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04 urinary tractkidney-2010 update

04 urinary tractkidney-2010 update






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    04 urinary tractkidney-2010 update 04 urinary tractkidney-2010 update Presentation Transcript

    • Role of Kidney
      • renal system – referring to the kidney
      • blood filtration
      • waste excretion
      • acid / base balance
      • blood pressure regulation
      • hormone secretion
    • Kidney Blood Flow
      • Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery .
        • renal arteries stem from the aorta
      • Filtered blood exits the kidney through the renal vein .
        • renal veins flow into the inferior vena cava
    • Kidney Blood Flow
    • Blood and the Nephron
      • Renal artery blood is filtered through nephrons . About a million nephrons make up the kidney.
      • Nephrons collect liquid to be excreted.
      • Fluids are exchanged between the nephron before blood is returned to renal vein.
    • Blood Flow
      • The renal artery is split into afferent arterioles .
        • blood brought to glomerulus; a capillary bed.
        • blood leaves through the efferent arterioles
          • no veins involved
      • Efferent arterioles are the beginning of a network of peritubular capillaries , that wrap around the nephron.
    • Nephron
      • Nephrons begin surrounding the glomerulus with the Bowman’s capsule structure.
        • fluids to become urine flow to narrow proximal tubule
        • urine flows through loop of Henle
        • urine flows out of distal tubule
      • Urine from multiple nephrons flow into the collecting duct.
    • Kidney Structure
      • renal cortex – outside of kidney; location of Bowman’s capsule
      • renal medulla – middle of kidney; location of loop of Henle
      • renal pelvis – location of the ends of collecting ducts
    • Urine Flow
      • Urine leaves the renal pelvis through the ureters and travels to the bladder . Fluid leaves the body through the urethra .
      • When ~200 mL of urine has collected in the bladder, the walls stretch and signals are sent to the brain.
      • At ~600 mL, urine will involuntarily be released.
    • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
      • UTI’s are caused by bacterial growth in the urethra or bladder.
      • Symptoms:
      • frequent urination
      • sensation of needing to urinate (even is there is little to pass)
      • blood in urine
      • discharge in urine (cloudiness)
    • efferent artery afferent artery glomerulus Bowman’s capsule proximal tubule Loop of Henle distal tubule colluction duct
    • aorta inferior vena cava renal artery renal vein kidney ureter bladder urethra renal cortex renal medulla renal pelvis nephrons ureter
    • Three Functions of Urine Formation
      • Filtration – movement of fluids from the glomerular blood to the Bowman’s capsule
      • Reabsorption – transfer of fluids from nephron into peritubular capillaries
      • Secretion – transfer of fluids from peritubular capillaries into nephron
    • Filtration
      • Nutrients flow from glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule due to high blood pressure flow (65 mm Hg; normal ~ 25 mm Hg)
    • Nutrient Flow Solute Glomerulus  Bowman’s Capsule? water yes NaCl yes H + ions yes amino acids yes glucose yes plasma proteins no red blood cells (erythrocytes) no platelets no
    • Reabsorption
      • Reabsorption saves us from having to continuously replenish our body with fluid.
      • 20% of fluid flowing into kidney is filtered into kidney
      • less than 1% of nephron fluid is used to make urine
    • Reabsorption vs. Secretion
      • Reabsorption
      • Secretion
      • protein transporters move nutrients into interstitial fluid and blood
      • kidney tissue will only reabsorb a certain level of nutrients – threshold level
      • protein transporters move wastes from blood to interstitial fluid to nephron
    • Renal System Videoclip
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-15JUVxAm8
    • 1. Bowman’s Capsule
      • water and dissolved solutes leave glomerulus; enter Bowman’s capsule
      water Na + H + Cl - glucose amino acids vitamins minerals urea uric acid
    • 2. Proximal Tubule
      • selective reabsorption of nutrients (need transporters)
      • pH determined by HCO 3 - reabsorption and H + secretion
      H + NH 3 HCO 3 - , K + Na + , Cl - H 2 O amino acids glucose vitamins
    • 3. Loop of Henle – Descending Limb
      • only permeable to H 2 O (osmosis)
      • impermeable to salt
      • fluids in tube are being concentrated
      H 2 O
    • 4. Loop of Henle – Ascending Limb
      • only permeable to salt (need ionic transporters)
      • impermeable to water
    • 5. Distal Tubule
      • selective reabsorption of nutrients (need transporters)
      • pH determined by HCO 3 - reabsorption and H + secretion
      H + NH 3 K + HCO 3 - Na + , Cl - H 2 O
    • 6. Collecting Duct
      • urine formation by concentration nephron fluid
      • any urea and urine that is reabsorbed is less than that was filtered into nephron
      NaCl urea water
    • Videoclip
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQZaNXNroVY
    • Kidney Stones
      • crystallization of some urine solutes
      • a 2 – 3 mm stone can obstruct flow to the ureter
      • Treatment:
        • increased water consumption
        • surgery