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    Research Process Outline Research Process Outline Document Transcript

    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 1 Public Libraries: What is Best for Teen Users? Staci Novak Emporia State University
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 2 AbstractTeens are a growing and important user demographic in public libraries. One challenge facingpublic librarians is how to best interact with and provide the best possible customer service toteens utilizing their public libraries. This grounded theory case study of public librarians andteens ages 12-18 seeks to understand the effectiveness of programs provided to teens, what teenssay make them feel welcome or unwelcome in public libraries, and how the collaborationbetween school and public libraries can benefit teenage users of public libraries. This studyassumes that teens are in fact using their public libraries, that the needs of teens differ from adultpatrons, and that there should be collaboration between the school and public library in order toprovide the best possible service to them. Results will be gained through structured interviews inwhich questionnaires with predetermined responses are given to both public librarians and teensages 12-18. The data gained from these questionnaires will be coded in order to understand andaddress the problem facing information professionals in public libraries as it pertains toproviding services to teens ages 12-18. Keywords: Teens, public libraries, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, collaboration, teen services.
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 3 Public Libraries: What is Best for Teen Users? Open when their school libraries are not, more and more teens are frequenting andmaking good use of their public library. According to the Harris Youth Poll conducted in 2007,“one-third of teens between the ages of 12–18 visited the public library ten times a year or more”(“Teens: Quick Facts,” 2008). How these young adults are treated in the library, however, maydiffer from place to place and person to person. Creel (2008) remembers her personal experiencewith a public librarian as “stereotypical” and “old-school” in that, “I nervously approached aquite unapproachable-looking and busy librarian at the desk and waited to be acknowledged.When he or she finally looked up, I would blurt out my question” (p.389). Conversely, mypersonal experience is quite different. When teens enter our local public library they are greetedwith a smile and a friendly “How can I help you?” The needs of these unique patrons may also vary from needing help with school researchprojects to simply wanting to use a computer. It is obvious that one challenge or problem facingpublic librarians is how to best interact with and provide services to teens entering their libraries. Research Questions The following questions that steer this study are as follows.(1) How effective are current public library programs targeted at young adults ages 12-18?(2) What do teens ages 12-18 say that public libraries do to make them feel welcome or unwelcome in the public library?(3) Is the collaboration among high school and public libraries effective in providing best services to teens ages 12-18? Literature ReviewThe literature review covers three areas: the usage of public libraries by teens, needs of teens inthe context of the library, and the collaboration of school and public libraries.
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 4 First, this study is built upon the fact that teens are indeed utilizing their public libraries.In fact 78% of teen respondents in a recent survey said they had a public library card. Manyrespondents also reported they visit their public library more than once a month (HarrisInteractive, 2007). It is obvious from these statistics that contrary to popular belief, youngpeople want and need their public library and should be valued as patrons needing service.Vavrek (2004) takes his usage of public libraries a step further and discovered that not only areteens utilizing their public libraries, but they value them as well. This study used a questionnairethat was first mailed to random households with teens ages 12-17. After mailing the questions,the researcher called the homes and found that most parents encouraged their children to fill outthe survey and that many had answered them prior to the phone call (Vavrek, 2004). Moreover,it was not surprising then that “fifty-eight percent of those surveyed used the services of a publiclibrary or [their] bookmobile within the last six months and 77% over the last year” (Vavrek,2004, p.6). Despite the growing number of teens as public library users, some informationprofessionals may not understand how to best interact and communicate with these youngpatrons, therefore not giving them what they need in terms of service and materials. This study assumes that the necessities of teenage patrons are unique and differ fromthose of adult users. It is common knowledge that teens are different emotionally and physically,but what can we information professionals do to fulfill these essentials? In order for the libraryto make a difference in the lives of teens, Brautigam (2008) refers to the Search Institute’s 40Developmental Assets for Adolescents (ages 12-18). She asserts that one developmental asset ofyoung people is to have positive adult role models that are not family members. Public librariesare in a position to address this because, “Librarians are adults to whom teens can go for helpwith school assignments, reading suggestions, book discussions, and more. Teen activities…
