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  • 1. using PhotoshopScott KelbyCATEGORY: Digital Photography, Retouching,Adobe Photoshop, Photography USER LEVEL: Intermediate$49.99 USA / $59.99 CANLEARN HOW THE PROS RETOUCH PORTRAITS WITH CLEAN,NATURAL, AND REALISTIC-LOOKING RESULTS IN JUST MINUTESEach year, Scott Kelby, Editor-in-Chief of Photoshop User magazineand the #1 best-selling Photoshop author, trains literally thousands ofphotographers on how to retouch portraits using Photoshop throughhis live seminars, online classes, DVDs, and standing-room only work-shops at the Photoshop World Conference & Expo. Now you canlearn the same techniques he uses in his own retouching workflow, inthe only book of its kind—one written expressly for photographerswho do their own retouching.As a pro photographer himself, Scott understands that photogra-phers make their living shooting, not retouching. But, delivering fullyretouched images is now expected by clients. That’s why Scott puttogether this amazing resource for teaching photographers the quick-est, easiest, and most effective ways to create professional-looking,retouched final images without spending hours grinding away atpainstaking, detailed techniques.LEARN HOW THE PROS DO ITIt’s all here—the step-by-step methods for fixing, enhancing, and fin-ishing your portraits in Photoshop. Using the techniques in this book,you’ll create images that will absolutely wow your clients. You’ll learn:• How to soften skin and still retain detail and texture• The best tricks for beautifully enhancing eyes, eyebrows,and eyelashes• How to selectively sharpen portraits without complicated masking• How to create gorgeous-looking lips• How to remove blemishes fast and keep the most detail• The pros’ tricks for body sculpting• How to make your subject’s hair look fabulous• How to give your retouches that natural look that setsthem apart• Plus, you get Scott’s complete 5-minute, 15-minute, and30-minute start-to-finish workflowsIf you’re ready to learn the “tricks of the trade”—the same onesthat today’s leading pro photographers use to retouch, tuck, tighten,and tone their images for that pro-retouched look—you’re holdingthe book that will do exactly that. It will radically change the wayyou retouch your portraits from here on out, and give you thebest-looking, most natural retouches you’ve ever done.Scott Kelby is Editor-in-Chief of Photo­shop User magazine, President of theNational Association of Photoshop Pro­fessionals (NAPP), Training Director forthe Adobe Photoshop Seminar Tour,and one of the leading seminar instruc-tors in the industry today. Scott is authorof the best-selling books, The Light­room 3 Book for Digital Photographers,Photoshop Down & Dirty Tricks, andThe Digital Photography Book (volumes1, 2 & 3), among others. His easy­going,plain-English style of teaching makeslearning Photoshop fun. He trains thou-sands in his live seminars each year andknows firsthand which techniques arein hot demand.BeforeAfterwww.newriders.comwww.kelbytraining.comKELBY
  • 2. using PhotoshopScott Kelby
  • 3. Published by New RidersCopyright ©2011 by Scott KelbyAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or trans-mitted in any form, by any means, electronic or mechanical, includingphotocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrievalsystem, without written permission from the publisher, except for theinclusion of brief quotations in a review.Composed in Avenir, Museo, Sling, and FG Grayson by Kelby MediaGroup, Inc.TrademarksAll terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarksor service marks have been appropriately capitalized. New Riderscannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term inthe book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of anytrademark or service mark.Photoshop is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.Macintosh and Mac are registered trademarks of Apple Inc.Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.Warning and DisclaimerThis book is designed to provide information for photographers aboutretouching in Adobe Photoshop. Every effort has been made to makethis book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty offitness is implied.The information is provided on an as-is basis. The author and NewRiders shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person orentity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the informationcontained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that mayaccompany it.THIS PRODUCT IS NOT ENDORSED OR SPONSORED BY ADOBESYSTEMS INCORPORATED, PUBLISHER OF ADOBE PHOTOSHOP.ISBN 13: 978-0-321-72554-7ISBN 10: 0-321-72554-99 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1The Professional PortraitRetouching Techniquesfor Photographers UsingPhotoshop TeamCREATIVE DIRECTORFelix NelsonTECHNICAL EDITORSCindy SnyderKim DotyDavid CuerdonASSOCIATE ART DIRECTORJessica MaldonadoTRAFFIC DIRECTORKim GabrielPRODUCTION MANAGERDave DamstraPHOTOGRAPHY BYScott Kelbywww.kelbytraining.comwww.newriders.com
  • 4. To my daughter Kira:You’ve been blessed withso many of your mom’s gifts—I can’t wait to see the amazingwoman you, too, will become.
  • 5. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopivAcknowledgmentsAfter writing books for 13 years now, I still find that the thing that’s the hardest for me to write in anybook is the acknowledgments. It also, hands down, takes me longer than any other pages in the book.For me, I think the reason I take these acknowledgments so seriously is because it’s when I get to put downon paper how truly grateful I am to be surrounded by such great friends, an incredible book team, anda family that truly makes my life a joy. That’s why it’s so hard. I also know why it takes so long—you typea lot slower with tears in your eyes.To my remarkable wife, Kalebra: We’ve been married 21 years now, and you still continue to amaze me,and everyone around you. I’ve never met anyone more compassionate, more loving, more hilarious, andmore genuinely beautiful, and I’m so blessed to be going through life with you, to have you as the motherof my children, my business partner, my private pilot, Chinese translator, and best friend. You truly are thetype of woman love songs are written for, and as anyone who knows me will tell you, I am, without adoubt, the luckiest man alive to have you for my wife.To my son, Jordan: It’s every dad’s dream to have a relationship with his son like I have with you, andI’m so proud of the bright, caring, creative young man you’ve become. I can’t wait to see the amazing thingslife has in store for you, and I just want you to know that watching you grow into the person you are is oneof my life’s greatest joys.To my precious little girl, Kira: You have been blessed in a very special way, because you are a littleclone of your mom, which is the most wonderful thing I could have possibly wished for you. I see all hergifts reflected in your eyes, and though you’re still too young to have any idea how blessed you are tohave Kalebra as your mom, one day—just like Jordan—you will.To my big brother Jeff, who has always been, and will always be, a hero to me. So much of who I am, andwhere I am, is because of your influence, guidance, caring, and love as I was growing up. Thank you forteaching me to always take the high road, for always knowing the right thing to say at the right time, andfor having so much of our dad in you.I’m incredibly fortunate to have part of the production of my books handled in-house by my own bookteam at Kelby Media Group, which is led by my friend and longtime Creative Director, Felix Nelson, who ishands down the most creative person I’ve ever met. He’s surrounded by some of the most talented, amazing,ambitious, gifted, and downright brilliant people I’ve ever had the honor of working with.Thank God for Kim Doty, my Editor. She is amazing, and single-handedly keeps me from visiting a nearbytower, and climbing to the top to throw myself off (anyone catch that vague Gilbert O’Sullivan reference there?Anybody? No?). Kim is just an incredibly organized, upbeat, focused person who keeps me calm and on track,and no matter how tough the task ahead is, she always says the same thing, “Ah, piece of cake,” and sheconvinces you that you can do it, and then you do it. I cannot begin to tell you how grateful I am to herfor being my Editor.Working with Kim is Cindy Snyder, who relentlessly tests all the stuff I write to make sure I didn’t leaveanything out, so you’ll all be able to do the things I’m teaching (which with a Photoshop book is an absolutenecessity). She’s like a steel trap that nothing can get through if it doesn’t work just like I said it would.
