2. Why Prepare?1. 26% of Praxis test takers said they received alower score than they expected.2. Test takers tend to overestimate theirpreparedness.3. Success on teacher licensure tests is directlylinked to preparation.4. 19% of Praxis test takers do not takeadvantage of the free test prep available.5. Advice for repeat test takers: Do NOT retakethe test without preparation!
3. Praxis II You have to take three test to complete your licensure.1. Principles of Teaching and Learning Code for Passing Score Name of Test Dates to take Test Test Needed in Ohio PLT: Early Childhood 0521 166 11/12/11 1/14/12 3/10/12 4/28/122. Education of Young Children Code for Passing Score Name of Test Dates to take Test Test Needed in Ohio 0021 11/12/11 Education of Young (paper) 4/30/11 166 Children 5021 7/23/11 (computer)
4. 3. Special Education: Preschool/Early Childhood Code for Passing Score Name of Test Dates to take Test Test Needed in Ohio Special Education: 11/12/11 Preschool/Early 0690 1/14/12* 530 Childhood 3/10/12 4/28/12* 6/09/12 7/21/12*
5. When am I required to take each Praxis II test?Junior Year, Second SemesterSpecial Education:Preschool/Early Childhood (0690):Senior Year, First SemesterEducation of Young Children(0021):TBAPrinciples of Learning and Teaching(0521):
6. Strategies and Tips• Learn what the test covers• Collect study materials – Study guides and textbooks – Notes from courses taken at BGSU – Online practice tests at: – http://www.ets.org/praxis/prepare/materials – Plan and organize your time – Develop a study plan• STUDY!!
7. For Each Test on www.ets.orgHelpful Information – Test at a Glance – Reduce Test Anxiety – General Information and Study Tips To access this information: • www.ets.org • Click on Praxis (from home page) • Under the heading For Test Takers click on Prepare for a Praxis Test • Select the Praxis test you wish to prepare for from the drop down menu and you are provided with the links above
8. Principles of Learning and Teaching Test Code: 0521• Time: 2 hours• Number of Questions: 12 short answer and 24 multiple choice• Format: 4 case histories will be presented; each followed by 3 short answer questions; 24 multiple choice questions are included in 2 sections of 12 questions each.
9. PLT cont. Percentage of Content Categories Examination Students as Learners (multiple choice questions) 11% Instruction and Assessment (multiple choice questions) 11% Teacher Professionalism (multiple choice questions) 11% Students as Learners (short answer) 22% Instruction and Assessment (short answer) 22% Communication Techniques (short answer) 11% Teacher Professionalism (short answer) 11%• You will need to monitor your time carefully – Plan on approximately 25 minutes per case history – Plan on approximately 10 minutes for each of the 2 sections of multiple choice questions
10. Study Guide (eBook)• Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) Study Guide eBook This Praxis™ Study Guide eBook was created by ETS test makers. Available for immediate download.• http://store.digitalriver.com/store/ets/DisplayProductDet ailsPage/ThemeID.12805600/productID.105172900
11. Education of Young Children Test Code: 0021 (paper); 5021 (computer)• Time: 2 hours• Number of Questions: – 90 multiple choice/3 Constructed response
12. Education of Young Children Approximate Approximate Content Categories Number of Percentage of Questions Examination Early Childhood Development 16 M/C 14%Teaching and Supporting Diverse 14 M/C 12% Children Creating a Developmentally Appropriate Learning 17 M/C 20% Environment Teaching and Learning 22 M/C 20% Professionalism: Family and 21 M/C 19% Community Demonstrating Knowledge of 3 constructed response 20% Teaching
13. Education of Young Children• Categories of constructed responses: – Teaching and supporting diverse children or creating a developmentally appropriate learning environment. (1 Constructed Response) – Relationships with families or professionalism (1 Constructed Response) – Assessment, curriculum, or instruction (1 Constructed Response)
14. Pacing: Education of Young ChildrenIt is recommended that about 90 minutes bespent on the multiple-choice questions, and 30minutes be spent on the constructed responsequestions. The two sections are NOTindependently timed. It is also recommendedyou answer all questions. Your score isdetermined on the amount of questions you getcorrect, not based on the amount of questionsanswered. There is no penalty for incorrectanswers. Keeping these recommendations inmind, determine your own pacing.
15. Study Guide (eBook)• Education of Young Children Study Guide eBook This Praxis™ Study Guide eBook was created by ETS test makers. Available for immediate download.• http://store.digitalriver.com/store/ets/DisplayProductDet ailsPage/ThemeID.12805600/productID.247562800
16. Special Education: Preschool/Early Childhood Test Code: 0690• Time: 2 hours• Number of Questions: 110 multiple choice questions
17. Special Education: Preschool/Early Childhood Approximate Approximate Number of Content Categories Percentage of Questions Examination Human Growth and 16 15% Development Knowledge of Disabling 12 11% Conditions Evaluation, Assessment and 16 15% Eligibility CriteriaPlanning and Service Delivery 17 15% Family and Community 21 19% Aspects Professional Practice 28 25%
18. Pacing: Special Education: Preschool/Early ChildhoodIt is recommended that you keep in mind youhave 110 questions to complete in 120 minutes.Do not dwell on a question. It is alsorecommended you answer all questions. Yourscore is determined on the amount of questionsyou get correct, not based on the amount ofquestions answered. There is no penalty forincorrect answers.