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 5connect library staff with youth in a fun, constructive, and supportive environment” (Brautigam,2008, p. 125). This aspect of development serves to remind information professionals that serving thelibrary needs of a teen is not the same as serving other users. Creel (2008) maintains that whiletoday’s librarians are taught “not to be the too busy unapproachable, or judgmental librarianregarding teen requests…[but] youth are still denied intellectual freedom and the right to read inmany libraries” (p.389). So what is it exactly that that our teen users truly need? Anderson(2004) looks to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory to answer this question. First, thephysiological or basic needs are the materials (books, articles, etc). To address this need,librarians must be knowledgeable as to what it is teens want. The author suggests joiningorganizations such as YALSA and ALA and purchasing books relating to strategies for teens andthat outline types of materials teens need and want. Second is safety. “Teens need to feel asense of safety before they can reach the next stage” (p.52). The third stage is love which in thecontext of the library translates to the appropriate customer service given to teen patrons by thestaff. Staff should be trained in how to best serve teen patrons in terms of ethics, caring, andknowledge of materials that are well-liked by their age group. Fourth, self-esteem can beaddressed through having teen volunteers, teen employees, and teen advisors. This study also maintains that an important aspect in addressing the needs of teen users isthe positive collaboration between the public library and school library. “School librarians aremore in sync with students academic needs than public librarians, and public librarians oftenhave more resources at their disposal and more leeway to launch creative programs” (Jones,2004, p.45). Fitzgibbons (2000) argues that collaboration between these two types of librarieswill ultimately improve services and resources provided to teenage patrons. Examples of thiscollaboration include libraries where the school and public library are intermixed, shared
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 6technology, and “collaborative and cooperative services and programs” (para. 3). The concept ofa symbiotic relationship between school and public libraries is not a new one. Fitzgibbons(2000) states that a report dated in 1897 advised the collaboration between the two libraries. Oneof the most influential rationales came from the 1991 White House Conference on Libraries andInformation Services Youth Omnibus Act: The Partnership with Libraries for Youth. It intends“school and public library partnerships that emphasize the essential role of libraries in promotingresource-based learning and instructional activities, parent/family education projects for earlychildhood services, intergenerational demonstration programs for latchkey children and youngadolescents, and outreach services for youth at risk” (Libraries and Youth Services section, para.1). In order for collaboration to be successful school and public libraries must have sharedvisions, goals, procedures, communication, sufficient staff, and shared activities. “Only througha shared vision and joint planning process will the current and future needs of our youth be met”(Recommendations section, para. 9). Methodology This is a grounded theory, case study of Kansas public library personnel and teen libraryusers. In order to collect data, I will conduct two sets of structured qualitative interviews. Thefirst set of structured interview protocol will be nine interviews with information professionals(see information professional interview questions in Appendix C). Again, the interviews will bestructured and will consist of nine questions with predetermined responses as choices. Eachperson will be given the same questionnaire and the interview should last no more than thirtyminutes. The second set of interviews will consist of 48 teens ages 12-18 (see teen interviewquestions in Appendix D). The questionnaire will consist of eight questions with predeterminedresponses as choices. Each person will be given the same questions and the interview againshould last no more than thirty minutes.