  • 6. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopvThe look of the book comes from an amazing designer, a creative powerhouse, and someone whomI feel very, very lucky to have designing my books—Jessica Maldonado. She always adds that little somethingthat just takes it up a notch, and I’ve built up such a trust for her ideas and intuition, which is why I just let herdo her thing. Thanks Jess!I owe a huge debt of gratitude to my Executive Assistant and Chief Wonder Woman, Kathy Siler. She runsa whole side of my business life, and a big chunk of our conferences, and she does it so I have time to writebooks, spend time with my family, and have a life outside of work. She’s such an important part of what I do thatI don’t know how I did anything without her. Thank you, thank you, thank you. It means more than you know.Thanks to my best buddy, our Chief Operating Officer and father of twin little girls, Dave Moser, first forhandling the business end of our book projects, but mostly for always looking out for me.Thanks to everyone at New Riders and Peachpit, in particular, my way cool Editor Ted Waitt, my wonder-ful Publisher Nancy Aldrich-Ruenzel, marketing maven Scott Cowlin, and marketing diva Sara Jane Todd, andthe entire team at Pearson Education who go out of their way to make sure that we’re always working in thebest interests of my readers, and who work tirelessly to make sure my work gets in as many people’s handsas possible.Thanks to my friends at Adobe: John Nack, Mala Sharma, John Loiacono, Terry White, Cari Gushiken,Julieanne Kost, Tom Hogarty, Dave Story, Bryan O’Neil Hughes, Thomas Nielsen, Russell Preston Brown,and the amazing engineering team at Adobe (I don’t know how you all do it). Gone but not forgotten:Barbara Rice, Jill Nakashima, Rye Livingston, Addy Roff, Bryan Lamkin, Jennifer Stern, Kevin Connor,Deb Whitman, and Karen Gauthier.Thanks to Matt Kloskowski for letting me bounce ideas off of him for this book and for his input andsuggestions. A big high-five and thanks to Corey Barker, who developed the cool set of eyelash brushes youguys get with the book. And thanks to professional makeup artist Shelley Giard for all her help and insights.I was very fortunate to have professional retoucher and instructor David Cuerdon as Technical Editorfor the book. The entire book is much better because of his input, and I’m very grateful for his advice andhis friendship.I want to thank all the talented retouchers who I’ve learned so much from over the years: Katrin Eismann,Jane Conner-ziser, Felix Nelson, Natalia Taffarel, Corey Barker, Christy Schuler, Mary DuPrie, Kevin Ames,Dave Cuerdon, Calvin Hollywood, and the community at RetouchPRO.com.Thanks to my mentors, whose wisdom and whip-cracking have helped me immeasurably, includingJohn Graden, Jack Lee, Dave Gales, Judy Farmer, and Douglas Poole.Most importantly, I want to thank God, and His son Jesus Christ, for leading me to the woman of my dreams,for blessing us with two amazing children, for allowing me to make a living doing something I truly love, foralways being there when I need Him, for blessing me with a wonderful, fulfilling, and happy life, and such awarm, loving family to share it with.
  • 7. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopviOther Books by Scott KelbyThe Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 3 Book for Digital PhotographersThe Digital Photography Book, volumes 1, 2 & 3The Photoshop CS5 Book for Digital PhotographersThe Photoshop Channels BookPhoto Recipes Live: Behind the Scenes, parts 1 & 2Scott Kelby’s 7-Point System for Adobe PhotoshopPhotoshop Down & Dirty TricksThe iPhone BookThe Mac OS X Leopard BookThe Photoshop Elements Book for Digital Photographers
  • 8. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopviiScott KelbyAbout the AuthorScott is Editor, Publisher, and co-founder of Photoshop User magazine,host of the top-rated weekly videocast Photoshop User TV, and co-hostof D-Town TV (the weekly videocast for DSLR shooters).He is President of the National Association of Photoshop Professionals(NAPP), the trade association for Adobe®Photoshop®users, and he’s Presidentof the training, education, and publishing firm, Kelby Media Group, Inc.Scott is a photographer, designer, and award-winning author of morethan 50 books, including The Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 3 Book for DigitalPhotographers, The Adobe Photoshop CS5 Book for Digital Photographers,Photoshop Down & Dirty Tricks, The Photoshop Channels Book, The iPhoneBook, The iPod Book, and The Digital Photography Book, vols. 1, 2 & 3.Scott’s book, The Digital Photography Book, vol. 1, is the best-selling bookever on digital photography. In 2010, Scott became the #1 best-selling authoracross all photography book categories. From 2004–2009, he held the honorof being the world’s #1 best-selling author of all computer and technologybooks, across all categories.His books have been translated into dozens of different languages, includingChinese, Russian, Spanish, Korean, Polish, Taiwanese, French, German, Italian,Japanese, Dutch, Swedish, Turkish, and Portuguese, among others, and he isa recipient of the prestigious Benjamin Franklin Award.Scott is Training Director for the Adobe Photoshop Seminar Tour andConference Technical Chair for the Photoshop World Conference & Expo.He’s featured in a series of Adobe Photoshop online courses and DVDs atKelbyTraining.com and has been training Adobe Photoshop users since 1993.For more information on Scott, visit his daily blog, Photoshop Insider,at www.scottkelby.com.
