13 cns-para-sympathetic-2010 update


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13 cns-para-sympathetic-2010 update

  1. 2. Three Sections of the Brain <ul><li>Forebrain </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Hind brain </li></ul>
  2. 3. forebrain hindbrain midbrain
  3. 4. Forebrain <ul><li>olfactory lobes – sense of smell </li></ul><ul><li>cerebrum – coordination of senses and voluntary motor actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largest and most highly developed in humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>further split into four lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cerebral cortex – cerebrum surface </li></ul>
  4. 5. forebrain
  5. 7. Frontal Lobe <ul><li>controls voluntary muscle movement </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>modulates emotions based on socially acceptable norms </li></ul>
  6. 9. Temporal Lobe <ul><li>processes vision and hearing </li></ul><ul><li>hippocampus – long-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>amygdala – processes memory and emotions </li></ul>
  7. 10. Temporal Lobe
  8. 12. Parietal Lobe <ul><li>processes touch and temperature </li></ul><ul><li>visuospatial analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>examines numbers and processes ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visuospatial Tests </li></ul>
  9. 13. Visuospatial Tests <ul><li>What is the missing number in the following sequence? 13 7 18 10 5 ? 9 1 12 6 </li></ul>
  10. 14. Visuospatial Tests Of the groups of images, which does not belong?
  11. 15. Visuospatial Tests <ul><li>Count the number of triangles or squares. </li></ul>
  12. 16. Visuospatial Tests <ul><li>The geometric figure below can be divided with one straight line into two parts that will fit together to make a perfect square. The dividing line must connect which 2 points? </li></ul>
  13. 17. Visuospatial Tests <ul><li>The design on the left is made up of three paper squares of different sizes, one on top of the other. Assuming the squares are opaque and cannot be folded or otherwise altered, what is the minimum number of squares needed to create the design on the right? </li></ul>
  14. 18. Visuospatial Tests <ul><li>Fold the top image into a 3-D cube. </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the bottom images represents the correctly folded object? </li></ul>
  15. 20. Occipital Lobe <ul><li>responsible for primary visual information processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coordinates information gathered from the retina </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. midbrain
  17. 22. Midbrain <ul><li>thalamus – relays information between various parts of cerebrum (brain surface) </li></ul><ul><li>hypothalamus – homeostatic regulation </li></ul><ul><li>pituitary – homeostatic regulation </li></ul>
  18. 23. Midbrain Regions
  19. 24. hindbrain
  20. 25. Hind Brain <ul><li>cerebellum – regulates limb movement, balance and muscle tone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>finer muscle movements involve signals along more nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>medulla oblongata – controls involuntary muscles </li></ul><ul><li>pons – bridges information between cerebellum and medulla oblongata </li></ul>
  21. 26. Cerebellum
  22. 27. Medulla Oblongata & Pons
  23. 29. Brain Hemispheres <ul><li>Right vs. Left Brain </li></ul><ul><li>right brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>visual patterns & spatial awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>left brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal skills & logic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>corpus callosum – nerve bundle allows communication between hemispheres </li></ul>
  24. 32. Blood-Brain Barrier <ul><li>Nutrients are not brought to brain by the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>nutrients transported by the cerebrospinal fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>middle of the spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inner layers of meninges </li></ul></ul>
  25. 33. Blood-Brain Barrier <ul><li>meninges – determines which chemicals may enter the brain </li></ul><ul><li>The meninges PAD the brain in three layers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arachnoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dura </li></ul></ul>
  26. 34. Meningitis <ul><li>inflammation of the meninges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>antibodies do not reach the brain </li></ul><ul><li>requires prompt medical treatment </li></ul>
  27. 37. Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic <ul><li>sympathetic nervous system – prepares body for stress </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>affected by epinephrine / norepinephrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>parasympathetic nervous system – restores body to normal balance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>affected by acetylcholine </li></ul></ul></ul>