Kingdom Archaea      They thrive in extreme conditions that mimic the Earth’s early atmosphere Scientists believe that Arc...
<ul><li>Examples of extreme conditions: </li></ul>Kingdom Archaea <ul><li>boiling/acidic water </li></ul><ul><li>hydrother...
<ul><li>Thermoacidophiles </li></ul>Three Groups of Archaea         Methanogens Able to tolerate extreme temperature & aci...
Kingdom Bacteria – Write on a separate piece of paper <ul><li>Beneficial Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen cycle </li></...
Bacteria in Disease Tuberculosis Lysteriosis Lyme disease Meningitis Gonorrhea <ul><li>Streptococcus mutans     tooth dec...
Lysteriosis-  Listeria monocytogenes <ul><li>Rare </li></ul><ul><li>Affects infants, elderly, people that have their immun...
Lyme Disease –  Borrelia burgdorferi <ul><li>Spread by tick bites </li></ul><ul><li>Europe, Asia and North America </li></...
Gonorrhea –  Neisseria gonorrhoeae <ul><li>STD </li></ul><ul><li>Painful urination in men </li></ul><ul><li>Women usually ...
Meningitis –  Neisseria meningitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the protective </li></ul><ul><li>Membranes of the brain </li></...
1. Bacterial Classification <ul><li>Shape – 3 types (more details to follow) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Wall – 2 types (more d...
2. Bacterial Shapes <ul><li>Cocci ( singl.  coccus) – round  </li></ul><ul><li>Resists drying </li></ul><ul><li>Bacilli (b...
3. Groupings <ul><li>Prefix  diplo- </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Prefix  staphylo- </li></ul><ul>...
Practice Naming Bacteria A <ul><li>Answers: </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococci </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococci </li></ul><ul><...
1884: Hans Grams discovered a method of classifying bacteria using what is now named the  “ Gram Stain .” What is Gram Sta...
A B Examples of Gram Stains Gram-positive  anthrax  bacteria ( bacilli ) in  cerebrospinal fluid  sample. If present. (The...
Antibiotic Resistance <ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =zjR6L38yReE&feature=related   </li></ul>
(no mixing of genetic material between organisms) <ul><li>Binary = 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fission = division / split </li></u...
(mixing of genetic material between organisms) <ul><li>CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when conditions begin to alter ...
(no growth, dormancy) <ul><li>CONDITION </li></ul><ul><li>During unfavourable conditions, a bacteria enters a  dormant  ph...
Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE SEXUAL ASEXUAL DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE
Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE SEXUAL <ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Ver...
Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE SEXUAL <ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical...
Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE <ul><li>Genes can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Different from parents </li></u...
Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE <ul><li>Uses more energy </li></ul><ul><li>Requires two parents </li></ul><ul><li>...
Comparing Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>Able to resist unfavourable conditions (e.g. extreme heat, cold, damaging chemic...
Comparing Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>Slow process </li></ul><ul><li>No growth during dormancy </li></ul><ul><li>Able ...
Kingdom Fungi <ul><li>Yeast </li></ul>Mold Mushroom http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8
Mushroom:  Specialized reproductive part of fungus Mycelium:  loose, branching network of hyphae under the soil making up ...
The septa of a hyphae is often porous (pictured below) -this allows cytoplasm to travel through it Cytoplasm Septum
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism + / +
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Commensalism E. Coli  in human intestine E. Coli  receive food / shelter Humans receive...
http://www.vtaide.com/png/symbiosis.htm Homework: Research a symbiotic relationship.  Can be mutualism, commensalism or pa...
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Commensalism + / 0 E. Coli  in human intestine E. Coli  receive food / shelter Humans r...
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Barnacles on jaws of whale Barnacles eat food filtered by whale.  No effect on whale. C...
Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism + / - Barnacles on jaws of whale Barnacles eat food filtered by whale.  No effect on wh...
Symbiotic Relationships Many diseases: malaria, tetanus Mistletoe grow on host trees.  Uses trees to obtain nutrients. Par...