  • 9. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopviiiContentsCHAPTER 1 1NAKED EYESRetouching EyesIncreasing Contrast in the Iris........................................................................................ 2Darkening the Outer Rim of the Iris.............................................................................. 6Adding More Life to the Eyes.......................................................................................12Enhancing and/or Creating Catch Lights.....................................................................17Brightening the Whites of the Eyes............................................................................. 24Removing Eye Veins...................................................................................................... 32Changing Eye Color...................................................................................................... 35Reducing Dark Circles Under Eyes.............................................................................. 38Making Eyes Larger (or Smaller).................................................................................. 42Swapping One Eye for the Other................................................................................ 49Enhancing Eyelashes .....................................................................................................57Creating Beautiful Eyebrows ....................................................................................... 68Making Fuller Eyebrows............................................................................................... 75Darkening the Eyebrows .............................................................................................. 79Sharpening Eyes to Make Them Sparkle .....................................................................81CHAPTER 2 85UNDER MY SKINRetouching SkinRemoving Blemishes..................................................................................................... 86How to Avoid Plastic-Looking Skin.............................................................................. 89Basic “Quickie” Skin Softening....................................................................................90Softening Skin While Retaining Texture...................................................................... 96Softening Skin & Adding Texture Back In................................................................. 102High Pass Skin Softening ........................................................................................... 108Softening Skin Using Channels...................................................................................113Reducing or Removing Wrinkles.................................................................................119Removing Hot Spots....................................................................................................127Balancing Skin Tones...................................................................................................131Reducing Stubble........................................................................................................ 136Applying Digital Makeup ........................................................................................... 140Creating Porcelain-Looking Skin ................................................................................151Sharpening Portraits................................................................................................... 160CHAPTER 3 169FACE TO FACEReshaping Facial FeaturesReshaping the Face and Head................................................................................... 170Making Features More Symmetrical ..........................................................................176Sculpting the Face by Dodging & Burning............................................................... 184
  • 10. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopixContentsCHAPTER 4 191HAIRRetouching HairAdding Highlights to Hair .......................................................................................... 192Removing Stray Hair Strands ......................................................................................196Fixing Gaps in Hair .....................................................................................................204Changing Hair Color................................................................................................... 209Darkening a Part Line................................................................................................. 214Hiding Roots.................................................................................................................217CHAPTER 5 223LIPPS, INC.Retouching the Lips and MouthMaking Lips Larger..................................................................................................... 224Creating Glossy Lips....................................................................................................227Applying or Tweaking Lipstick................................................................................... 232Changing the Shade of Lip Color.............................................................................. 236Repairing Teeth........................................................................................................... 243Whitening Teeth and Reducing Yellowing................................................................ 252CHAPTER 6 259SLIM SHADYSlimming and TrimmingOverall Slimming.........................................................................................................260Slimming One Person in a Group Shot .....................................................................263Reducing a Double Chin & Thinning the Face.......................................................... 266Thinning Arms or Legs.................................................................................................271Getting Great Abs ......................................................................................................280Fixing Clothes (Lumps, Bagging & Folds)................................................................. 285CHAPTER 7 259TAKING FIVEMy 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesRetouching Checklist.................................................................................................. 294My Five-Minute Retouch............................................................................................ 296My 15-Minute Retouch............................................................................................... 310My 30-Minute Retouch............................................................................................... 324INDEX ..........................................................................................................................343
  • 11. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshopx Seven Things You’ll Wish You Had Known©ISTOCKPHOTO/GCHUTKA#1 This book was writtenfor photographers—notphoto retouchers.Most photographers aren’t able to sendtheir images out to a full-time, high-endretoucher, so we wind up doing our ownportrait retouching in Photoshop. That’sexactly who I wrote this book to help—photographers who want better, faster,more realistic results from their own por-trait retouching. The key word here is“photographers.” This isn’t a book tolearn how to become a high-end portraitretoucher (which is a very hard job, doneby highly skilled, and very patient, pro-fessionals who take whatever time andsteps are necessary to create absolutelyperfect images. I have immense respectfor these folks, who spend an average offour hours on a retouch, and as much astwo to three days on a single cover image).However, as photographers, we usuallydon’t get paid for the retouching part ofour jobs, so we need to get back to shoot-ing as quickly as possible. That’s why I onlyfocus on teaching you the fastest, easiesttechniques to get your retouching donein as little time as possible. That meansdoing things that some high-end retouch-ers would definitely wrinkle their browover, but when you make your living fromshooting, you need to get back to shoot-ing. That’s what this book is about—quick,efficient techniques for great-looking,natural retouches that make you, andyour subject, look great.It’s really important to me that you get a lot out of reading this book, and one way I can help is to get you to read theseseven quick things about the book that you’ll wish later you knew now. For example, it’s here that I tell you about whereto download something important, and if you skip over this, eventually you’ll send me an email asking where it is, but bythen you’ll be really aggravated, and well…it’s gonna get ugly. We can skip all that (and more) if you take two minutesnow and read these seven quick things. I promise to make it worth your while.Seven Things You’ll Wish You Had KnownBefore Reading This Book
  • 12. Seven Things You’ll Wish You Had Known xiProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop#2 Download the practiceimages, so you can followright along with me.I’ve made all of the photos I used herein the book available for you to download,so you can follow right along with me aswe work. For this book, though, I addedsomething extra—a second practice file,so you can try the same technique you justlearned on a totally different image. Withretouching, it’s the repetition that buildsyour speed, so this is another way for youto take what you’ve just learned and applyit somewhere else. You can download theimages at www.kelbytraining.com/books/retouching (see, this is one of those thingsI was talking about that you’d miss if youskipped this and went right to Chapter 1).#3 You don’t have to readthis book in order.I designed this book so you can turn rightto the retouching technique you want tolearn and start there. I explain everythingas I go, step by step, so if you want tolearn how to sharpen your subject’s eyes,just turn to page 81, and in a couple ofminutes, you’ll know how.
  • 13. xii Seven Things You’ll Wish You Had KnownProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop#4 The intro pages at thebeginning of each chapterare not what they seem.The chapter introductions are designed togive you a quick mental break betweenchapters, and honestly, they have littleto do with what’s in the chapter. In fact,they have little to do with anything, butwriting these quirky chapter intros hasbecome kind of a tradition of mine (I dothis in all my books), so if you’re one ofthose really “serious” types, I’m beggingyou—skip them and just go right into thechapter, because they’ll just get on yournerves. However, the short intros at thebeginning of each individual technique,up at the top of the page, are usuallypretty important. If you skip over them,you might wind up missing stuff that isn’tmentioned in the technique itself. So, ifyou find yourself working on a technique,and you’re thinking to yourself, “Why arewe doing this?” it’s probably becauseyou skipped over that short intro.#5 I included a chapter onmy own start-to-finishretouching workflows,but don’t read it yet.At the end of the book, I included aspecial chapter detailing my retouchingworkflows for a 5-minute, 15-minute, and30-minute retouch, but please don’t readit until you’ve read the rest of the bookfirst, because it assumes that you’veread the book already, and understandthe basic concepts. So, it doesn’t spelleverything out (or they would be really,really long, drawn-out workflows). In thischapter, I refer back to things you’vealready learned, and if you haven’tlearned them…well…you’ll get kindastuck there. So, do yourself a favor—read the first six chapters first, thendo the workflows.
