11 nervous system-2010 update stacy

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11 nervous system-2010 update stacy

  1. 2. Vertebrate Nervous Systems <ul><li>Two major subsystems: </li></ul><ul><li>central nervous system (CNS) </li></ul><ul><li>peripheral nervous system (PNS) </li></ul>
  2. 3. Central Nervous System <ul><li>Two main components: </li></ul><ul><li>brain </li></ul><ul><li>spinal cord </li></ul>
  3. 6. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Contains two main nerve types: </li></ul><ul><li>somatic nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involved with voluntary movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>autonomic nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involved with involuntary movement </li></ul></ul>senses / movement sympathetic / parasympathetic systems
  4. 7. Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Two major cell types: </li></ul><ul><li>neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conduct electrical signals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>glial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structural & insulating support for neurons </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. nucleus cell body axon dendrites axon terminal glial cell node of Ranvier
  6. 9. Form insulating myelin sheaths around the axons of many neurons.
  7. 10. Neuron Signalling <ul><li>How do electrical signals pass through cells? </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane Potential </li></ul><ul><li>glial cells provide insulation for electrical impulses to pass through axon </li></ul><ul><li>glial cell membrane has a lot of lipid molecules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid molecules are poor electrical conductors, therefore, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the myelin sheath provides electrical insulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>neurilemma - myelin sheaths wrapped around each other </li></ul>
  8. 11. Multiple Sclerosis <ul><li>Mylein sheaths gradually deteriote </li></ul><ul><li>This results in a disruption of </li></ul><ul><li>nerve impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>-Loss of coordination </li></ul><ul><li>-muscle control </li></ul><ul><li>-vision </li></ul><ul><li>-numbness </li></ul><ul><li>*Autoimmune disease </li></ul>
  9. 12. Grey / White Matter <ul><li>Why are brains said to be made of grey and white matter? </li></ul><ul><li>white matter – neurons with neurilemma </li></ul><ul><li>grey matter – neurons without neurilemma </li></ul>
  10. 13. Grey / White Matter
  11. 15. Sensory Neuron <ul><li>also known as afferent neurons </li></ul><ul><li>carries signals from sensory receptors to the CNS for processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>photoreceptors (eyes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chemoreceptors (nose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thermoreceptors (skin) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>found in clusters of neurons— ganglia </li></ul>
  12. 18. Interneuron <ul><li>also known as association neurons </li></ul><ul><li>receives incoming signals from sensory neurons </li></ul><ul><li>delivers outgoing signals to neurons responsible for responses </li></ul>
  13. 20. Motor Neuron <ul><li>also known as efferent neurons </li></ul><ul><li>connected to tissues that respond according what was detected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gland secretion </li></ul></ul>
  14. 21. Neuron Responses <ul><li>Does all information detected by your senses go through your brain? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflex arc – connects sensory and motor neurons without going to the brain </li></ul></ul>
  15. 22. Knee reflex
  16. 23. Neuron Repair <ul><li>Do neurons regenerate? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes. Peripheral system neurons will repair faster than central system neurons. </li></ul>

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