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10 xenobiotics-2011 update stacy
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10 xenobiotics-2011 update stacy

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Xenobiotics
    • chemicals not naturally made in organisms
    • Topics:
    • pain killers
    • vitamin supplements
    • caffeine
    • anabolic steroids
    • less than legal substances
    • birth control
    • anti-stress / anti-depressants
    • diet pills / laxatives
  • 3. Pain Killers
    • analgesics – group of pharmaceuticals (synthetic) that relieve pain
    • aspirin
    • ~400 B.C. records show pain relieving effects of willow tree bark and leaves
    • reduces prostaglandin production that send pain signals to the brain
    • excess amounts may affect digestive tract (ulcers) and renal function (causes blood thinning)
  • 4. Pain Killers
    • Tylenol (acetominophen)
    • reduces prostaglandin production that send pain signals to the brain
    • also useful as an antipyretic (treat flu-like symptoms)
    • excessive amounts affect liver function
      • largest cause of liver failure in North America
  • 5. Pain Killers
    • Advil (ibuprofen)
    • reduces prostaglandin production that send pain signals to the brain
    • shorter half-life than aspirin
    • similar side-effects as aspirin, but to a smaller degree
  • 6. HSAN - Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy
    • A condition where people cannot feel any pain.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vLsZ_dXFAg
  • 7. Athletic Enhancement
    • anabolic steroids – pharmaceuticals designed to mimic testosterone effects (increased masculinization)
    • increased muscle development
    • greater strength
    • no impact on skill or agility
    • does not improve cardiovascular efficiency
  • 8. Anabolic Steroids
    • initially used to treat various ailments
      • recognized for its “strengthening” properties
    • Side Effects:
    • elevated blood pressure
    • increased cholesterol levels
    • liver damage
    • reduced gonadal / sex organ activity
      • Decreases levels of LH and FSH, leading to less sperm production as well as hypogonadism.
  • 9. Tetrahydrocannibinol - THC
    • self-defense metabolite of Cannibis plant
    • psychoactive drug (cannibinoid)
    • binds to receptors in the central nervous system
      • analgesic effects
      • appetite stimulator
  • 10. Tetrahydrocannibinol - THC
    • Impairments:
    • memory loss
    • poor working memory
    • poor coordination
    • poor concentration
    • hallucinations
    • anxiety / depression
  • 11. Opioids
    • ex. morphine, codeine, heroin
    • morphine became a recreational drug, Bayer wanted to develop a less addictive counterpart (heroin)
    • binds to opioid receptors in the central nervous system
      • works as an analgesic
  • 12. Heroin
    • Side effects:
    • tolerance quickly develops
    • dependency increases
    • body metabolizes to a psychoactive chemical
    • chronic constipation
    • decreased kidney function
  • 13. Birth Control Pills
    • mixture of estrogen / progesterone or estrogen itself
    • synthetic hormones to suppress ovulation
      • taken daily as hormones are flushed out in 24 hrs
    • 28 days of pills
      • hormone levels vary to simulate a regular cycle
      • Prevent ovulation and create thick cervical mucus which makes a hostile environment for sperm.
  • 14. Birth Control Pills
    • Side Effects:
    • increased acne
    • weight gain
    • linked to depression
    • hypertension
    • increased blood clotting
    • increased risk of stroke
    • linked to reduced risk of uterine cancers
  • 15. Emergency Contraception
    • contains the same hormones as the contraceptive pill, just greater concentration
      • prevents ovulation
      • prevents fertilization
      • prevents implantation
    • to be used no more than 72 hours after intercourse
      • one or two pills depending on the pill
  • 16. Emergency Contraception
    • Side Effects:
    • nausea
    • abdominal pain
    • fatigue
    • headache
    • disruption to normal menstrual cycle
  • 17. Antidepressants / Anti stress
    • multitude of chemicals and mechanisms of action
    • increase norepinephrine concentration
    • affects mood-regulating neurotransmitters
      • reduce uptake of serotonin
      • reduce uptake of dopamine
  • 18. Antidepressants / Anti stress
    • Side Effects:
    • tolerance to chemicals
    • nausea
    • headaches
    • Dizziness
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FTXvWU258FM
  • 19. Diet Pills
    • multitude of chemicals and mechanisms of action
    • catecholamines to suppress appetite
    • inhibit body from absorbing specific nutrients
    • laxatives to remove solid wastes faster
  • 20. Diet Pills
    • Side Effects:
    • increased blood pressure
    • increased heart rate / heart palpitations
    • glaucoma
    • addiction
    • insomnia / restlessness