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 7 Data Analysis The analysis of the data will tell the researcher how well teens are being served in publiclibraries through programs provided to them, their treatment by the librarians, and also throughcooperation between the public and school libraries. The data is qualitative, not quantitative. Data will be gathered via the interviews, where participants will be given questionnaireswith predetermined responses provided to them. In the process of analyzing data, the researcherwill read, sort, code, and compare the answers. The researcher will create percentages basedupon the responses in the analysis of the data. In order to create the percentages, I will first useopen-coding, or “the examination of sections of the text comprised of words, phrases, andsentences” (Dow, 2008, p.236). Second will be axial coding, “which puts data back togethermaking connections between categories and subcategories” (Dow, 2008, p.236). The final typeof coding used will be selective coding or what Strauss and Corbin define as “selecting the corecategory, systematically relating it to other categories, validating those relationships, and fillingin categories that need further refinement and development” (as cited in Dow, 2008, p.236). Population and Setting The population of this study consists of information professionals from the publiclibraries in Manhattan, Junction City, and Abilene, Kansas. It will also consist of teens ages 12-18 from the same three towns. Role of the Researcher I will be the only researcher involved in this study. I will be responsible for thedevelopment of the questionnaires and interviews. I will also conduct the in-person interviewswith the information professionals, complete both the mailing of the questionnaires and conductthe phone interview with the teen group. Review Board
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 8 A required part of this study is the “Application for Approval to Use Human Subjects.”This application is indeed attached to this document. The purpose of this application is to makecertain that the rights of the subjects in this study are upheld. Approval from the institutionalreview board has been requested and I have their written approval in my possession. Time Schedule and Budget I project that this research project will take six months for completion. The study willbegin in August and conclude in January. The approximate dates for each phase is as follows:August: Complete and submit Application for Approval to Use Human Subjects. Writequestionnaires for both information professionals group and teen group. Contact informationprofessionals to set up interviews. Send out questionnaires for teen group.September: Begin interviews for both information professionals group and teen group.October: Complete interviews for both information professionals group and teen group. Begin toanalyze data.November: Complete analysis of data. Start writing results of the study.December: Complete written study results.January: Present and submit proposal. The budget for the research and data analysis will not be costly. First, I am notemploying anyone else. Second, both Abilene and Manhattan are within 25 miles of my home inJunction City. Third, there will however, be the cost of mailing out the surveys and the returnenvelopes. I estimate a total cost of $93.00. Transportation costs: $50. I estimate that a round trip to each library from my home willaverage 50 miles. The 2010 standard mileage rates according to www.irs.gov puts the standardbusiness mileage as 50 cents per mile. My total mileage for this study is approximately 100miles, which would total $50.
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 9 Mailing costs: $42.24. According to www.usps.com, the price of one stamp is 44 cents.It will cost me 88 cents per survey as there is a stamp to mail out the survey and a stamp for theperson to return the survey. I’m sending out 48 surveys, and assuming that all are returned, thetotal cost is $42.24.Line Item Description Quantity Cost Per Total CostTransportation Costs Commute to 50 miles each way $.50 per mile $50.00 Library to 100 total miles HomeMailing Costs Cost accrued 48 Stamps/2 $.44 per stamp $42.24USPS Postal Stamp for mailing stamps per survey surveys Total Cost: $92.24 Limitations This research proposal has several limitations. First, the sample sizes of both of mypopulations are small and therefore are not representative of the entire state. Second, my studyfocuses only on public libraries. There may be different circumstances in other types of libraries.Third, the populations of all three towns are unique in terms of diversity, especially because ofthe proximity of the military base. Because of this, the information professionals and teenagersmay not be representative of the population as a whole. Conclusion In this research proposal, I have begun to study the problem facing informationprofessionals in public libraries as it pertains to providing services to teens ages 12-18. I wouldlike to better understand the effectiveness of programs provided to teen users, how teens are
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 10treated in public libraries, and if collaboration between school and public libraries would be away to better serve teen users. I will complete nine interviews of public librarians and send out48 questionnaires to teens in the area in order to find answers to these research questionsimpacting a very important demographic of our society.
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 11 ReferencesAnderson, S. B. (2005). How to dazzle Maslow: Preparing your library, staff, and teens to reach self-actualization. Public Library Quarterly, 23(3), 49-58. doi: 10.1300/J118v23n03_11Brautigam, P. (2008). Developmental assets and libraries: Helping to construct the successful teen. Voice of Youth Advocates, 31(2), 124-125.Creel, S. L. (2008). Working together for teens. Voice of Youth Advocates, 31(5), 389.Dow, M. J. (2008). Implications of social presence for online learning: A case study of MLS students. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 49, 231-242.Fitzgibbons, S. A. (2000, September). School and public library relationships: Essential ingredients in implementing educational reforms and improving student learning. ALA | Home - American Library Association. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/aaslpubsandjournals/slmrb/slmrcontents/volume3 2000/relationships.cfmHarris Interactive. (2007). American library association youth and library use study. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/ala/yalsa/HarrisYouthPoll.pdfJones, J. (2004). Come together: School and public librarians need to join forces for kids sake. School Library Journal, 50(3), 45.Teens: Quick facts. (2008, December 22). ALA | Home - American Library Association. Retrieved June 27, 2010, from http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/advocacy/advocacyuniversity/additup/13to18/quic k.cfm#1