  • 14. Seven Things You’ll Wish You Had Known xiiiProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop#6 Do I need to do allthis stuff?Absolutely not. In fact, the goal is todo as little as possible, and be as subtleas possible, so if you can finish off animage with just two or three techniquesfrom the book, that’s fantastic. If you findyourself using 20 or more techniques,maybe it’s time to find some better look-ing subjects (kidding, just a joke). I justdon’t want you to think that you have toapply everything in this book to everyphoto. Start by evaluating the image andwhat needs to be done. I always start bylooking at the image and asking myself,“What do I wish here was different?” (Forexample, I wish his teeth weren’t yellow,and that he didn’t have that big mole onhis neck, and all those stray hairs acrosshis face.) Then you turn to the pages withthose techniques and apply just the onesyou need. Retouching is one of those“less is more” things.#7 I made you aRetouching Checklist.One of the things photographers ask methe most is, “How do you know what toretouch?” So, I made you a checklist ofthings to look for. Now, you don’t have todo all the things on the checklist (in fact, ifyou do, perhaps retouching shouldn’t beyour biggest concern), but at least you’llhave a list to make sure that nothing thatneeds to be retouched slips by you. I putthis checklist right before the workflowchapter that’s at the end of the book (you’llfind it on page 294). Also, I took it a stepfurther by creating a custom Photoshoppanel, so you won’t even have to pull outthe book—the panel will be right insidePhotoshop. You can download it at www.kelbytraining.com/books/retouching.See, I told ya I’d make reading thisworth your while.
  • 15. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshopxiv
  • 16. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopWhy We Retouch xvWhy We RetouchBefore you dive into the book, I hope you’ll invest two minutes in reading my philosophy on why weretouch. I think that, not only will this help you understand where I’m coming from with these retouches,but it also will make you a better, more aware, retoucher. The ability to make people look their best, or betterthan their best, is amazingly powerful and, as someone retouching photos, you have a responsibility to yoursubject, your client, and yourself to do this right.A couple of years ago, my wonderful wife surprised me with a trip to the Tuscany region of Italy. It wasan amazingly beautiful place (and the food was…well, the food was insane!), and one afternoon I grabbedmy camera gear and drove up into the Asciano hills (I couldn’t get anyone in my family to go with me—I think I had already burned them out with all my photography outings that trip).At one point, I pulled to the side of the road when I saw this beautiful little villa, sitting up on a hill, sur-rounded by tall olive trees, and this amazingly green, rolling grass—it was just stunning. I set up my tripod,got out my remote cable release, and really took my time to capture the scene that I wish my family hadbeen there to see. After I was done shooting, I stood there for a moment, took a deep breath of the fresh air,and just gazed upon that perfect little “villa in Tuscany” scene. I couldn’t wait to show my family the pictures.When I got back to our hotel room, I immediately found the image and opened it in Photoshop, soI could rush out and show everybody the image full-screen. But as soon as the image opened, I wasstunned to see something that totally ruined the picture for me—power lines and telephone poles. Notjust one or two. About two dozen. There were lines and cables and 20-foot poles all over the place. I neversaw them while I was standing there right in front of the scene in Tuscany, but the moment I opened theimage in Photoshop, it was the very first thing that jumped out at me. I sighed, and then I spent the nexttwo hours carefully removing every line, every wire, and every pole, because I wanted the scene to looklike what I saw while I was right there, standing in front of it.Well, photos of people are exactly the same. You can have a one-on-one conversation with someonefor a solid hour, take a quick portrait of them, and when you open their image, every flaw, every blemish,and every little imperfection you totally missed during your conversation may as well have a big red circlearound it and a large arrow pointing right to it. I know it’s the truth, because it’s happened to me, and count-less other photographers, again and again over the years.So, our job, when we’re retouching people, is to take that flat, unflattering, two-dimensional still imageof them, where every flaw doesn’t just stand out, but gets magnified, and make them look as good as theydid when they were standing right in front of us.If you go too far, they will know it has been highly retouched and they won’t feel good about it. Worsethan that, their friends and family will know it has been highly retouched. But, if you’re careful to make themlook as good in the photo, or perhaps just slightly better, than they do in real life, their friends and family willlove the photo, and so will your subject.Lastly, here’s one thing I learned the hard way: You’re about to learn some amazing techniques and nodoubt you’ll want to brag to your subject about what an amazing retouch you did for them in Photoshop,and how great you made them look. But, here’s my advice: don’t do it. Never show them the before/after,and don’t show their friends or family, either. This is about making them look their best, not making themfeel their worst. Keep this between you and Photoshop, and I promise you, you’ll be glad you did.
  • 17. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshopxvi 12 Things You Need to Know Now#1 Think SmallIf I could only give you one piece ofadvice, one secret about successfulretouching, it would be to work witha small brush as much as possible.Of course, as photographers, most ofus just want to get the job done asquickly as possible, so we use a largebrush, which does get things donefaster, but often picks up a repeatingpattern (repeats a speck, or hair, orblemish from the area where yousampled), or it smudges an area whenyou’ve brushed over it a few times,and generally it’s one of the bigcauses for a retouch looking shabby.Stick with small- or medium-sizedbrushes as much as possible, andI promise you, your retouching willlook more professional. Also, to getmore control, work at low Opacitysettings with your brushes (between10% and 30%), and gradually build upyour strokes, one on top of another.You can’t do this every time you usea brush, but when you can, it makesa big difference.I know you want to get to retouching, but I promise you—if you take just a few minutes to read these 12 things, you’llbetter understand what you’ll be doing, why you’re doing it, and you’ll get better results faster from your retouching.Really. I promise.12 Things You Need to Know Nowto Make Your Retouching Easier
  • 18. (Continued)12 Things You Need to Know Now xviiProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopCOURTESYOFWACOM;IMAGEWITHINMONITOR©SCOTTKELBY#2 Use a Pen and TabletIf you decided to become a professionalhouse painter, one of the first things you’dbuy is a roller brush, because it makes yourwork easier, and you’d get more done inless time. Then, you’d probably buy a smalledge brush to get the corner details. Theseare the tools of the trade, and about anypro you meet would have these. Well, it’skind of the same with retouching. I don’tknow a single professional retoucher thatdoesn’t use a Wacom pen and tablet. It’sthe retoucher’s tool-of-the-trade, becauseit makes your retouching tasks so mucheasier, and you’ll get more work done inless time. Plus, it will let you do the detailwork (like an edge brush for painters) thatmakes all the difference in the final image.I don’t get a kickback or payout whetheryou buy a tablet or not, but this is the toolwe all use (I use the Intuos4 medium-sizedtablet myself). That being said, you donot need a tablet to do any of the tech-niques in this book—you can tough it outwith a mouse. ;-)#3 Save Time with Tool PresetsYou’ll wind up using the same tools, withthe same custom settings, pretty often,and you can save yourself a lot of time byusing tool presets, which remember allthose settings. For example, let’s say youuse the Clone Stamp tool for removingstubble, and you have the tool’s Mode setto Lighten, the Sample pop-up menu setto All Layers, the Opacity at 40%, and youuse a medium-sized, soft-edged brush.Once all that’s in place, click on the CloneStamp tool icon up at the left end of theOptions Bar (shown circled here in red),and then in the Tool Preset Picker, clickon the right-facing arrow in the top-rightcorner and, from that menu, choose NewTool Preset. Give your tool preset a de-scriptive name (like the ones I’ve alreadyadded to the Picker here) and click OK.Now, anytime you need to remove stubble,you don’t have to enter (or remember) allthose settings, just click on that icon, thenclick on your tool preset, and it’s all set upand ready to go.
