The Growth of the  American Labor Movement Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS  Chappaqua, NY
Labor Force Distribution 1870-1900
The Changing American  Labor Force
Child Labor
Child Labor
“ Galley Labor”
Labor Unrest:  1870-1900
The Molly Maguires (1875) James McParland
The Corporate  “Bully-Boys”: Pinkerton Agents
Management vs. Labor “ Tools” of  Management “ Tools” of  Labor <ul><li>“ scabs” </li></ul><ul><li>P. R. campaign </li></u...
A Striker Confronts a SCAB!
Knights of Labor Terence V. Powderly An injury to one is the concern of all!
Knights of Labor Knights of Labor trade card
Goals of the Knights of Labor <ul><li>Eight-hour workday. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers’ cooperatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Worke...
The Great Railroad Strike  of 1877
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
The Tournament of Today:    A Set-to Between Labor and Monopoly
Anarchists Meet on the Lake Front in 1886
Haymarket Riot  (1886) McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.
Haymarket Martyrs
Governor John Peter Altgeld
The American Federation  of Labor:  1886 Samuel Gompers
How the AF of L  Would Help the Workers <ul><li>Catered to the skilled worker. </li></ul><ul><li>Represented workers in ma...
Homestead Steel Strike    (1892) The Amalgamated Association of  Iron & Steel Workers Homestead Steel Works
Big Corporate Profits!
Attempted Assassination! Henry Clay Frick Alexander Berkman
A “Company Town”: Pullman, IL
Pullman Cars A Pullman porter
The Pullman Strike of 1894
President Grover Cleveland If it takes the entire army and navy to  deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card  will be d...
The Pullman Strike of 1894 Government by injunction!
The Socialists Eugene V. Debs
International Workers of the World  ( “Wobblies” )
“ Big Bill” Haywood of the IWW <ul><li>Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism. </li></ul>
I W W & the  Internationale
The Hand That Will Rule the World   One Big Union
Mother Jones:  “The Miner’s Angel” <ul><li>Mary Harris. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizer for the United Mine Workers. </li></ul...
Lawrence, MA Strike:  1912
The “Bread & Roses” Strike <ul><li>DEMANDS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15¢/hr. wage increase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double...
Lawrence, MA Strike:  1912
The “Formula” unions  +  violence + strikes + socialists + immigrants  =     anarchists
Labor Union Membership
“ Solidarity Forever!” by Ralph Chapin (1915) When the union's inspiration    through the workers‘ blood shall run, There ...
Come On and  Sing Along!!
“ Solidarity Forever!” Is there aught we hold in common    with the greedy parasite, Who would lash us into serfdom    and...
“ Solidarity Forever!” *  *  *  * Through our sisters and our brothers   we can make our union strong, For respect and equ...
Workers  Benefits Today
The Rise & Decline of Organized Labor
Right-to-Work States Today
Unionism & Globalization?
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Growth ofthelabormovement