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 12Vavrek, B. (2004). Teens: Bullish on public libraries. Public Library Quarterly, 23(1), 3-12. doi: 10.1300/J118v23n01_02
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 13 APPENDIX AAPPLICATION FOR APPROVAL TO USE HUMAN SUBJECTSThis application should be submitted, along with the Informed Consent Document and supplemental material, to theInstitutional Review Board for Treatment of Human Subjects, Research and Grants Center, Plumb Hall 313F,Campus Box 4003.This form must be typed. This form is available online at www.emporia.edu/research/docs/irbapp.doc.2. Departmental Affiliation: School of Library and Information Management3. Person to whom notification should be sent: Staci Novak Mailing Address: 430 Maple St Telephone: 785-317-1226 Email address: snovak1@emporia.edu4. Title of Project: Analysis of Services Provided to Teens ages 12-18 in Public Libraries5. Funding Agency (if applicable): N/A6. This is a: dissertation thesis Xclass project other research study7. Time period for which you are requesting approval (maximum one year): from August 2010 to January 2010. If the research project extends past the end date requested, you will need to submit a request for a time extension or an annual update. This form is available at www.emporia.edu/research/docs/irbmod.doc.8. Project Purpose (please be specific): The purpose of this project is to analyze the effectiveness of programsprovided to teen users, how teens are treated in public libraries, and if collaboration between school and publiclibraries is a way to better serve teen users.9. Describe the proposed subjects: (age, sex, race, expected number of participants, or other special characteristics, such as students in a specific class, etc.) The first group of participants will be 9 adult librarians who work in public libraries. The second group will be 48 teens ages 12-18. Sex and race of the participants will vary and will not be used as a variable in this study.10. Describe how the subjects are to be selected. If you are using archival information, you must submit documentation of authorization from applicable organization or entity. I will randomly choose three librarians each from the Manhattan, Junction City, and Abilene Public Libraries. The students will also be chosen at random, with sixteen from each town.11. Describe in detail the proposed procedures and benefit(s) of the project. This must be clear and detailed enoughso that the IRB can assure that the University policy relative to research with human subjects is appropriatelyimplemented. Any proposed experimental activities that are included in evaluation, research, development,demonstration, instruction, study, treatments, debriefing, questionnaires, and similar projects must be described here.Copies of questionnaires, survey instruments, or tests should be attached. (Use additional page if necessary.) I will be contacting the public libraries from three Kansas towns. I will randomly select three librarians from each library. I will conduct the interviews in person to determine what (if any) services and programs are provided to teens and what (if any) collaboration is done between the public library and the school
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 14 libraries. I will then randomly select 48 teens ages 12-18, 16 from each town, and mail out questionnaires containing questions in regards to their experiences (if any) in the public libraries. Some interviews may also be conducted over the phone if the questionnaire is not returned. I will analyze the data from these surveys to determine the effectiveness of programs provided to teens, the treatment of teens in the public libraries, and how (if at all) collaboration among the public and school libraries is effective in providing best service to teens using the library.12. Will questionnaires, tests, or related research instruments not explained in question #11 be used? Yes X No (If yes, attach a copy to this application.)13. Will electrical or mechanical devices be applied to the subjects? Yes X No (If yes, attach a detailed description of the device(s) used and precautions and safeguards that will be taken.)14. Do the benefits of the research outweigh the risks to human subjects? X Yes No (If no, this information should be outlined here.)15. Are there any possible emergencies which might arise in utilization of human subjects in this project? Yes X No (If yes, details of these emergencies should be provided here.)16. What provisions will you take for keeping research data private/secure? (Be specific – refer to p. 3 ofGuidelines.) All names of subjects participating will remain confidential and anonymous to everyone except the researcher. After data is collected, the surveys will be destroyed.17. Attach a copy of the informed consent document, as it will be used for your subjects.INVESTIGATOR’S ASSURANCE: I certify that the information provided in this request is complete andaccurate. I understand that as Principal Investigator I have ultimate responsibility for the protection of the rights andwelfare of human subjects and the ethical conduct of this research protocol. I agree to comply with all of ESU’spolicies and procedures, as well as with all applicable federal, state, and local laws regarding the protection ofhuman subjects in research, including, but not limited to, the following: The project will be performed by qualified personnel according to the research protocol, I will maintain a copy of all questionnaires, survey instruments, interview questions, data collection instruments, and information sheets for human subjects,