  • 19. xviii 12 Things You Need to Know NowProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop#4 Walk Away After a WhileIf you’ve been retouching for a while,you start seeing everything as a problemto be retouched, and after about an hour,most folks start to over-retouch and notrealize it. That’s why, after an hour ofretouching, you need to take a break,do something else for five or ten minutes,and then return to retouching with a freshview. I know this one might sound sillyas you’re reading this right up front, butan hour from now, it will make total sense.This is a more important point than itsounds right now.#5 Why We Work on a LayerWe do most of our retouching on aseparate layer (or a copy of the Back-ground layer, if necessary) for a fewreasons: (1) We can lower the intensityof any retouch by lowering the opacityof the layer we did our retouching on,and we do this a lot throughout the book.(2) It lets us have a quick before/afteranytime by just hiding the layer fromview, and then turning it back on (justclick the Eye icon to the left of the layer’sname in the Layers panel). And, (3) it pro-tects the original background image, sowe can always go back to it if we need to(so, basically, our edits are non-destruc-tive). This is a guideline, but it isn’t a rule,because when you’ve got five minutes todo a retouch, you can’t be working with10 layers, but for the most part, we alwaystry to keep our retouches on one or moreseparate layers.©ISTOCKPHOTO/CONSTINT;IMAGEWITHINMONITOR©SCOTTKELBY
  • 20. (Continued)12 Things You Need to Know Now xixProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop#6 Learn This Keyboard ShortcutCommand-Option-Shift-E (PC: Ctrl-Alt-Shift-E) is the shortcut for creating amerged layer, and what this does is itcreates a brand new layer with a flattenedversion of your multi-layered document(as seen at the top of the layer stack here).That way, you can keep lots of your earlierretouching layers intact while you work ona flattened version of the file. Then, if youneed to go back and fix something, youstill have the original layers. If this soundsconfusing, it will totally make sense injust a few minutes. Another handy key-board shortcut to know is Command-H(PC: Ctrl-H). If you have a selection aroundsomething, pressing that shortcut hidesthe “marching ants” selection border, soyou can more easily see what you’re work-ing on. Just don’t forget to press it againwhen you’re done retouching that area.#7 Don’t Retouch Zoomed OutIf you work with your image zoomed outat 66.7%, or 50%, or 33.3%, or smaller,you’re gonna get burned by some littlearea you missed. It might be a small pieceof skin that you didn’t brush over whensmoothing, or a tiny part of the imageyou missed when you changed its hue,but unless you do most of your retouch-ing at 100% size or larger, I guaranteeyou something is going to slip by andembarrass you—or worse yet, your client.In the book, you’ll see me use differentzoom sizes to make things fit better foryou, the reader, but when I’m retouching,I’m always working at 100%. It’s impor-tant to zoom out every so often, becauseit’s easy to do too much to a small area,and you’ll only realize it has been over-retouched when you zoom out, butwhen I’m working, I zoom in to 100%if at all possible.
  • 21. xx 12 Things You Need to Know NowProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop#8 The Direction of YourStrokes MattersWhenever you can make out a directionof the texture of something (like skin), orthe angle of something (like hair), try tomake your brush strokes go in that samedirection. I know you’re probably thinking,“Well, duh!” but I see people cloning upand down on a forehead area all the time.If you look at the direction of the skintexture there, it goes from left to right(well, it goes horizontal anyway), and ifyou want your retouches to look morenatural, just be aware of which directionto make your strokes so they blend inwith what you’re brushing on—it makesa difference.#9 Applying TheseRetouches to MenAs much as I hate to admit it, retouchingmen is pretty easy (well, compared toretouching women, anyway), becauseyou don’t have to make their skin silkysmooth, or make the eyelashes long andlustrous, or adjust their makeup, or lipstick,and so on. Because of that, you don’t seea lot of guys in this book, but many of theretouches on women here in the book alsoapply to men (like removing blemishes, orstray hairs, or making their eyes symmetri-cal), so don’t worry—you’re covered.
  • 22. (Continued)12 Things You Need to Know Now xxiProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop#10 Use a B&W or CurvesAdjustment Layer to SeeIf You Missed AnythingWhen you’re removing dust or specksfrom a background or sky, or removingblemishes or spots on clothing, becauseyou’re working on a color image, it’s easyto miss a spot here or there. It happensto all of us, but it can really be a messwhen a big one sneaks by us and we geta call from the client. That’s why a lot ofprofessional retouchers use a couple oftemporary layers that they toggle on/off,just to help them see the spots, strayhairs, and blemishes much more clearly.One is a simple Black & White adjustmentlayer. This works great on skin, and youcan keep it hidden until you’re aboutto finish up an area—then you make itvisible and see if you missed anything.The second one is a two-hill Curvesadjustment layer (like the one shownhere. To add points to the curve, justclick anywhere along the line and thendrag the point where you want it). Thisone does an amazing job of finding specks,spots, and stray hairs (try it on a solidstudio background, like you see here—it’s amazing!). Again, you’ll only use it tocheck your work, but it can really saveyour butt by catching those things youmight have missed. And if you get some-thing crazy in your cloning or healingcursor while fixing those things youmissed, make sure you’re working onthe image layer and your brush is setto sample only the current layer.
  • 23. xxii 12 Things You Need to Know NowProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop#11 Use Actions to WorkEven FasterWhen retouching, you’ll wind up doingthe same thing again and again, whichis why you need actions (Photoshop’sbuilt-in recorder, which remembers yoursteps, and plays them back by hitting justone key—no matter how many steps ittook—faster than you could ever do it).For example, in Chapter 3, we learn howto create a special new layer for dodgingand burning, where you have to chooseNew Layer from the Layers panel’s flyoutmenu, then set the layer’s blend mode toSoft Light, and then turn on the checkboxfor Fill with Soft-Light-Neutral Color (50%Gray). You can have it do all this in just oneclick of an F-key on your keyboard. Openthe Actions panel (go under the Windowmenu and choose Actions), and click theCreate New Action icon at the bottom ofthe panel (it looks like the Create a NewLayer icon). Give your action a name (NewD&B layer), choose which function keyyou want to use for playback, then hit theRecord button. Now, go make your SoftLight layer. When you’re done, hit thered Stop button at the bottom of thepanel. To play it back, at super-speed,just press that F-key.
