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09a reproductive hormones-2010 update
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09a reproductive hormones-2010 update Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Male Reproductive Hormones
    • androsterone
    • testosterone
  • 3. Male Reproductive Hormones
    • both hormones are released from testes
  • 4. Testes Cells
    • Leydig interstitial cells synthesize hormones
    • Sertoli cells synthesize sperm
  • 5. Testosterone Role
    • stimulates spermatogenesis (life time process)
    • develops male characteristics at puberty
    • increased secretion of body oils
      • commonly associated to body odour
  • 6. Gonadotropic Hormones
    • gonadotropic hormones regulate gonad development (male and female)
      • produced in the pituitary; released upon hypothalamus signal
    • follicle stimulating hormone ( FSH )
    • luteinizing hormone ( LH )
  • 7. Male Gonad Development
    • hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( GnRH )
    • pituitary gland releases FSH & LH
    • LSH stimulates Sertoli cells to form sperm
    • FSH stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone
  • 8. Male Gonad Development
      • Role of testosterone:
    • promotes Sertoli cell activity
      • increases sperm cell production
      • four sperm per germ cell
    • negative feedback on hypothalamus
  • 9. hypothalamus pituitary testes Sertoli cells Leydig cells GnRH FSH LH testosterone sperm production
  • 10. Female Reproductive System
    • estrogen
    • progesterone
  • 11. Female Reproductive System
    • both produced in the ovaries
  • 12. Ovary Follicle Cells
    • primary oocyte fertilized by sperm
    • granulosa cells provide nutrients for primary oocyte
  • 13. Female Reproductive System
    • comparatively more complicated than male reproductive system
      • monthly cycle until menopause (~12 to 50 yrs)
      • one ovum produced per germ cell
    • female hormones responsible for oogenesis and ovulation
  • 14.  
  • 15. Menstrual Cycle
    • menstruation (flow phase)
      • sloughing of endometrial cells
      • no ovum fertilization
      • estrogen and progesterone levels low
    • follicular phase
      • follicle maturation
      • estrogen secretion by granulosa cells
  • 16. Menstrual Cycle
    • 3. ovulation
      • ovum leaves ovary
      • granulosa cells become corpus luteum
      • corpus luteum begins to secrete progesterone
      • estrogen levels decrease
  • 17. Menstrual Cycle
    • 4. luteal phase / secretory stage
      • corpus luteum secretes progesterone & estrogen
      • progesterone encourages endometrium development
  • 18.  
  • 19. Female Gonad Development
    • GnRH, FSH and LH involved
    • hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( GnRH )
    • pituitary gland releases FSH & LH
    • FSH matures follicle
    • LH causes ovulation and causes corpus luteum maturation
  • 20. hypothalamus pituitary ovaries follicle corpus luteum GnRH FSH LH progesterone some estrogen estrogen 1 2 ovulation
  • 21. Menopause
    • ovaries lose responsiveness to FSH and LH
    • usually occurs between ages 46 and 54
    • most other mammals do not undergo menopause
      • thought to allow human females to take care of grandchildren rather than continue to reproduce