    • Running Head: PUBLIC LIBRARIES: WHAT IS BEST FOR TEEN USERS? 15 I will promptly request approval from ESU’s IRB if any changes are made to the research protocol, I will report any adverse events that occur during the course of conducting the research to the IRB within 10 working days of the date of occurrence.Signature of Principal Investigator DateFACULTY ADVISOR’S/INSTRUCTOR’S ASSURANCE: By my signature on this research application, Icertify that the student investigator is knowledgeable about the regulations and policies governing research withhuman subjects and has sufficient training and experience to conduct this particular study in accord with theapproved protocol. In addition, I agree to meet with the student investigator on a regular basis to monitor study progress, Should problems arise during the course of this study, I agree to be available, personally, to supervise the principal investigator in solving them, I understand that as the faculty advisor/instructor on this project, I will be responsible for the performance of this research project.Faculty advisor/instructor on project (if applicable) Date
    • APPENDIX BINFORMED CONSENT STATEMENTAnalysis of the Needs of Teenage Patrons in Public Libraries.INTRODUCTIONThe School of Library and Information Management at Emporia State University supports thepractice of protection for human subjects participating in research. The following information isprovided for you to decide whether you wish to participate in the present study. You may refuseto sign this form and not participate in this study. You should be aware that even if you agree toparticipate, you are free to withdraw at any time. If you do withdraw from this study, it will notaffect your relationship with this unit, the services it may provide to you, or Emporia StateUniversity.PURPOSE OF THE STUDYThe purpose of this project is to analyze the effectiveness of programs provided to teen users,how teens are treated in public libraries, and if collaboration between school and public librariesis a way to better serve teen users.PROCEDURESI will begin by contacting the public libraries from three Kansas towns, Abilene, Junction City,and Manhattan. I will randomly select three librarians from each library. I will conduct theinterviews in person to determine what (if any) services and programs are provided to teens andwhat (if any) collaboration is done between the public library and the school libraries. I will thenrandomly select 48 teens ages 12-18, 16 from each town, and mail out questionnaires containingquestions in regards to their experiences (if any) in the public libraries. Some interviews mayalso be conducted over the phone if the questionnaire is not returned. All interviews should takethirty minutes or less to complete. I will analyze the data from these surveys to determine theeffectiveness of programs provided to teens, the treatment of teens in the public libraries, andhow (if at all) collaboration among the public and school libraries is effective in providing bestservice to teens using the library.The researcher will be the only person who knows the identities of the participants. Their namesand any other personal information will not be correlated with the questionnaires. Allquestionnaires will be viewed only by me, the researcher, and will be terminated after theresearch is completed.After the completion of the interviews and questionnaires, I will read the responses and codethem according to the content of the entries using open, axial, and selective coding.RISKS
    • Participant risks in this research proposal are minimal. Neither the interview nor thequestionnaire will ask you to reveal any personal information.BENEFITSParticipant benefits in this research proposal may be significant to participants, especially thosethat are regular library users and information professionals. Specifically, the researcher hopes tounderstand the best practices in providing for teen users and could be used in the future toenhance customer service to teens in the form of environment, programs, and collaborationamong school and public libraries.PARTICIPANT CONFIDENTIALITYYour name will not be connected in any way with the information you give on the questionnaireor the findings from this research proposal. Information about you will not be shared by theresearcher unless required by law or unless written permission is given.Permission granted on this date to use and disclose your information remains in effectindefinitely. By signing this form you give permission for the use and disclosure of yourinformation for purposes of this study at any time in the future.REFUSAL TO SIGN CONSENT AND AUTHORIZATIONYou are not required to sign this Consent and Authorization form and you may refuse to do sowithout affecting your right to any services you are receiving or may receive from Emporia StateUniversity or to participate in any programs or events of Emporia State University. However, ifyou refuse to sign, you cannot participate in this study.CANCELLING THIS CONSENT AND AUTHORIZATIONYou may withdraw your consent to participate in this study at any time. You also have the rightto cancel your permission to use and disclose information collected about you, in writing, at anytime, by sending your written request to: Staci Novak, 430 Maple St., Junction City, Kansas66441. If you cancel permission the researcher will not attempt to collect any additionalinformation about you. However, the researcher may use information gathered before thecancellation was obtained, as described above.QUESTIONS ABOUT PARTICIPATIONQuestions about procedures should be directed to the researcher(s) listed at the end of thisconsent form.PARTICIPANT CERTIFICATION:I have read this Consent and Authorization form. I have had the opportunity to ask, and I havereceived answers to, any questions I had regarding the study. I understand that if I have anyadditional questions about my rights as a research participant, I may contact the PrincipalInvestigator, her Faculty Supervisor, or the Institutional Review Board for Treatment of HumanSubjects, Research and Grants Center, Plumb Hall 313F, Campus Box 4003.