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Growth ofthelabormovement

  1. 1. The Growth of the American Labor Movement Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  2. 2. Labor Force Distribution 1870-1900
  3. 3. The Changing American Labor Force
  4. 4. Child Labor
  5. 5. Child Labor
  6. 6. “ Galley Labor”
  7. 7. Labor Unrest: 1870-1900
  8. 8. The Molly Maguires (1875) James McParland
  9. 9. The Corporate “Bully-Boys”: Pinkerton Agents
  10. 10. Management vs. Labor “ Tools” of Management “ Tools” of Labor <ul><li>“ scabs” </li></ul><ul><li>P. R. campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Pinkertons </li></ul><ul><li>lockout </li></ul><ul><li>blacklisting </li></ul><ul><li>yellow-dog contracts </li></ul><ul><li>court injunctions </li></ul><ul><li>open shop </li></ul><ul><li>boycotts </li></ul><ul><li>sympathy demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>informational picketing </li></ul><ul><li>closed shops </li></ul><ul><li>organized strikes </li></ul><ul><li>“ wildcat” strikes </li></ul>
  11. 11. A Striker Confronts a SCAB!
  12. 12. Knights of Labor Terence V. Powderly An injury to one is the concern of all!
  13. 13. Knights of Labor Knights of Labor trade card
  14. 14. Goals of the Knights of Labor <ul><li>Eight-hour workday. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers’ cooperatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Worker-owned factories. </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of child and prison labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased circulation of greenbacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal pay for men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety codes in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition of contract foreign labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of the National Bank. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
  16. 16. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
  17. 17. The Tournament of Today: A Set-to Between Labor and Monopoly
  18. 18. Anarchists Meet on the Lake Front in 1886
  19. 19. Haymarket Riot (1886) McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.
  20. 20. Haymarket Martyrs
  21. 21. Governor John Peter Altgeld
  22. 22. The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers
  23. 23. How the AF of L Would Help the Workers <ul><li>Catered to the skilled worker. </li></ul><ul><li>Represented workers in matters of national legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained a national strike fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Evangelized the cause of unionism. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevented disputes among the many craft unions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated disputes between management and labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Pushed for closed shops . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Homestead Steel Strike (1892) The Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers Homestead Steel Works
  25. 25. Big Corporate Profits!
  26. 26. Attempted Assassination! Henry Clay Frick Alexander Berkman
  27. 27. A “Company Town”: Pullman, IL
  28. 28. Pullman Cars A Pullman porter
  29. 29. The Pullman Strike of 1894
  30. 30. President Grover Cleveland If it takes the entire army and navy to deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card will be delivered!
  31. 31. The Pullman Strike of 1894 Government by injunction!
  32. 32. The Socialists Eugene V. Debs
  33. 33. International Workers of the World ( “Wobblies” )
  34. 34. “ Big Bill” Haywood of the IWW <ul><li>Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism. </li></ul>
  35. 35. I W W & the Internationale
  36. 36. The Hand That Will Rule the World  One Big Union
  37. 37. Mother Jones: “The Miner’s Angel” <ul><li>Mary Harris. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizer for the United Mine Workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Social Democratic Party in 1898. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the founding members of the I. W. W. in 1905. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Lawrence, MA Strike: 1912
  39. 39. The “Bread & Roses” Strike <ul><li>DEMANDS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15¢/hr. wage increase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double pay for overtime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No discrimination against strikers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An end to “speed-up” on the assembly line. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An end to discrimination against foreign immigrant workers. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Lawrence, MA Strike: 1912
  41. 41. The “Formula” unions + violence + strikes + socialists + immigrants = anarchists
  42. 42. Labor Union Membership
  43. 43. “ Solidarity Forever!” by Ralph Chapin (1915) When the union's inspiration through the workers‘ blood shall run, There can be no power greater anywhere beneath the sun; Yet what force on earth is weaker than the feeble strength of one, But the union makes us strong! CHORUS: Solidarity forever, Solidarity forever, Solidarity forever, For the union makes us strong!
  44. 44. Come On and Sing Along!!
  45. 45. “ Solidarity Forever!” Is there aught we hold in common with the greedy parasite, Who would lash us into serfdom and would crush us with his might? Is there anything left to us but to organize and fight? For the union makes us strong! CHORUS: Solidarity forever, Solidarity forever, Solidarity forever, For the union makes us strong!
  46. 46. “ Solidarity Forever!” * * * * Through our sisters and our brothers we can make our union strong, For respect and equal value, we have done without too long. We no longer have to tolerate injustices and wrongs, Yes, the union makes us strong! CHORUS: Solidarity forever, Solidarity forever, Solidarity forever, For the union makes us strong!
  47. 47. Workers Benefits Today
  48. 48. The Rise & Decline of Organized Labor
  49. 49. Right-to-Work States Today
  50. 50. Unionism & Globalization?

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