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11 nervous system-2010 update stacy
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11 nervous system-2010 update stacy






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11 nervous system-2010 update stacy 11 nervous system-2010 update stacy Presentation Transcript

  • Vertebrate Nervous Systems
    • Two major subsystems:
    • central nervous system (CNS)
    • peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • Central Nervous System
    • Two main components:
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System
    • Contains two main nerve types:
    • somatic nerves
      • involved with voluntary movement
    • autonomic nerves
      • involved with involuntary movement
    senses / movement sympathetic / parasympathetic systems
  • Cells of the Nervous System
    • Two major cell types:
    • neurons
      • conduct electrical signals
    • glial cells
      • structural & insulating support for neurons
  • nucleus cell body axon dendrites axon terminal glial cell node of Ranvier
  • Form insulating myelin sheaths around the axons of many neurons.
  • Neuron Signalling
    • How do electrical signals pass through cells?
    • Membrane Potential
    • glial cells provide insulation for electrical impulses to pass through axon
    • glial cell membrane has a lot of lipid molecules.
      • Lipid molecules are poor electrical conductors, therefore,
      • the myelin sheath provides electrical insulation
    • neurilemma - myelin sheaths wrapped around each other
  • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Mylein sheaths gradually deteriote
    • This results in a disruption of
    • nerve impulses.
    • Symptoms:
    • -Loss of coordination
    • -muscle control
    • -vision
    • -numbness
    • *Autoimmune disease
  • Grey / White Matter
    • Why are brains said to be made of grey and white matter?
    • white matter – neurons with neurilemma
    • grey matter – neurons without neurilemma
  • Grey / White Matter
  • Sensory Neuron
    • also known as afferent neurons
    • carries signals from sensory receptors to the CNS for processing
      • photoreceptors (eyes)
      • chemoreceptors (nose)
      • thermoreceptors (skin)
    • found in clusters of neurons— ganglia
  • Interneuron
    • also known as association neurons
    • receives incoming signals from sensory neurons
    • delivers outgoing signals to neurons responsible for responses
  • Motor Neuron
    • also known as efferent neurons
    • connected to tissues that respond according what was detected
      • muscle contraction
      • gland secretion
  • Neuron Responses
    • Does all information detected by your senses go through your brain?
      • reflex arc – connects sensory and motor neurons without going to the brain
  • Knee reflex
  • Neuron Repair
    • Do neurons regenerate?
    • Yes. Peripheral system neurons will repair faster than central system neurons.