  • 24. 12 Things You Need to Know Now Introduction xxiiiProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop#12 How Long You ShouldSpend Retouching aParticular ImageI hate to give you, “Well, that depends,”but, “Well, that depends.” When youdo the shoot, you probably know howthe image you’re creating is going tobe used (it’s for a website, for a print ad,for a model’s online portfolio, etc.), andbecause of that, you need to make arealistic decision about how much timeyou, as a photographer, can commit tothe retouch. If this image is going to beused on the cover of the local bridalmagazine, you’d better invest 30 or moreminutes (a long retouch for a photog-rapher). If it’s going to be a 2x4" imagein the clients’ wedding book, on a pagewith six other photos, this image getsfive minutes max! Another considerationis how tight the image is cropped. Is theimage a close-up? Then you need to con-sider every little detail, from stray hair tored eye veins. However, if your subject isfarther away, like a ¾-length view or full-length shot, you probably won’t need tobe nearly as detailed (if their eyes windup only being 1/32 of an inch high in theimage, how much time do you really needto spend retouching their eyes)? In short,you have to make realistic decisions abouthow much time to spend retouching.
  • 25. 1If you came to this chapter intro pageexpecting to read something insightfulabout retouching eyes—stop right now,turn back a few pages, and read “SevenThings You’ll Wish You Had KnownBefore Reading This Book” first. Thenyou’ll either: (a) be in the right state ofmind for this chapter intro, or (b) you’llskip it, because you’re the really serioustype, and reading it will just make youirritated (more than you normally are,which is plenty). Now, if you’re still read-ing, I’m assuming that you’ve either:(a) read the “Seven Things…” and you’recool with reading these chapter intros,or (b) you actually are that serious no-nonsense type, yet you didn’t stop andgo back to read the “Seven Things…”section, which means you’re not goodat taking simple directions, in which case,I wouldn’t just skip the chapter intros, I’dskip the whole rest of this book, becauseit’s all about taking direction. But foreverybody else (the cool people), I’mgoing to sneak in an actual nugget ofsemi-useful information here—pleasedon’t expect this in any future chapterintro, because it goes against everythingI believe in (including unicorns and TheForce). The nugget is this: This is thebiggest chapter in the book, and I coverall sorts of different retouches for theeyes because the eyes are so incrediblyimportant. Don’t worry, you’re not goingto use them all on any one image, butthe closer cropped your subject is, andthe larger their eyes appear in the image,the more retouches you might want toconsider. However, if you do wind upretouching a cyclops, you will probablyuse them all, but the good news is: youonly have to retouch one eyebrow. Onelast thing: this chapter, “Naked Eyes,”is named after the UK-based band thatdid the song “(There’s) Always Some-thing There to Remind Me” back in 1982.Worse yet: I knew that without lookingit up. Sad, I know.Chapter1NAKED EYESRetouching Eyes
  • 26. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop2 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesOne of the secrets to really making eyes look captivating is to add contrast to the iris. It really brings out the color and depthof the eyes, without adding artificial color, and although it’s really easy to do, it delivers pretty amazing results.Increasing Contrast in the IrisStep One:Here, our subject’s eyes look kind of flat,and almost hazy, because they’re reallylacking contrast. So, to start off, we needto duplicate the Background layer by press-ing Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J; or just dragthe Background layer in the Layers panelonto the Create a New Layer icon at thebottom of the panel). Next, zoom in tighton the eyes. You’re going to be zoomingin tight quite a bit when you’re retouching,so learning this quick way to zoom in canbe a real timesaver: If you press-and-holdCommand-Spacebar (PC: Ctrl-Spacebar),your cursor temporarily switches to theZoom tool (the one that looks like a magni-fying glass). Just click-and-drag this tool onthe area you want to zoom in on (in thiscase, the eye on the right) and it zoomsright into that spot. (Note: On a Mac, you’llprobably need to go to your KeyboardShortcuts System Preferences and turnthis system shortcut off first for it towork this way in Photoshop.)Step Two:Although there are a number of differentways to add contrast to a photo in Photo-shop, this is probably the fastest andmost efficient. At the top of the Layerspanel, just change the blend mode ofthis duplicate layer from Normal to SoftLight (as shown here). This makes theentire image much more contrasty, butof course we don’t want all that—we justwant her iris more contrasty. Don’t worry;we’re going to fix that in a moment.
  • 27. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 3(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyand click on the Add Layer Mask icon atthe bottom of the Layers panel (it’s showncircled here in red). What this does is hidesthat really contrasty version of your imagebehind a black mask (so, it’s still there—you just can’t see it). The image now lookslike it did when we first opened it (noticethat her skin looks back to normal now?).Next, we’ll use the Brush tool to paintover the iris (and pupil) to reveal the super-contrasty version of it. So, start by gettingthe Brush tool from the Toolbox (you actu-ally might as well get used to using thekeyboard shortcut for the Brush tool—just press the B key).Step Four:Make sure that your Foreground coloris set to white (since your layer mask isblack, you’ll want to paint in the oppositecolor—white) and choose a small, soft-edged brush from the Brush Picker in theOptions Bar. Begin painting over the iris(and pupil, as shown here), and as youpaint, the much more contrasty versionof it is revealed, yet the rest of the photoremains untouched. If you make a mis-take, just press the X key to switch yourForeground color to black, and paint overthe area where you messed up to hide itagain. When you’ve fixed your mistake,press X again to toggle the Foregroundcolor back to white and continue paintingover the iris (and pupil) to complete yourcontrast retouch.
  • 28. 4 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTIP: Adding More ContrastIf, after painting in the iris, you think youneed even more contrast, just duplicatethe top layer. Since the eye is alreadymasked, you’ll see just the iris andpupil become even more contrasty.ANOTHER TIP: Using CurvesInstead of using a Soft Light layer to addmore contrast to the iris, try an adjust-ment layer. Just click on the Create NewAdjustment Layer icon at the bottom ofthe Layers panel and choose Curves frompop-up menu. Then, from the Curves pop-up menu at the top of the Adjustmentspanel, choose Strong Contrast (RGB).Press Command-I (PC: Ctrl-I) to Invert thelayer mask and hide the contrasty versionof your image behind a black mask. Withyour Foreground color set to white, get theBrush tool, choose a medium, soft-edgedbrush at 100% Opacity, and paint over theeyes to add lots of contrast (as seen here).Tweaking the contrast like this can tend toactually change the color of the eyes, sosince we just want more contrast, changethe layer’s blend mode from Normal toLuminosity, so you get the contrast,but not the color shift.
