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05 urine-hormone regulation-2010 update
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05 urine-hormone regulation-2010 update

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    05 urine-hormone regulation-2010 update 05 urine-hormone regulation-2010 update Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Urine Output
      • more water in usually means more urine out
      • some liquids encourage increase urine excretion – diuretics
      • frequency of urination dependent on hormonal signals
    • Three Effects of Urine
      • Osmotic Pressure
      • Blood Pressure
      • pH Balance
    • Osmotic Pressure
      • osmotic pressure – water pressure due to presence of solutes
      • antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – regulates blood osmotic pressure through kidneys
      • a short peptide hormone
    • Osmotic Pressure
      • What type of situation would cause increased osmotic pressure?
        • sweating / dehydration
      • causes increased ADH production to:
        • increase water reabsorption
        • dilute solutes in blood
      • ADH produced in hypothalamus
        • transported to pituitary gland
      • osmoreceptors in hypothalamus detect increased osmotic pressure  sends signals to pituitary gland
    • Osmotic Pressure increased osmotic pressure osmoreceptors pituitary gland; release ADH decreased osmotic pressure increased sensation of thirst increased water reabsorption by kidney
    • Osmotic Pressure
      • ADH increases H 2 O reabsorption
        • dilutes blood
        • concentrates urine
      • What part of the nephron does ADH affect?
        • collecting ducts
    • ADH Activity
      • The following animation will contain some terminology not covered.
      • Animation
    • Hormones and Enzymes
      • Side Note:
        • hormones only active when needed
        • hormones usually produced, but activated by enzyme cleavage
        • hormones readily available rather than waiting for the entire process of transcription / translation (too long!!)
    • Blood Pressure
      • blood pressure – increase force of blood on blood vessels
      • aldosterone – hormone which increases Na + reabsorption in kidneys
        • increased H 2 O in blood
        • increased blood pressure
    • Blood Pressure
      • aldosterone produced in adrenal gland , above kidney
    • Blood Pressure
    • Blood Pressure
      • What part of the kidney would be affected by low blood pressure?
        • glomerulus; high blood pressure needed for filtration
      • decreased water pressure detected by juxtaglomerular apparatus
        • receptors next to the glomerulus
    • Blood Pressure
      • the enzyme renin , is released
      • angiotensinogen angiotensin
      renin
    • Blood Pressure
      • Two important functions of angiotensin:
      • causes blood vessel constriction
      • stimulates aldosterone release
    • low blood pressure juxtaglomerular apparatus cells to release renin; produce angiotensin blood pressure increases constrict blood vessels induce aldosterone release; increase Na + reabsorption
    • pH Balance
      • How do living systems regulate the amount of acid / base in their systems?
        • buffers – conjugate acid-base pairs
      • HCl Cl - + H +
    • pH Balance
      • conversion of CO 2 to other compounds help regulate blood pH
      • H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 - + H +
      • HCO 3 - is reabsorbed in the proximal and distal tubules
      carbonic acid carbonate ion