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05 urine-hormone regulation-2010 update
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05 urine-hormone regulation-2010 update

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Urine Output
    • more water in usually means more urine out
    • some liquids encourage increase urine excretion – diuretics
    • frequency of urination dependent on hormonal signals
  • 3. Three Effects of Urine
    • Osmotic Pressure
    • Blood Pressure
    • pH Balance
  • 4. Osmotic Pressure
    • osmotic pressure – water pressure due to presence of solutes
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – regulates blood osmotic pressure through kidneys
    • a short peptide hormone
  • 5. Osmotic Pressure
    • What type of situation would cause increased osmotic pressure?
      • sweating / dehydration
    • causes increased ADH production to:
      • increase water reabsorption
      • dilute solutes in blood
    • ADH produced in hypothalamus
      • transported to pituitary gland
  • 6.
    • osmoreceptors in hypothalamus detect increased osmotic pressure  sends signals to pituitary gland
  • 7. Osmotic Pressure increased osmotic pressure osmoreceptors pituitary gland; release ADH decreased osmotic pressure increased sensation of thirst increased water reabsorption by kidney
  • 8. Osmotic Pressure
    • ADH increases H 2 O reabsorption
      • dilutes blood
      • concentrates urine
    • What part of the nephron does ADH affect?
      • collecting ducts
  • 9. ADH Activity
    • The following animation will contain some terminology not covered.
    • Animation
  • 10. Hormones and Enzymes
    • Side Note:
      • hormones only active when needed
      • hormones usually produced, but activated by enzyme cleavage
      • hormones readily available rather than waiting for the entire process of transcription / translation (too long!!)
  • 11. Blood Pressure
    • blood pressure – increase force of blood on blood vessels
    • aldosterone – hormone which increases Na + reabsorption in kidneys
      • increased H 2 O in blood
      • increased blood pressure
  • 12. Blood Pressure
    • aldosterone produced in adrenal gland , above kidney
  • 13. Blood Pressure
  • 14. Blood Pressure
    • What part of the kidney would be affected by low blood pressure?
      • glomerulus; high blood pressure needed for filtration
    • decreased water pressure detected by juxtaglomerular apparatus
      • receptors next to the glomerulus
  • 15. Blood Pressure
    • the enzyme renin , is released
    • angiotensinogen angiotensin
    renin
  • 16. Blood Pressure
    • Two important functions of angiotensin:
    • causes blood vessel constriction
    • stimulates aldosterone release
  • 17. low blood pressure juxtaglomerular apparatus cells to release renin; produce angiotensin blood pressure increases constrict blood vessels induce aldosterone release; increase Na + reabsorption
  • 18. pH Balance
    • How do living systems regulate the amount of acid / base in their systems?
      • buffers – conjugate acid-base pairs
    • HCl Cl - + H +
  • 19. pH Balance
    • conversion of CO 2 to other compounds help regulate blood pH
    • H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 - + H +
    • HCO 3 - is reabsorbed in the proximal and distal tubules
    carbonic acid carbonate ion