Symbiotic Associations Endosymbiosis Ectosymbiosis
Symbiotic Associations Endosymbiosis One organism lives on the surface another organism (e.g. barnacles on whales, mistlet...
Symbiotic Associations One organism lives within the tissue of another organism (e.g.  E. coli  in humans, malaria, tetanu...
Barnacles on whale - ectocommensalism Mistletoe on tree - ectoparasitism
<ul><li>Extracellular Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphae    fine filaments the majority of fungi are made of </li></ul><u...
Truffles
Mold
Yeast
Humans and Fungus Ring worm Contagious Skin to skin contact Itchy Found on scalp, skin, groin, fingernails
Athlete’s Foot Moist, dark environments
Yeast Infection
Magic Mushrooms (Shrooms) <ul><li>Contain a hallucinogen, psychoactive ingredient that gives you a feeling of happiness, r...
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03a six kingdoms - archea, bacteria, fungi - v2[1]

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03a six kingdoms - archea, bacteria, fungi - v2[1]

  1. 1. Kingdom Archaea      They thrive in extreme conditions that mimic the Earth’s early atmosphere Scientists believe that Archaea are the first living things on Earth because…
  2. 2. <ul><li>Examples of extreme conditions: </li></ul>Kingdom Archaea <ul><li>boiling/acidic water </li></ul><ul><li>hydrothermal vents </li></ul><ul><li>super-salty pools </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctic permanent ice </li></ul>These are conditions that would normally kill other creatures, thus Archaea are classified by the type of environment they thrive in.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Thermoacidophiles </li></ul>Three Groups of Archaea         Methanogens Able to tolerate extreme temperature & acidity Example: volcanoes, hot springs Energy obtained from sulfur Halophiles Thrives in high salt environments Example: Dead Sea Lives in oxygen free environments Example: swamp, marsh, sewage Energy obtained by converting inorganic molecules leaving methane gas as a waste product
  4. 4. Kingdom Bacteria – Write on a separate piece of paper <ul><li>Beneficial Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Certain bacteria makes foods edible: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cheese, yogurt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacteria in Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria used in sewage treatment, odor control </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bacteria in Disease Tuberculosis Lysteriosis Lyme disease Meningitis Gonorrhea <ul><li>Streptococcus mutans  tooth decay </li></ul><ul><li>Clostridium botulinum  food poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Treponema pallidum  syphilis </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lysteriosis- Listeria monocytogenes <ul><li>Rare </li></ul><ul><li>Affects infants, elderly, people that have their immune system compromised (AIDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Vomit, nausea, headaches, fever, chills, diarrhea, loss of balance and convulsions. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: Contaminated meat, dairy, fish and vegetable products </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lyme Disease – Borrelia burgdorferi <ul><li>Spread by tick bites </li></ul><ul><li>Europe, Asia and North America </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria is carried in mice, tick bites mouse. Bacteria transferred to tick, tick then bites human </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue, chills, fever, headache, muscle and joint pain </li></ul><ul><li>If left untreated, CNS disorders, </li></ul><ul><li>skin rashes, arthritis, extreme fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics treats lyme disease </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gonorrhea – Neisseria gonorrhoeae <ul><li>STD </li></ul><ul><li>Painful urination in men </li></ul><ul><li>Women usually don’t have any symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>If left untreated, can cause pelvic inflammatory disease in women (can lead to infertility) </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics treats gonorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Mother can pass it to child through birth canal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause blindness, joint infection and blood infection to baby </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Meningitis – Neisseria meningitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the protective </li></ul><ul><li>Membranes of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>-High fever, sore and stiff neck </li></ul><ul><li>-antibiotics </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1. Bacterial Classification <ul><li>Shape – 3 types (more details to follow) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Wall – 2 types (more details to follow) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Source – 2 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic: obtain energy from light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemosynthetic: obtain energy from inorganic compounds </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Bacterial Shapes <ul><li>Cocci ( singl. coccus) – round </li></ul><ul><li>Resists drying </li></ul><ul><li>Bacilli (bacillus) – rod-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs more nutrients due to greater surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Spirilli (spirillum) – spiral-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Moves through fluids with the least resistance </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3. Groupings <ul><li>Prefix diplo- </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Prefix staphylo- </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in clusters (like grapes) </li></ul><ul><li>Prefix strepto- </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in chains </li></ul>
