Blood composition

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Blood composition

  1. 1. BLOOD
  2. 2. Vasular System <ul><li>Made up of blood vessels that carry blood </li></ul>
  3. 3. Blood is considered a tissue! <ul><li>Aggregation of cells that are similar in structure and function. Cells do not need to be identical, but from the SAME origin that carry out a specific function. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Average Adult <ul><li>Male: 5-6 L </li></ul><ul><li>Female: 3-5 L </li></ul>
  5. 5. Blood Composition Blood Plasma (55%) Cells (45%) RBC (44%) WBC Platelets 1% serum Water (92%) Proteins Lymphocyte macrophage Others
  6. 6. Red Blood Cells <ul><li>Made in the bone marrow </li></ul>
  7. 7. Structure <ul><li>Erythrocytes – 99% of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Mature RBC has no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin – iron containing </li></ul><ul><li>molecule that binds to oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>5.5 million/mL – males </li></ul><ul><li>4.5 million/mL - females </li></ul>
  8. 8. Function <ul><li>Hemoglobin contains four iron atoms that are each part of a heme group. </li></ul><ul><li>Four molecules of oxygen attach to one molecule of hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>One RBC contains 280 million molecules of hemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>RBC live 3-4 months. They go to the liver where iron is recycled. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Platelets <ul><li>Made in the bone marrow </li></ul>
  10. 10. Structure <ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Live about 7-10 days </li></ul><ul><li>Makes up 0.6 – 1 % </li></ul>
  11. 11. Function <ul><li>Clot blood </li></ul><ul><li>Protect body from excessive blood loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Process: Activated by injury. They collect at site. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals react and produce thromboplastin </li></ul><ul><li>Thromboplastin reacts with prothrombin to produce thrombin (need calcium). </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombin reacts with fibrinogen to produce fibrin </li></ul><ul><li>This creates a mesh to stop cells from escaping. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Clot
  13. 13. Monocyte/Macrophage <ul><li>Cell Type - Phagocytic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Function – digest pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Immune response: Innate (no immunological memory) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lymphocyte <ul><li>Cell type – non phagocytic cells (T-cells – mature in the thymus and B cells mature in the bone marrow) </li></ul><ul><li>Function – Recognize pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Immune response – Acquired (exposure of pathogen leads to an immunological memory) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Serum <ul><li>Serum Albumin – maintains blood volume and blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Serum Globulin – a number of protein components that act to defend the body against disease. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Antigen <ul><li>Two Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Invader </li></ul><ul><li>Protein found on the blood </li></ul>
  17. 17. O AB B A Antibodies (present in plasma) Antigen (Present on blood cell) Blood Type
  18. 18. Agglutination <ul><li>Clumping of RBC due to the mixture of different blood groups. The antibodies recognize the unfamiliar antigens and bind to it, causing them to clump. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Rh Factor <ul><li>Another antigen on the RBC. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Antibody <ul><li>Protein in blood plasma, which recognizes the antigen of foreign blood or substance in the body </li></ul>

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