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Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
Ppt 3   bonding
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Ppt 3 bonding

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  • 1. Types of Bonding
  • 2. Definitions <ul><li>Bond: a type of interaction between atoms that result in atoms staying close together. Bonding involves the interaction between the _________ __________. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecule: two or more atoms held together by a bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronegativity: the measure of an atom’s ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Dipole: any bond that is polar is considered a dipole. </li></ul>
  • 3. Electronegativity <ul><li>What are the trends? </li></ul><ul><li>-EN increases as the atomic size decreases (left to right, EN increases) </li></ul><ul><li>-noble gases do not have EN because they do not participate in bonding. </li></ul><ul><li>-EN decreases as you go down the periodic table, because the atomic size is increasing. The valence electrons are less strongly attracted to the nucleus. </li></ul>
  • 4. F, O, N –have the highest electronegativity. These three elements participate in hydrogen bonding.
  • 5. Forces of Attraction <ul><li>Intramolecular: bonding within atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Intermolecular: bonding inbetween molecules </li></ul>
  • 6. Types of Interactions Summary Intermolecular Intramolecular
  • 7. Types of Interactions Summary Intermolecular Intramolecular Covalent Ionic
  • 8. Intramolecular: Ionic <ul><li>Between a metal and a non-metal. </li></ul><ul><li>If two atoms with very large differences in electronegativity get together, one of atom could take away an electron from the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptor “stealer” of electron becomes negativity charged (anion = negative ion). </li></ul><ul><li>Donor of electron becomes positively charged (cation = positive ion). </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic bond forms from an attraction between an anion and cation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic compounds are formed by ionic bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Salts are ionic compounds (e.g. Na + + Cl -  NaCl). </li></ul><ul><li>Salt crystals have a 3D lattice because of +/-attractions. </li></ul>
  • 9.  
  • 10. Intramolecular <ul><li>Covalent bonds = sharing of electrons between non-metals and non-metals ( H 2 O) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonpolar (equal sharing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar (unequal sharing) </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Types of Interactions Summary Intermolecular Intramolecular Polar Molecule Covalent Ionic Non-polar molecule
  • 12. Polar or Non-polar? That is the Question! <ul><li>Look at the electronegativity of that molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Magic Numbers: </li></ul><ul><li>If the EN is greater than 1.7 (it’s IONIC). </li></ul><ul><li>If the EN is between 1.7-0.5 (polar covalent molecule) </li></ul><ul><li>If the EN is less than 0.5 (non-polar covalent molecule) </li></ul>
  • 13. Polar Molecule – unequal sharing of electrons <ul><li>You can have positive and negative poles. </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Physics – think of vectors! </li></ul>
  • 14. Non-polar molecule – equal sharing of electrons <ul><li>Think of physics. Vectors </li></ul><ul><li>cancel out. </li></ul><ul><li>-neither positive or negative pole </li></ul><ul><li>-symmetrical </li></ul><ul><li>-equally electronegative </li></ul>
  • 15. … is dependent on the molecular SHAPE and EN of the bonds. Polarity of an entire molecule:
  • 16. Ionic, Polar or Non-polar? <ul><li>Cl 2 , Na 2 O, SiF 4 , </li></ul><ul><li>KF, MgO, CaCl 2 </li></ul>
  • 17. Types of Interactions Summary <ul><li>Strongest to weakest bonds </li></ul>Intermolecular (Van der Waals) Intramolecular Nonpolar Covalent Covalent Ionic Polar Covalent Hydrogen Bonding Dipole-dipole London Dispersion Force
  • 18. <ul><li>Interaction between hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom like O,F,N. (FONZ in happy days) </li></ul><ul><li>Special type of dipole – dipole </li></ul>Hydrogen Bonding – represented by dots in-between molecules.
  • 19. <ul><li>A force of attraction between polar molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Polar solvent water </li></ul><ul><li>More permanent hold of molecules due to the alignment of + and – ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. HCl </li></ul><ul><li>If a vector exists you have a dipole. </li></ul>Dipole-Dipole
  • 20. <ul><li>Between non-polar molecules. Overall non-polar molecule has no charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Once in awhile electrons will gather in one place momentarily and have a charge. That charge would quickly and briefly attract other molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>London forces keeps molecules together. </li></ul><ul><li>Not permanent because they have weak attractive forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Oil molecules, gases (oxygen, nitrogen gas) </li></ul>London Dispersion

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