  • 29. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 5Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this practice image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTERBEFORE AFTER
  • 30. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop6 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesIf you look closely at a person’s iris, there’s a slightly dark ring that goes around the outside edge of it, and making this ring darkerhelps enhance the overall look of the eye. This is one of those subtle little things you do that, by itself, may not seem like it makes abig difference, but add this in with the other things in this chapter, and it becomes one of those little things that helps take your retouchof the eyes to another level.Darkening the Outer Rim of the IrisStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to beworking on (you can download it fromthe companion website mentioned inthe book’s introduction and followright along).Step Two:Zoom in on the eyes, then get the EllipticalMarquee tool (press Shift-M until you haveit) and make a circular selection around theentire iris of one eye. It’s okay if it extendsover the top or bottom of the iris, just getas close as you can in making a selectionthat completely covers it. (Note: If you havea problem getting the iris selected righton the money, try this trick: while you’redragging out the selection, press-and-holdthe Spacebar. This lets you reposition theselection as you’re dragging it out overthe iris, and now selecting it should be acinch. Also, if your subject’s head is turnedand the iris isn’t perfectly round, go underthe Select menu and choose TransformSelection. Then, Command-click [PC: Ctrl-click] on any one of the handles of thebounding box to distort the selection andfit it to the iris.) Then, press-and-hold theShift key and select the other iris (holdingthe Shift key lets you create another selec-tion, while keeping your first one).
  • 31. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 7(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Go under the Select menu, under Modify,and choose Feather (as shown here). Whenthe Feather Selection dialog appears, enter5 pixels and click OK to soften the edgesof the selection, so the retouch blendssmoothly with the rest of the iris.Step Four:Click on the Create New Adjustment Layericon at the bottom of the Layers paneland choose Levels from the pop-up menu.Since you had selections already in place,this automatically creates a mask for you,so you’ll see the adjustment layer has ablack mask to the right of it with botheyes already masked (sweet!).
  • 32. 8 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:At the top of the Layers panel, change theblend mode of this adjustment layer toMultiply, which gives you a much darkerversion of the iris. The problem is, though,her entire iris is now darker (well, both areactually) and we just want the outside ringsto be darker, so we’ll need to fix that. Startby pressing-and-holding the Command(PC: Ctrl) key and, in the Layers panel, clickdirectly on the black layer mask thumbnailto reload your original selection on botheyes (as seen here).Step Six:Now, we need to shrink the selectionaround each iris just a little bit, so gounder the Select menu, under Modify,and choose Contract (as shown here).When the Contract Selection dialogappears, enter 3 pixels and click OK. Thisshrinks your selection by 3 pixels (givingyou a slightly smaller circular selection).
  • 33. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 9(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Make sure your Foreground color isset to white, then press the Delete (PC:Backspace) key to knock a hole out ofthe center of your darker iris adjustmentlayer. What you’re left with is a darkerenhanced edge ring around each iristhat blends in perfectly with the restof them. Now, you can Deselect bypressing Command-D (PC: Ctrl-D).Step Eight:To get rid of those extra areas that wereselected above each iris, first press Xto switch your Foreground color to black(so when you paint, it hides the darkerareas), press B to get the Brush tool,choose a small, soft-edged brush fromthe Brush Picker, and paint around theoutside of each iris, being careful notto actually paint over edge of the iris,or you’ll erase the darkening we justadded. A good trick to see if you’veerased everything outside the iris isto simply toggle this adjustment layeron/off a few times (click on the Eye iconto the left of the layer’s thumbnail; it’scircled here in red) and you’ll instantlysee if anything’s left over outside thedark area. If you see something, justpaint over it in black to hide it.
  • 34. 10 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:If you want to adjust how dark this outerring is, since you’ve already got a mask inplace (thanks to the adjustment layer), it’sreally simple. All you have to do is go tothe Adjustments panel and drag the mid-tones Input Levels slider (the gray trianglein middle) to the right (as shown here) tomake the outer ring even darker, or to theleft to lighten it a bit.Step 10:Another way to control the amountof your retouch is to lower the overallOpacity of your adjustment layer (asshown here, where I’m lowering it to63%, because I felt the outer ring wastoo dark). You won’t necessarily need todo this if you just darkened the midtonesin the ring in Step Nine. You’re more likelyto lower the Opacity if you felt the ringwas too dark when you first applied it,with nothing but the Multiply adjustmentlayer (in other words, before you appliedthe Levels tweak in Step Nine).
  • 35. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 11Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 36. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop12 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesThis is another quick trick you can use to add more sparkle and life to the irises. Although it’s a really simple retouch, you’ll be surprisedat how much it adds, and I do this to nearly every eye retouch I do.Adding More Life to the EyesStep One:Zoom in on an eye where you want toadd more sparkle to the iris. Click onthe Create a New Layer icon at thebottom of the Layers panel to create anew blank layer. Then get the EllipticalMarquee tool (press Shift-M until youhave it), press-and-hold the Shift key,and draw a circular selection that’s justinside the iris (as shown here; holding theShift key keeps your selection round).Step Two:Press D, then X to set your Foregroundcolor to white, then press Option-Delete(PC: Alt-Backspace) to fill this circularselection with white. Press Command-D(PC: Ctrl-D) to Deselect.
  • 37. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 13(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, get the Rectangular Marquee tool(press Shift-M until you have it) and drawa large rectangular selection over the tophalf of your white circle (like the one shownhere). Press the Delete (PC: Backspace)key to knock a rectangular hole out ofyour white circle (basically, slicing it inhalf) and then deselect.Step Four:Go to the Layers panel, press-and-holdthe Command (PC: Ctrl) key and clickonce on the white half-circle’s layerthumbnail to put a selection around it.Now, move your cursor inside the se-lected area in your image (you shouldstill have the Rectangular Marquee toolactive) and drag that half-circle selectionup a bit (like you see here), so the whitearea beneath the selection is the shapeof a melon slice. Press Delete to knocka hole out of that half circle, leavingjust that melon shape. Now, go aheadand deselect.
  • 38. 14 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Go under the Filter menu, under Blur,and choose Gaussian Blur. When thedialog appears, enter 5 pixels, and thenclick OK to make the melon shape blurredwith nice soft edges (as seen here). By theway, depending on the image, you mayhave to choose a higher, or possibly evena lower, number. Your goal is to make itlook reasonably soft around the edges,like what you see here.Step Six:Now, to get this white, soft, melon shapeto blend in with the iris beneath it, go tothe top of the Layers panel and changethe blend mode for this layer from Normalto Soft Light (as shown here). You can seehow this adds a bright kicker on the bot-tom half of the iris.
  • 39. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 15(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:If you think this kicker looks a bit toobright, you can lower the layer’s Opacityto tone down the effect (here I lowered itto 80%).Tip: Blend Mode orAdjustment Layer?You’ll probably notice that sometimes Ibrighten things using a layer blend mode(like we did here), and sometimes I use aLevels adjustment layer instead. So, why doI choose one over the other? Generally, ifI know that the effect is going to be toobright, and I’m most likely going to windup toning it down,I just go with a Soft Light layer becauseit’s faster. However, if I’m not sure whatmy adjustment is going to be, or if I thinkI might need to make it lighter after I’veapplied it (rather than toning it down), thenI use a Levels adjustment layer. That way,if I need to tweak it, I can double-clickon the Levels adjustment layer and adjustthe settings. A before and after is shownon the next page.