19. Constructed-Response• Read the questions first, then go back and read for the answers• Restate the question(s) in your answer• Answer ALL parts of the questions
20. Tips for Constructed-Response Questions• Read directions carefully• Pace your activities• Organize your response – Make outline or web of your ideas in the test booklet – Rewrite the question in your response – Answer each part of the question• Write your response• Review your response
21. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions• Follow directions• Pace your work• Read carefully- reread if necessary• Eliminate obvious incorrect answers• Determine the "best" answer among the remaining answers• Guess wisely- remember there is no penalty for incorrect answers• Mark your answers carefully• Check the accuracy of your work
22. Reducing Test Anxiety• Don’t believe the rumors you hear about the test – Some may say it’s impossible – Some may say it’s ridiculously easy• Don’t waste time on “beat the test” strategies – You can’t trick your way to a high score – Spend your study time reviewing topics you don’t know very well Practical tips and more information can be found at: http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/PRAXIS/pdf/01361anxiety.pdf
23. 3 Things You Need to Succeed:• Preparation – Learn what the test covers – Study areas you don’t know very well• Organization – Create a clear, targeted study plan for the weeks leading up to the test• Practice – Practice answering test questions and pacing yourself
24. Stay Focused• Many people get so nervous when the test supervisor tells them to begin – Instead of racing to the first question, take a minute to browse through the test page by page• Remember you are not expected to answer every question correctly – You can skip difficult questions and return to them later if there is time• If you “go-blank” when facing constructed-response questions, remember that action fights anxiety – Start jotting down anything on a piece of scrap paper – Once you start writing, you are more likely to find ideas taking shape in your head – Then you can start to organize your actual response
25. Stay Focused• For multiple-choice tests, your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly – Work as rapidly as you can without sacrificing accuracy – Don’t spend too much time puzzling over a question that seems too difficult for you – Answer the easier questions first, then return to the harder ones – Try to answer every question even if you have to guess
26. Are You Ready?Complete this checklist to determine if you’re ready to take your test.□ Have you followed all of the test registration procedures?□ Do you know the topics that will be covered in each test you plan to take?□ Have you reviewed any textbooks, class notes, and course readings that relate to the topics covered?□ Do you know how long the test will take and the number of questions it contains? Have you considered how you will pace your work?
27. Checklist□ Are you familiar with the types of questions for your test?□ Are you familiar with the recommended test-taking strategies?□ Have you practiced by working through the practice questions in the Tests at a Glance booklet (on ets.org)?□ If constructed-response questions are part of your test, do you understand the scoring criteria for these items?□ If you are repeating a Praxis Series test, have you analyzed your previous score report to determine areas where additional study and test preparation could be useful?
28. Taking the TestYou should have ended your review a day or two before the actual test date. On the day of the test, you should:• Be well-rested and eat a healthy breakfast.• Take a valid photo identification that includes your signature with you.• Be sure to print your admission ticket to take with you.• Take a supply of well-sharpened No. 2 pencils (at least 3). Mechanical pencils are NOT allowed.• If taking multiple tests on the same day, bring food with you to keep your energy level up.• Be prepared to stand in line to check in.• Wear comfortable clothes and dress in layers.• Do not take your cell phone into the testing center.
29. What to Review Education of Young Children (0021)• This test will require you to know not only fundamental concepts regarding early childhood education, but how to integrate these concepts and apply them in a variety of classroom situations.• ***Please remember these are examples of representative topics of those covered on the test. The particular test may or may not include all of these topics, and/or may cover additional topics not mentioned.***
30. What to Review Education of Young Children (0021)• Child development – birth though age 8• Prominent theorists: Piaget, Vygotsky, Maslow, Bruner, Skinner, etc.• Content specific knowledge: Reading/Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies• Teaching strategies for all content areas• Positive classroom environment
31. What to Review Education of Young Children (0021)• Relationships with families and communities• Teaching strategies for meeting the needs of of diverse needs• Teaching strategies for students with special needs• Basic pedagogy: how do young children learn best?• http://www.ets.org/praxis/prepare/materials/0021
32. What to Review Special Education: Preschool/Early Childhood Education (0690)• This test will require you to not only know characteristics of different disabilities but to take a diagnosis and know what services should be put into place. You should expect to be given several questions that are case based and you must choose the best option from the given choices.• ***Please remember these are examples of representative topics of those covered on the test. The particular test may or may not include all of these topics, and/or may cover additional topics not mentioned.***
33. What to Review Special Education: Preschool/Early Childhood Education (0690)• Typical and Atypical Child development- birth through age 8• Important Early Childhood Theories: Behavioral Theory, Play Theory, Family Systems Theory• Causes and Characteristics of Disabilities (review EDIS 2310 text**)• Individual Education Plan/ Individual Family Service Plan Regulations
34. What to Review Special Education: Preschool/Early Childhood Education (0690)• Laws and court cases specific to special education and early childhood• Teaming, transitions and placement issues• Issues faced by families of children with special needs• http://www.ets.org/praxis/prepare/materials/0690
35. What to Review Principles of Learning and Teaching (0521)• Child development and the learning process• Diversity of learners• Classroom management – including motivation and promoting positive relationships• Instructional strategies and theoretical foundations
36. What to Review Principles of Learning and Teaching (0521)• Assessment – types, uses, and interpreting• Types of communication – verbal/nonverbal, effects of culture and gender, different types for specific purposes• Reflecting on teaching – how and why?• Teacher as professional – roles and responsibilities• http://www.ets.org/praxis/prepare/materials/0521