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01b   dna structure
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01b dna structure

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01b   dna structure 01b dna structure Presentation Transcript

  • DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
  • Components of DNA
    • Nucleotide
    • Phosphate Group
    • Deoxyribose Sugar
    • Nitrogen Base
  • Nitrogen Bases
    • There are FOUR nitrogen bases
    • Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine
    • Complementary Base Pairs
    • A=T (two hydrogen bonds)
    • G=C (three hydrogen bonds)
  • Complementary Base Pairs
  • Pyrimidine vs. Purine
  • DNA
    • If you were to stretch the DNA of one cell it would be 6 feet long.
    • All of your DNA would reach the moon!
    • DNA has a special mechanism of getting all that DNA into the cell
    • It is called supercoiling.
    • TRY THE ACTIVITY!!! (If time permits)
  • DNA Organization
  • DNA Organization
    • chromatin – DNA strands populated with proteins; found in eukaryotes (humans)
    • -prokaryotic DNA is commonly referred to as being “naked” (bacteria)
    • histones – proteins that bind to eukaryotic DNA
      • DNA backbone has a negative charge (phosphate group)
      • histones bind to DNA due to a positive charge
  • Histones
    • approximately every ~200 bp of DNA is associated with a group of histones
    200 bp 8 histones single histone DNA strand nucleosome
  • Solenoid Fibre
    • nucleosomes are organized in a stacked spiral structure
    • the solenoid fibre is known as the 30 nm fibre
  • DNA Supercoiling
    • supercoiling – twisting and compacting to form mitotic chromosomes
  •