    • I agree to take part in this study as a research participant. By my signature I affirm that I havereceived a copy of this Consent and Authorization form._______________________________ _____________________ Type/Print Participants Name Date________________________________ __________________________________ Participants Signature Parent/Guardian’s Signature if under 18Researcher Contact InformationStaci Novak Mirah DowPrincipal Investigator Faculty Supervisor430 Maple St. School of Library and Information ManagementJunction City, Kansas 66441 Emporia State Universitysnovak1@emporia.edu mdow@emporia.edu(785) 317-1226
    • APPENDIX CQUESTIONNAIRE-INFORMATION PROFESSIONAL GROUP 1. Does your public library provide programs to teens ages 12-18? (If yes, proceed to question 3, if no proceed to question 2). a. yes b. no c. don’t know 2. Which of the following programs do you think would benefit teens at your library? a. book talks b. movie nights c. reading club d. art programs e. computer classes f. other 3. Does your public library offer any of the following programs for teens ages 12-18? a. book talks b. movie nights c. reading club d. art programs e. computer classes f. other 4. Do you feel the programs offered to teens in your library provide effective services? a. yes b. no c. somewhat d. don’t know 5. Do teens attend/participate in programs offered at your library? a. yes b. no c. somewhat d. don’t know 6. Approximately how many teens attend programs offered at your library? a. 0-5 b. 6-10 c. 11-20 d. 21 or more 7. Does your library collaborate with the libraries in the schools attended by teens ages 12- 18? (If yes proceed to question 8, if no proceed to question 9). a. yes b. no c. somewhat d. don’t know 8. Do you feel the collaboration between your library and the school library is helpful in providing the best service to teens? a. yes b. no c. somewhat d. don’t know 9. Do you feel the collaboration between your library and the school library would be helpful in providing the best service to teens? a. yes b. no c. somewhat d. don’t know
    • APPENDIX DQUESTIONNAIRE-TEEN GROUP 1. How many times in the past year have you visited your public library? a. 0 b. 1-2 c. 3-5 d. 6-10 e. 11-20 f. 21 or more 2. Have you used the public library for the following reasons? a. check out/return books i. yes ii. no b. to use the computer i. yes ii. no c. class trip i. yes ii. no d. to use other electronic equipment i. yes ii. no e. attend program, lecture, or meeting i. yes ii. no 3. When you visit the public library the librarians are…(Choose all that apply) a. friendly b. helpful c. unapproachable d. not helpful e. busy f. other g. none of the above 4. Of the following choices, which make you feel welcome or unwelcome at your public library? a. librarian behind a desk i. welcome ii. unwelcome iii. neither b. librarian walking around
    • i. welcome ii. unwelcome iii. neither c. librarian approaching you first i. welcome ii. unwelcome iii. neither d. having to approach the librarian first i. welcome ii. unwelcome iii. neither e. librarians who ask questions about what I need i. welcome ii. unwelcome iii. neither f. librarians who find what I need without asking questions i. welcome ii. unwelcome iii. neither5. Does the attitude of the librarian affect whether or not you visit the public library? a. yes b. no c. somewhat d. don’t know6. Does your public library offer programs for teens? a. yes b. no c. don’t know7. Which of the following would make you more likely to visit your public library? Choose all that apply? a. welcoming environment b. teen reading area c. programs/meetings d. a librarian specifically for teens e. books/magazines for teens f. other8. Which of the following programs would you attend if they were offered at your public library? Choose all that apply. a. book talks b. movie nights c. reading club d. art programs e. computer classes f. other