Radio

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Radio

  1. 1. Media, power and culture
  2. 2. Overcoming Obstacles <ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcends distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, newspapers, magazines </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Overcoming obstacles <ul><li>Electronics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcends TIME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio, television and the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What happened? <ul><li>What happens when information can be transmitted immediately? </li></ul>
  5. 5. What happens? <ul><li>Mobilize the public </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone experiences it at once </li></ul>
  6. 6. History <ul><li>Marconi to Stern </li></ul>
  7. 7. Regulation <ul><li>191o – Wireless Ship Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All ships using U.S. ports and carrying more than 50 passengers have a working wireless and operator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Titanic incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to the Radio Act of 1912 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required operators to be licensed by the Secretary of Commerce and Labor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Radio Act of 1912 <ul><li>Established authorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequencies were assigned, licenses were issued and could be revoked, fines were instituted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The government was trying to get in early on regulating what would become broadcasting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angered operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act was challenged, repealed and chaos ensued </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 1927 <ul><li>Industry leaders petitioned Commerce Commissioner Herbert Hoover </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Act of 1927 restored order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operators could USE the channels which belonged to the public, but could not own them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Caretakers” of the airwaves, considered a national resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Radio Commission (FRC) was established </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. FRC <ul><li>When a license was awarded the standard of evaluation would be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessity </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Why regulate? <ul><li>Spectrum scarcity – only so much available, so if you wanted to broadcast, you had to accept regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Influence – broadcasting reached virtually everyone in society – regulation controlled its power. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Communications Act of 1934 <ul><li>Replaces Act of 1927 – replaced the FRC with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) which continues today. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation by the government allowed them to take all licenses during war time to use the airwaves for national “need” reissued when war ended. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Deregulation <ul><li>Previous regulation limited the number of stations one entity could own </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Act of 1996 – eliminated national ownership limits. One owner or company can own as many as 8 stations in one market, depending on the size of the market. </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of impact does this have? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Music recording <ul><li>Television or MP3s? Which had the most impact on the recording industry? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s going to happen? </li></ul>
  15. 15. George Carlin <ul><li>FCC vs. Pacifica Foundation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow 5 to 4 decision by the Supreme Court saying the government could regulate what they considered indecent material on public airwaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History Channel </li></ul></ul>

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