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07 glucose regulation 2010 stacy
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07 glucose regulation 2010 stacy

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    07 glucose regulation 2010 stacy 07 glucose regulation 2010 stacy Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Blood Sugar Regulation
      • Read pages 966-968
      • Key terms:
      • Islets of Langerhans
      • Beta and Alpha cells
      • Glucagon and insulin
      • Diabetes I and II
      • Page 968 (feedback mechanism)
      • Page 969-971
      • Adrenal
      • Adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla
      • Long-term stress: ACTH Adrenal Medulla
      • Glucocoticoids – cortisol Short-term stress
      • Mineralcorticoids – aldosterone 1. epinephrine
      • 2. norepinephrine
      • Picture – Page 971
    •  
    •  
    • Pancreas
      • Two cell types to produce:
      • digestive enzymes – exocrine acini
      • hormones – islets of Langerhans
      1 – 2% of pancreas are the islets of Langerhans
    • Islets of Langerhans
      • Two hormones are produced:
      • insulin – beta cells
      • glucagon – alpha cells
      blue = cell nuclei green = insulin red = glucagon
    • Insulin Function
      • When is insulin released? after eating
      hyperglycemia beta cells cellular signals for insulin release decreased blood sugar increased glucose uptake glycogen production in liver
    • Glucagon Function
      • What does glucagon do? breaks down glycogen
      hypoglycemia alpha cells cellular signals for glucagon release increased blood sugar glucose release from liver glucose production in liver
    • Diabetes Mellitus – Type I
      • also known as juvenile diabetes
      • Cause
        • immune system attacking insulin-producing beta cells
      • Symptoms
        • increased thirst, hunger and urination
      • Treatment
        • daily dosage of insulin
    • Diabetes Mellitus – Type II
      • also known as adult-onset diabetes
      • Cause
        • insulin resistance / deficiency
      • Symptoms
        • increased thirst, hunger and urination
        • fatigue / lethargy
      • Treatment
        • maintain healthy diet and frequent exercise
        • medication only upon progression of disease state
    • Diabetes Insipidus
      • Cause
        • deficiency of ADH
      • Symptoms
        • excessive thirst and urination
        • reduction of fluid intake does not affect urination frequency
        • no increased blood glucose
      • Treatment
        • ADH replacement / stimulating medication
    • Canadian Connection
      • Frederick Banting & Charles Best
      • Nobel Prize – 1923
      • insulin isolation
        • tied off ducts to digestive tract
        • cell producing digestive enzymes shrivelled
        • only islets of Langerhans remained
    • Banting and Best
      • Banting and Best began their experiments by removing the pancreas from a dog. This resulted in the following:
      • It's blood sugar rose.
      • It became thirsty, drank lots of water, and urinated more often.
      • It became weaker and weaker.
      • The dog had developed diabetes.
      • They then isolated “insulin” and injected it back into the dogs and they seemed to be cured.
      • In January 1922 in Toronto, Canada, a 14-year-old boy, Leonard Thompson
    • Leonard Thompson
    • Hormone Structure
      • insulin
        • peptide hormone
      • glucagon
        • peptide hormone
    •  
    • Adrenal Glands
      • adrenal – “next to” the renal system
      • Two main sections:
      • adrenal cortex  long-term stress
      • adrenal medulla  short-term stress
    •  
    • Adrenal Cortex
      • Long-term stress sends ACTH ( adrenocorticotropic hormone )
      • pituitary adrenal cortex
      • Produces two types of hormones:
      • glucocorticoids
      • mineralcoritcoids
      ACTH
    • 1. Glucocorticoids
      • class of steroid hormones for glucose regulation
      • specific example: cortisol
      • What happens when you’re stressed out?
        • glucose not taken in by muscles
        • amino acids made into glucose
        • fat tissue broken down for energy
    • 2. Mineralcortocoids
      • class of steroid hormones for mineral regulation
      • specific example: aldosterone
      • What happens when you’re stressed out?
        • blood pressure rises
        • due to increase sodium & H 2 O reabsorption
    • Adrenal Medulla
      • Short-term stress detected by hypothalamus
      • Produces two hormones:
      • epinephrine ( adrenaline )
      • norepinephrine ( noradrenaline )
      • both compounds are examples of catecholamines , which are also neurotransmitters
    • Hormone Structures
      • epinephrine
        • hydrophilic
      • norepinephrine
        • hydrophilic
    • Flight-or-Fight Response
      • What’s your response?
        • increased heart rate
        • increased breathing
        • blood vessel dilation  more O 2 delivery
        • iris dilation  collect maximum visual information
      • these responses are induced by catecholamine release