  13. 13. Practice Naming Bacteria A <ul><li>Answers: </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococci </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococci </li></ul><ul><li>Diplobacilli </li></ul><ul><li>Streptobacilli </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococci </li></ul><ul><li>Diplospirilli </li></ul><ul><li>Streptobacilli </li></ul>D C B G F E
  14. 14. 1884: Hans Grams discovered a method of classifying bacteria using what is now named the “ Gram Stain .” What is Gram Stain? Write this sentence on the bottom of page 22. A dye that highlights basic differences in the arrangements of molecules in bacterial cell walls 4. Bacterial Cell Wall Structure Gram-negative bacilli from a pneumonia infected lu ng Gram-positive Purple stain Thick protein layer Gram-negative Pink stain Thin protein layer
  15. 15. A B Examples of Gram Stains Gram-positive anthrax bacteria ( bacilli ) in cerebrospinal fluid sample. If present. (The other cells are white blood cells ). Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus Mixture: gram-negative (pink) bacilli and gram-positive (purple) cocci C
  16. 16. Antibiotic Resistance <ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =zjR6L38yReE&feature=related </li></ul>
  17. 17. (no mixing of genetic material between organisms) <ul><li>Binary = 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fission = division / split </li></ul><ul><li>METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>A type of cell division where 2 genetically identical products of the same size are formed </li></ul>Asexual Reproduction through… BINARY FISSION CONDITIONS Occurs when conditions are favourable and constant (predictable). But why?… DESCRIPTION 1. Duplicate genetic material 2. Cell elongates 3. Septum (wall) begins to form 4. Cells separate
  18. 18. (mixing of genetic material between organisms) <ul><li>CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when conditions begin to alter such that it’s less than ideal. What advantage does this have?… </li></ul>Sexual Reproduction METHOD CONJUGATION <ul><li>DESCRIPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Cells linked by a bridged called the pili (pilus) </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic information passes through pili from one cell to another </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving cell undergoes binary fission </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-EdX4MaMFE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IYW6wwEAnqs&feature=bf_play&playnext=1&list=QL&index=1
  19. 19. (no growth, dormancy) <ul><li>CONDITION </li></ul><ul><li>During unfavourable conditions, a bacteria enters a dormant phase to protect itself. </li></ul><ul><li>When favourable conditions return , endospore loses its outer coat allowing the bacteria to grow again. </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTION </li></ul><ul><li>It forms a tough outer covering to enclose its DNA. The resulting product looks like a seed and is called an endospore . </li></ul>Spore Formation
  20. 20. Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE SEXUAL ASEXUAL DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE
  21. 21. Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE SEXUAL <ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul>ASEXUAL DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE
  22. 22. Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE SEXUAL <ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul>ASEXUAL DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE
  23. 23. Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE <ul><li>Genes can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Different from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the species surviving in changing (or unfavourable) conditions </li></ul>SEXUAL <ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul>ASEXUAL DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE
  24. 24. Comparing Reproductive Strategies SPORE <ul><li>Uses more energy </li></ul><ul><li>Requires two parents </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>affected by environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Genes can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Different from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the species surviving in changing (or unfavourable) conditions </li></ul>SEXUAL <ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul>ASEXUAL DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE
