07 glucose regulation 2010 stacy

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07 glucose regulation 2010 stacy

  1. 2. Blood Sugar Regulation <ul><li>Read pages 966-968 </li></ul><ul><li>Key terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Islets of Langerhans </li></ul><ul><li>Beta and Alpha cells </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon and insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes I and II </li></ul><ul><li>Page 968 (feedback mechanism) </li></ul><ul><li>Page 969-971 </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term stress: ACTH Adrenal Medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Glucocoticoids – cortisol Short-term stress </li></ul><ul><li>Mineralcorticoids – aldosterone 1. epinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>2. norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Picture – Page 971 </li></ul>
  2. 5. Pancreas <ul><li>Two cell types to produce: </li></ul><ul><li>digestive enzymes – exocrine acini </li></ul><ul><li>hormones – islets of Langerhans </li></ul>1 – 2% of pancreas are the islets of Langerhans
  3. 6. Islets of Langerhans <ul><li>Two hormones are produced: </li></ul><ul><li>insulin – beta cells </li></ul><ul><li>glucagon – alpha cells </li></ul>blue = cell nuclei green = insulin red = glucagon
  4. 7. Insulin Function <ul><li>When is insulin released? after eating </li></ul>hyperglycemia beta cells cellular signals for insulin release decreased blood sugar increased glucose uptake glycogen production in liver
  5. 8. Glucagon Function <ul><li>What does glucagon do? breaks down glycogen </li></ul>hypoglycemia alpha cells cellular signals for glucagon release increased blood sugar glucose release from liver glucose production in liver
  6. 9. Diabetes Mellitus – Type I <ul><li>also known as juvenile diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>immune system attacking insulin-producing beta cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased thirst, hunger and urination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>daily dosage of insulin </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Diabetes Mellitus – Type II <ul><li>also known as adult-onset diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>insulin resistance / deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased thirst, hunger and urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fatigue / lethargy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain healthy diet and frequent exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medication only upon progression of disease state </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. Diabetes Insipidus <ul><li>Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deficiency of ADH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive thirst and urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduction of fluid intake does not affect urination frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no increased blood glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADH replacement / stimulating medication </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. Canadian Connection <ul><li>Frederick Banting & Charles Best </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize – 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>insulin isolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tied off ducts to digestive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cell producing digestive enzymes shrivelled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only islets of Langerhans remained </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Banting and Best <ul><li>Banting and Best began their experiments by removing the pancreas from a dog. This resulted in the following: </li></ul><ul><li>It's blood sugar rose. </li></ul><ul><li>It became thirsty, drank lots of water, and urinated more often. </li></ul><ul><li>It became weaker and weaker. </li></ul><ul><li>The dog had developed diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>They then isolated “insulin” and injected it back into the dogs and they seemed to be cured. </li></ul><ul><li>In January 1922 in Toronto, Canada, a 14-year-old boy, Leonard Thompson </li></ul>
  11. 14. Leonard Thompson
  12. 15. Hormone Structure <ul><li>insulin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peptide hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>glucagon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peptide hormone </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>adrenal – “next to” the renal system </li></ul><ul><li>Two main sections: </li></ul><ul><li>adrenal cortex  long-term stress </li></ul><ul><li>adrenal medulla  short-term stress </li></ul>
  14. 19. Adrenal Cortex <ul><li>Long-term stress sends ACTH ( adrenocorticotropic hormone ) </li></ul><ul><li>pituitary adrenal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Produces two types of hormones: </li></ul><ul><li>glucocorticoids </li></ul><ul><li>mineralcoritcoids </li></ul>ACTH
  15. 20. 1. Glucocorticoids <ul><li>class of steroid hormones for glucose regulation </li></ul><ul><li>specific example: cortisol </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you’re stressed out? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose not taken in by muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids made into glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fat tissue broken down for energy </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. 2. Mineralcortocoids <ul><li>class of steroid hormones for mineral regulation </li></ul><ul><li>specific example: aldosterone </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you’re stressed out? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood pressure rises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>due to increase sodium & H 2 O reabsorption </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. Adrenal Medulla <ul><li>Short-term stress detected by hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Produces two hormones: </li></ul><ul><li>epinephrine ( adrenaline ) </li></ul><ul><li>norepinephrine ( noradrenaline ) </li></ul><ul><li>both compounds are examples of catecholamines , which are also neurotransmitters </li></ul>
  18. 23. Hormone Structures <ul><li>epinephrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophilic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophilic </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Flight-or-Fight Response <ul><li>What’s your response? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood vessel dilation  more O 2 delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iris dilation  collect maximum visual information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>these responses are induced by catecholamine release </li></ul>

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