toward the base of the channel. (D) Interfingers of channel-fill sandstone into the siltier slumped beds at the channel margin. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  24. 24. Van Dyke et al. 794 Figure 9. (A) Conceptual diagram showing the asymmetric distribution of facies with respect to the inside and outside bends of a channel. (B) The five major sub-environments associated with a leveed-channel system: E1) non-sinuous lev- eed-channel, E2) outside bend of sinuous channel, E3) inside bend of sinuous channel, E4) proximal levee, and E5) dis- tal levee. (after VanDyke, 2003). 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  25. 25. 795 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 10. Schemitic illustration of a sinuous channel in plan view. The numerical value of sinuosity is determined as: thalweg length of a single bend wavelength (red arrow) / Axial length of a single bend wavelength (black arrow). For example, is red = 1036m (3399 ft) and blue is 764m (2507), then sinuosity = 1.36. Figure is modified from Keevil et al. (in press). 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  26. 26. Van Dyke et al. 796 Figure 11. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #1. Details are provided in the inset. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  27. 27. 797 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 12. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #2. Details are provided in the inset. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  28. 28. Van Dyke et al. 798 Figure 13. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #3. Details are provided in the inset. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  29. 29. 799 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 14. Amalgamated Channel-fill Sandstones #4 and #5, showing the distribution of key facies. The red dashed line marks the erosional surface which amalgamates the sandstones. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  30. 30. Van Dyke et al. 800 Figure 15. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #4. Details are provided in the inset. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  31. 31. 801 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 16. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #5. Details are provided in the inset. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  32. 32. Van Dyke et al. 802 Figure 17. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #6. Details are provided in the inset. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  33. 33. 803 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 18. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #7. Details are provided in the inset. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  34. 34. Van Dyke et al. 804 Figure 19. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstone #8. Details are provided in the inset. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  35. 35. 805 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 20. Summary of channel geometry for Channel-fill Sandstones #9/10. Details are provided in the inset. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  36. 36. Van Dyke et al. 806 Figure 21. Base of Channel-fill Sandstone #1 based upon shallow borehole drilling, electro-magnetic induction and ground-penetrating radar surveys. Colors on the lower figure refer to the facies filling this portion of the channel (Table 1). 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  37. 37. 807 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 22. (A) Hammer seismic acquisition. (B) CSM Strat Test #61 logs and resultant synthetic seismogram. Time- depth conversion is also shown. (C) Fully processed post-stack time-migrated seismic section recorded behind the out- crop across CSM Strat Test #61 well. The gamma-ray log and synthetic seismogram are superimposed at the proper position on the seismic line. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  38. 38. Van Dyke et al. 808 Figure 23. Graphical illustration of Terrain and Elevation Corrections. Various elevations are shown, from which the calculations were made. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  39. 39. 809 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 24. Seismic line showing the projection of the master channel (orange dashed line) and each of the channel-fill sandstones that are predicted to cross the line. Positions of the channel-fills are based upon the projections shown in Figures 11-13 and 15-20. Yellow is Channel-fill Sandstone #1; Dark blue = Channel-fill Sandstone #2; Gray-blue = Channel-fill Sandstone #4; Red = Channel-fill Sandstone #5; Lime green = Channel-fill Sandstone #6; Brown = Chan- nel-fill Sandstones #9/10. Dashed turquoise line represents an unidentified channel with faint reflections downlapping onto the base (red arrows). A set of downlapping reflections (red arrows) are apparent beneath the master channel to the north of the CSM Strat Test #61 well. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  40. 40. Van Dyke et al. 810 Figure 25. (A) Separate channel-fills interpreted from a sinuous bend in a subsurface channel (B and C). The channel- fills are vertically separated based upon the seismic interpretation. After Kolla et al (2001). 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  41. 41. 811 High Freq. Characterization of an Outcropping, Sinuous Leveed-Channel Complex, Dad Sandstone Member, Lewis Shale, WY Figure 26. Plan view of the interpreted sinuosity of the 10 channel-fill sandstones shown in Figures 11-13 and 15-20. The position of the CSM Strat Test #61 well is shown by the white circle. Color scheme for each channel-fill (CF) is pro- vided. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k
  42. 42. Van Dyke et al. 812 Figure 27. 3D inclined perspective of the 10 channel-fill sandstones shown in Figure 26. The position of the CSM Strat Test #61 well is shown. 4 3 7 Papers Start Author Search Help k

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