Ppt 1 carbohydrates


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  • pass around molecules for students to practice condensation and hydrolysis reactions
  • Ppt 1 carbohydrates

    1. 1. What are they?
    2. 2. Metabolism <ul><li>Common themes are found in the synthesis ( anabolism ) and break down ( catabolism ) of molecules. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Metabolism glucose fructose sucrose
    4. 4. Metabolism <ul><li>Anabolic reactions occur to form water molecules through the process of dehydration synthesis or condensation . </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolic reactions require water to separate components through the process of hydrolysis . </li></ul>
    5. 5. Macromolecules: What you need to know! <ul><li>Structure of the basic unit (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) </li></ul><ul><li>How they react to form larger molecules </li></ul><ul><li>How the larger molecules are broken down into basic units </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of the molecules in living organisms </li></ul>
    6. 6. What carbohydrates are you already familiar with?
    7. 7. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Saccharides are used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>building materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cellular communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides may exist as a linear molecule or a ringed structure. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Monosaccharides glucose galactose fructose *Numbering and linkage* *
    9. 9. Aldose vs. Ketose Sugars <ul><li>In linear form , sugars may be classified as aldose or ketose sugars, depending on the functional groups they contain. </li></ul>*
    10. 10. Linear vs. Ringed Saccharides: Glucose *
    11. 11. Linear vs. Ringed Saccharides: Fructose *
    12. 12. Saccharide Reactions <ul><li>monosaccharides participate in condensation reactions to form disaccharides and polysaccharide </li></ul><ul><li>Which two functional groups participate in this reaction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two hydroxyl groups </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Saccharide Reactions <ul><li>Two hydroxyl groups condense to form a glycosidic bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycosidic bonds are named according to the C atoms participating in the reaction. </li></ul>*
    14. 14. Anomeric Carbon <ul><li>Linear glucose molecules spontaneously form ring structures in aqueous solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>The C=O group ( carbonyl group ) of the linear molecule will react with an OH group to form a stable 5 or 6 sided ring structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending if the OH group attaches from the top or bottom, different glucose structures are formed. The C of the C=O group is called an anomeric carbon . </li></ul>
    15. 15. Aldose vs. Ketose Sugars <ul><li>In linear form , sugars may be classified as aldose or ketose sugars, depending on the functional groups they contain. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Anomeric Carbon  -glucose  -glucose *
    17. 17. Linear vs. Ringed Saccharides: Glucose
    18. 18. Anomeric Carbon Alpha Fructose Beta Fructose *
    19. 19. Anomeric Carbon <ul><li> -glucose and  -glucose form different types of bonds in polymers. </li></ul>indigestible digestible OH OH OH OH *
    20. 20. What do these words mean to you?
    21. 21. Reducing Sugars <ul><li>In a chemical reaction, when the anomeric carbon of a carbohydrate has a hydroxyl group available to participate, it is considered a reducing sugar . </li></ul>
    22. 22. Anomeric Carbon
    23. 23. Disaccharides: Reducing? <ul><li>glucose + glucose  maltose </li></ul>
    24. 24. Disaccharides: Reducing? <ul><li>galactose + glucose  lactose </li></ul>
    25. 25. Disaccharides: Reducing? <ul><li>glucose + fructose  sucrose </li></ul>
    26. 27. Major Molecules <ul><li>Glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amylose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amylopectin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Chitin </li></ul>
    27. 28. Glycogen <ul><li>storage of glucose molecules in animals (specifically the liver) </li></ul><ul><li>highly branched molecule </li></ul><ul><li> -1,4-glycosidic bonds </li></ul><ul><li> -1,6-glycosidic bonds (branches) </li></ul>*
    28. 29. Glycogen *
    29. 30. Starch <ul><li>Amylose </li></ul><ul><li>Amylopectin </li></ul><ul><li>storage of glucose in plants </li></ul><ul><li>unbranched molecule </li></ul><ul><li> -1,4-glycosidic bonds only </li></ul><ul><li>storage of glucose in plants </li></ul><ul><li>branched molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less branched than glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li> -1,4-glycosidic bonds </li></ul><ul><li> -1,6-glycosidic bonds (branches) </li></ul>
    30. 31. Starch *
    31. 32. Cellulose <ul><li>plant cell wall material </li></ul><ul><li>straight-chained molecule of glucose monomers </li></ul><ul><li> -1,4-glycosidic bonds </li></ul><ul><li>H-bonding due to hydroxyl groups between chains provides strength </li></ul>
    32. 33. Cellulose
    33. 34. Chitin <ul><li>main component of fungal cell walls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose-like monomers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>component of hard exoskeletons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crustaceans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>hard mouth structures of cephalopods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>squid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>octopus </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Chitin
    35. 36. Chitin