10 xenobiotics-2011 update stacy

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10 xenobiotics-2011 update stacy

  1. 2. Xenobiotics <ul><li>chemicals not naturally made in organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Topics: </li></ul><ul><li>pain killers </li></ul><ul><li>vitamin supplements </li></ul><ul><li>caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>anabolic steroids </li></ul><ul><li>less than legal substances </li></ul><ul><li>birth control </li></ul><ul><li>anti-stress / anti-depressants </li></ul><ul><li>diet pills / laxatives </li></ul>
  2. 3. Pain Killers <ul><li>analgesics – group of pharmaceuticals (synthetic) that relieve pain </li></ul><ul><li>aspirin </li></ul><ul><li>~400 B.C. records show pain relieving effects of willow tree bark and leaves </li></ul><ul><li>reduces prostaglandin production that send pain signals to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>excess amounts may affect digestive tract (ulcers) and renal function (causes blood thinning) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Pain Killers <ul><li>Tylenol (acetominophen) </li></ul><ul><li>reduces prostaglandin production that send pain signals to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>also useful as an antipyretic (treat flu-like symptoms) </li></ul><ul><li>excessive amounts affect liver function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largest cause of liver failure in North America </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Pain Killers <ul><li>Advil (ibuprofen) </li></ul><ul><li>reduces prostaglandin production that send pain signals to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>shorter half-life than aspirin </li></ul><ul><li>similar side-effects as aspirin, but to a smaller degree </li></ul>
  5. 6. HSAN - Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy <ul><li>A condition where people cannot feel any pain. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vLsZ_dXFAg </li></ul>
  6. 7. Athletic Enhancement <ul><li>anabolic steroids – pharmaceuticals designed to mimic testosterone effects (increased masculinization) </li></ul><ul><li>increased muscle development </li></ul><ul><li>greater strength </li></ul><ul><li>no impact on skill or agility </li></ul><ul><li>does not improve cardiovascular efficiency </li></ul>
  7. 8. Anabolic Steroids <ul><li>initially used to treat various ailments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recognized for its “strengthening” properties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Side Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>elevated blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>increased cholesterol levels </li></ul><ul><li>liver damage </li></ul><ul><li>reduced gonadal / sex organ activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases levels of LH and FSH, leading to less sperm production as well as hypogonadism. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Tetrahydrocannibinol - THC <ul><li>self-defense metabolite of Cannibis plant </li></ul><ul><li>psychoactive drug (cannibinoid) </li></ul><ul><li>binds to receptors in the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analgesic effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appetite stimulator </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Tetrahydrocannibinol - THC <ul><li>Impairments: </li></ul><ul><li>memory loss </li></ul><ul><li>poor working memory </li></ul><ul><li>poor coordination </li></ul><ul><li>poor concentration </li></ul><ul><li>hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety / depression </li></ul>
  10. 11. Opioids <ul><li>ex. morphine, codeine, heroin </li></ul><ul><li>morphine became a recreational drug, Bayer wanted to develop a less addictive counterpart (heroin) </li></ul><ul><li>binds to opioid receptors in the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>works as an analgesic </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Heroin <ul><li>Side effects: </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance quickly develops </li></ul><ul><li>dependency increases </li></ul><ul><li>body metabolizes to a psychoactive chemical </li></ul><ul><li>chronic constipation </li></ul><ul><li>decreased kidney function </li></ul>
  12. 13. Birth Control Pills <ul><li>mixture of estrogen / progesterone or estrogen itself </li></ul><ul><li>synthetic hormones to suppress ovulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>taken daily as hormones are flushed out in 24 hrs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>28 days of pills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hormone levels vary to simulate a regular cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent ovulation and create thick cervical mucus which makes a hostile environment for sperm. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Birth Control Pills <ul><li>Side Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>increased acne </li></ul><ul><li>weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>linked to depression </li></ul><ul><li>hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>increased blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>increased risk of stroke </li></ul><ul><li>linked to reduced risk of uterine cancers </li></ul>
  14. 15. Emergency Contraception <ul><li>contains the same hormones as the contraceptive pill, just greater concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents fertilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents implantation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>to be used no more than 72 hours after intercourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one or two pills depending on the pill </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Emergency Contraception <ul><li>Side Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>nausea </li></ul><ul><li>abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>headache </li></ul><ul><li>disruption to normal menstrual cycle </li></ul>
  16. 17. Antidepressants / Anti stress <ul><li>multitude of chemicals and mechanisms of action </li></ul><ul><li>increase norepinephrine concentration </li></ul><ul><li>affects mood-regulating neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce uptake of serotonin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce uptake of dopamine </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Antidepressants / Anti stress <ul><li>Side Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance to chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>nausea </li></ul><ul><li>headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FTXvWU258FM </li></ul>
  18. 19. Diet Pills <ul><li>multitude of chemicals and mechanisms of action </li></ul><ul><li>catecholamines to suppress appetite </li></ul><ul><li>inhibit body from absorbing specific nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>laxatives to remove solid wastes faster </li></ul>
  19. 20. Diet Pills <ul><li>Side Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>increased blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>increased heart rate / heart palpitations </li></ul><ul><li>glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>addiction </li></ul><ul><li>insomnia / restlessness </li></ul>

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