Hiv and aids[1]

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  • http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/cdc/6058.html http://www.geradts.com/anil/ij///vol_003_no_002/reviews/tb/page001.html
  • http://www.aidsactioncoalition.org/images/hiv_virus.gif http://www.rhodes.edu/biology/glindquester/viruses/pagespass/hiv/retrovirus.jpg
  • Campbell text: Figure 43.20
  • Hiv and aids[1]

    1. 1. HIV and AIDS World Aids Day December 1, 2010
    2. 2. Statistics <ul><li>58,000 Canadians have HIV </li></ul><ul><li>One million people have HIV in North America </li></ul>
    3. 3. History of AIDS <ul><li>1981 Large number of cases of Kaposi’s cancer in the US </li></ul><ul><li>1983 HIV was identified as the virus that causes AIDS </li></ul>
    4. 4. HIV/AIDS
    5. 5. Central Dogma DNA  RNA  Protein <ul><li>DNA = genetic information (original instructions) </li></ul><ul><li>RNA = a copy of the genetic information (message) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein = building blocks of life (workers) </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription: DNA  RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Translation: RNA  proteins </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ztPkv7wc3yU&feature=related (transcription) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OtYz_3rkvPk&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0248WyghCjc&feature=related (translation) </li></ul>
    6. 6. HIV: A retrovirus Receptors: CD4 molecules Coreceptors: fusin, CCR5
    7. 7. <ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Viral RNA enters the host cell along with the enzyme reverse transcriptase </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse transcriptase copies the viral RNA into DNA </li></ul><ul><li>The reverse transcribed viral DNA is integrated into the host cell’s genome </li></ul><ul><li>Retroviruses (RNA Virus) </li></ul>Retroviruses have an enzyme that is capable of reverse transcribing their RNA into DNA. This viral DNA can then be integrated into the host cell’s genome. Retroviruses replicate with a high mutation rate. This increases it’s ability to evolve and survive.
    8. 8. HIV <ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =mzfnxCEsck4 </li></ul>
    9. 9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eS1GODinO8w (more descriptive) <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dn1tNIrMPRk&feature=related (simple video clip) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Pathology of HIV <ul><li>Two major strains: HIV-1 and HIV-2 </li></ul><ul><li>HIV primarily infects helper T cells in the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Helper T cells normally trigger other white blood cells to make antibodies </li></ul>Campbell Fig. 43.19
    11. 11. T-Cells <ul><li>T-cell is a type of white blood cell (leukocytes) </li></ul><ul><li>The thymus is responsible for maturing the T-cells to fight infections. </li></ul><ul><li>“ T” stands for thymus </li></ul>
    12. 12. How HIV is spread <ul><li>By having unprotected sex with an infected person </li></ul><ul><li>By sharing needles with an infected person </li></ul><ul><li>HIV positive mothers can pass it on to their unborn children </li></ul>
    13. 13. Challenges with AIDS vaccines <ul><li>HIV is a retrovirus which integrates viral DNA into host DNA </li></ul><ul><li>HIV has a high rate of mutations </li></ul><ul><li>HIV attacks the body’s defense system </li></ul>

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