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Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
Ppt 3 and 4   lipids and nucleic acids
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Ppt 3 and 4 lipids and nucleic acids

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  • 1. Lipid Function <ul><li>Long-term energy storage (fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Form cell membrane (phospholipids) </li></ul><ul><li>Messaging (hormones) </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Cushioning of Internal Organs </li></ul>
  • 2. Lipid Function <ul><li>Why are lipids well suited for long term energy storage? </li></ul><ul><li>Contain many high energy bonds between carbon and hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain twice as much energy per gram than carbohydrates (very concentrated). </li></ul><ul><li>Thus a much more compact form of storage than carbohydrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals stock fats in adipose cells. </li></ul>
  • 3. Types of Lipid <ul><li>Fat (triglycerides) </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipid </li></ul><ul><li>Steroid </li></ul>
  • 4. Triglyceride Structure <ul><li>Consists of 1 glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid chains </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerol: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 carbon molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each carbon has a hydroxyl group attached </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatty acid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unbranched chain of carbons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a carboxyl group at one end </li></ul></ul>Fatty acid Glycerol Fatty acid Fatty acid
  • 5. Forming a triglyceride <ul><li>Condensation reaction between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroxyl on glycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carboxyl on fatty acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results in an ester bond </li></ul><ul><li>Fig 5.10 </li></ul>
  • 6. Fatty acid structure <ul><li>Fatty acids differ in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>1. In length: 4-24 carbons </li></ul><ul><li>2. Saturation: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. Unsaturated Fats <ul><li>One or more double bonds, formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>The kinks where the double bonds are located prevent the molecules from packing together and prevent it from solidifying at room temperature. </li></ul>
  • 8. Properties of Fatty acids Olive oil Butter, lard Examples Plants Animals Origin liquid Solid State at room temperature Double bonds kink Single bonds Structure Unsaturated Saturated
  • 9. Hydrogenated Oil <ul><li>Unsaturated fats that were synthetically converted to saturated fats by adding hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. margarine </li></ul>
  • 10. Atherosclerosis <ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Deposits of plaques form on inner lining of blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces elasticity of vessels </li></ul>
  • 11. Phospholipid structure <ul><li>Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate/polar group </li></ul><ul><li>Polar head: negatively charged, hydrophilic. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpolar tails: fatty acids, hydrophobic. </li></ul><ul><li>Amphipathic: exhibiting both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. </li></ul>Glycerol Fatty acid Fatty acid Phosphate tail
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. Self-assembly of phospholipid <ul><li>Condition: in water (aqueous) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assembly = spontaneous aggregate </li></ul><ul><li>Micelle: single layer of phospholipid with polar head facing out, nonpolar tails facing inward </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipid bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>Fig. 5.13 </li></ul>http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/mcb2.20.micelle.jpg
  • 15. Phospholipid Bilayer
  • 16. Steroid <ul><li>Carbon skeleton, 4 fused rings </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. cholesterol – high levels may contribute to atherosclerosis. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. hormones – estrogen, testosterone </li></ul>
  • 17. Nucleic acids
  • 18. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic acids are used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintaining genetic continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delivering information for protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy molecule (ATP – adenosine triphosphate ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two major nucleic acid polymers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA – ribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul><ul><li>located in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>double-stranded, double helix structure </li></ul><ul><li>stable molecule </li></ul><ul><li>mainly found in cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>single-stranded structure </li></ul><ul><li>unstable molecule </li></ul>
  • 20. Nucleotides <ul><li>The basic subunit of nucleic acids is a nucleotide. </li></ul><ul><li>Three components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pentose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Pentose Sugar Presence of the OH group on carbon 2, makes RNA less stable
  • 22. Nitrogenous Bases purines pyrimidines C G 3 H-bonds T, U A 2 H-bonds Pyrimidine (small) Purine (large)
  • 23. Nucleic Acid <ul><li>reaction between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pentose sugar OH group of one nucleotide (3’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phosphate group of another nucleotide (5’) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>forms phosphodiester bond </li></ul>
  • 24. DNA forms double helix <ul><li>2 strands held together by interactions between base pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Note: 5’  3’ orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-parallel </li></ul>

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