  25. 25. Comparing Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>Able to resist unfavourable conditions (e.g. extreme heat, cold, damaging chemicals, drying) </li></ul><ul><li>Long life span </li></ul>SPORE <ul><li>Uses more energy </li></ul><ul><li>Requires two parents </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Genes can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Different from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the species surviving in changing (or unfavourable) conditions </li></ul>SEXUAL <ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul>ASEXUAL DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE
  26. 26. Comparing Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>Slow process </li></ul><ul><li>No growth during dormancy </li></ul><ul><li>Able to resist unfavourable conditions (e.g. extreme heat, cold, damaging chemicals, drying) </li></ul><ul><li>Long life span </li></ul>SPORE <ul><li>Uses more energy </li></ul><ul><li>Requires two parents </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Genes can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Different from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic variation increases the likelihood of the species surviving in changing (or unfavourable) conditions </li></ul>SEXUAL <ul><li>Rapid reproduction leads to competition </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to parent: no diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk for extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves energy </li></ul><ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>Very fast reproduction rate </li></ul>ASEXUAL DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE
  27. 27. Kingdom Fungi <ul><li>Yeast </li></ul>Mold Mushroom http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8
  28. 28. Mushroom: Specialized reproductive part of fungus Mycelium: loose, branching network of hyphae under the soil making up the main bulk of a fungus Septum: porous walls that divide the hyphae into cells Chitin: material that forms the cell wall of fungi Hyphae: network of fine filaments Fungi Structure
  29. 29. The septa of a hyphae is often porous (pictured below) -this allows cytoplasm to travel through it Cytoplasm Septum
  30. 30. Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism
  31. 31. Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism + / +
  32. 32. Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Commensalism E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Mutualism + / +
  33. 33. http://www.vtaide.com/png/symbiosis.htm Homework: Research a symbiotic relationship. Can be mutualism, commensalism or parasitic. You will share it with the class.
  34. 34. Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Commensalism + / 0 E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Mutualism + / +
  35. 35. Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism Barnacles on jaws of whale Barnacles eat food filtered by whale. No effect on whale. Commensalism + / 0 E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Mutualism + / +
  36. 36. Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism + / - Barnacles on jaws of whale Barnacles eat food filtered by whale. No effect on whale. Commensalism + / 0 E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Mutualism + / +
  37. 37. Symbiotic Relationships Many diseases: malaria, tetanus Mistletoe grow on host trees. Uses trees to obtain nutrients. Parasitism + / - Barnacles on jaws of whale Barnacles eat food filtered by whale. No effect on whale. Commensalism + / 0 E. Coli in human intestine E. Coli receive food / shelter Humans receive vitamins Mutualism + / +
  38. 38. Symbiotic Associations Endosymbiosis Ectosymbiosis
  39. 39. Symbiotic Associations Endosymbiosis One organism lives on the surface another organism (e.g. barnacles on whales, mistletoe on trees) Ectosymbiosis
  40. 40. Symbiotic Associations One organism lives within the tissue of another organism (e.g. E. coli in humans, malaria, tetanus) Endosymbiosis One organism lives on the surface another organism (e.g. barnacles on whales, mistletoe on trees) Ectosymbiosis
  41. 41. Barnacles on whale - ectocommensalism Mistletoe on tree - ectoparasitism
  42. 42. <ul><li>Extracellular Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphae  fine filaments the majority of fungi are made of </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphae grow on sources of food, and produce digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>The enzymes break down large organic molecules into smaller ones </li></ul><ul><li>Because this digestion occurs outside the body, it is known as extracellular digestion </li></ul>Digestion in Fungi Marcela S. & Rose Ann C.
  43. 43. Truffles
  44. 44. Mold
  45. 45. Yeast
  46. 46. Humans and Fungus Ring worm Contagious Skin to skin contact Itchy Found on scalp, skin, groin, fingernails
  47. 47. Athlete’s Foot Moist, dark environments
  48. 48. Yeast Infection
  49. 49. Magic Mushrooms (Shrooms) <ul><li>Contain a hallucinogen, psychoactive ingredient that gives you a feeling of happiness, relaxation, see distorted colours, might feel sad </li></ul>

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