  • 40. 16 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!BEFORE AFTERAfterAFTERBEFOREDownload this image. See pg. xi.
  • 41. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Eyes Chapter 1 17(Continued)Step One:Here’s the first image we’re going toretouch (this one is for enhancing catchlights that are already there). Althoughher eyes are fairly well lit, the catch lightsin them are pretty dim, and that reallymakes her eyes lack that sparkle thatmakes a portrait come alive. This firsttechnique is pretty straightforward; you’regoing to brighten the overall highlights,and a little bit of the midtones, and thenhide that brighter version and paintover just the highlights to make themreally apparent.Step Two:Start by zooming in tight on the eye onthe left (here, we’re at 200%), and thenclick on the Create New Adjustment Layericon at the bottom of the Layers panel andchoose Levels from the pop-up menu. Inthe Adjustments panel, grab the highlightsInput Levels slider (the white triangle onthe right beneath the histogram) and dragit quite a bit over to the left to brighten thehighlights (you’ll notice that the midtonesInput Levels slider [the gray triangle in themiddle] moves along with it, though notnearly as far). Keep dragging until thecatch light reflection of your light sourceis nice and bright (as seen here at the topof the iris). Of course, this totally blowsout your subject’s skin, hair, and everythingelse, but don’t sweat that—we’ll fix this inthe next step.Catch lights are those white dots that appear in the eyes in images and are reflections of the light source that’s lighting the subject.Those white dots actually add sparkle to the eyes and keep them from looking kinda flat and dead (like round pools of black nothing-ness). If you’re outdoors, the catch light will usually be a round dot (a reflection of the sun). But in a studio shot, not only will the catchlight be created by your studio lights, you’ll be able to see the shape and position of your softbox or umbrella in that catch light. Here’show to enhance existing catch lights, or add some if there aren’t any.Enhancing and/or Creating Catch Lights
  • 42. 18 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Press Command-I (PC: Ctrl-I) to Invertyour adjustment layer’s layer mask. Thismakes the mask black, which hides thebrighter version of your image. Now,press B to get the Brush tool, makesure your Foreground color is set towhite, choose a small, soft-edged brushfrom the Brush Picker up in the OptionsBar, and paint over just the catch light(as shown here, where you can see mybrush-tip cursor right over the catchlight). As you paint, the much brighterversion of the catch light appears. Onceyou’re done with the eye on the left, goahead and paint over the catch light inthe eye on the right.Step Four:One of the great advantages of usingadjustment layers (besides the wholemasking thing you just did) is that theyare layers in the first place, which meansyou can lower the Opacity if the bright-ening seems too much (here, I’ve low-ered it to 80% for a more natural look).You could also just go back to theAdjustments panel and drag the high-lights Input Levels slider back to theright a bit. The catch lights will alreadybe masked because of what you didback in Step Three, so making this ad-justment will only affect them. As youcan see, the enhancing part is prettysimple, so let’s move on to what to doif your subject doesn’t have any catchlights at all.
  • 43. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 19Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop(Continued)Try thistechnique onanother image!BEFORE AFTERDownload this image. See pg. xi.After
  • 44. 20 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Here’s our second image and, if you look ather eyes, you’ll see they have no reflectionin them at all—they look kind of “dead.”So, we’re going to create our own lightsource catch lights, and add them to theeyes to bring them back to life, and addlots of sparkle. By the way, it’s not oursubject’s fault that she doesn’t have catchlights. In this case, the lack of them wascaused by where I positioned my lights—at the tall height and angle they were at,they weren’t able to cast a reflection inher eyes. So, basically it’s my mistake(and so I have to fix it, right?).Step Six:Start by zooming in on the eyes (I’m at100% here), then go to the Layers panel,and click on the Create a New Layer iconat the bottom of the panel (circled herein red) to create a new blank layer. Now,you have to choose which shape softboxor umbrella you want to reflect in her eyes.If you want a standard square or rectan-gular softbox reflection, you’ll need tograb the Rectangular Marquee tool (M).If you used a beauty dish for the shot (oryou want to make it look like it was shot insunlight), then grab the Elliptical Marqueetool (press Shift-M until you have it) and,to make a round selection for your catchlight, just press-and-hold the Shift key. Ifyou want to have your reflection look likean umbrella or an octagon-shaped largesoftbox (very popular for portraits), thengrab the Polygon tool from the Toolbox (asshown here), and then in the Options Bar,enter 8 in the Sides field (also shown here).
  • 45. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 21(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:If you’re using the Polygon tool, first makesure that the Fill Pixels icon is selected inthe Options Bar (it’s circled here in red).This sets the tool so it draws just regularpixels, and doesn’t create a Path or aShape layer. Now, press D, then X to setyour Foreground color to white, then takethe tool and drag out a small polygonalshape over the portion of the pupil whereyou want the catch light to appear (as seenhere, where I dragged a polygon over theleft side of the pupil on the eye on the left.Oh, and I also zoomed in more, to 200%).If you’re using the Rectangular Marqueetool or the Elliptical Marquee tool instead,also set your Foreground color to white,and then drag out your selection. Now,fill your selection with white by pressingOption-Delete (PC: Alt-Backspace), thenDeselect by pressing Command-D (PC:Ctrl-D). Note: As you’re dragging outyour shape, you can press-and-hold theSpacebar to reposition your selection asyou’re dragging (this works with any ofthe tools mentioned in this step).Step Eight:If part of your catch light overlaps anyother part of the eye area (like mine doeshere, where the top of the catch lightextends over onto her top eyelid), thenclick on the Add Layer Mask icon at thebottom of the Layers panel (shown circledhere in red) to add a layer mask. Now, atthe top of the Layers panel, lower theOpacity of your catch light layer enoughto make your catch light shape transpar-ent, so you can see the eyelid behind it.Press X to set your Foreground color toblack, then get the Brush tool (B), choosea small, soft-edged brush from the BrushPicker, and just paint right over the partthat overlaps the eyelid (as seen here) toerase it. We’re not done yet, but we’realmost there.
  • 46. 22 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:You’ll need to raise your layer Opacityback up a bit, so the catch light looksnatural (here I raised mine from 30%,which was low enough for me to easilysee through so I could erase the overlap,to 50%, where it looks natural). Of course,at this point, we’ve only done one eye,so press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) toduplicate the catch light layer, and withthe Move tool (V), drag this duplicatecatch light layer over to the eye on theright, so it gets a similar catch light, too(as seen here). Now, when a real catchlight goes over part of the pupil (andpart of the iris), usually you will see agradation from light to dark as it goesover the pupil. The pupil absorbs light,so the catch light is usually darker overit. To make your catch light look morenatural, lower the Opacity setting on yourbrush and paint in black on the layer maskover the pupil to darken the catch light.A before and after is shown on the nextpage, and you can see what a differenceadding a catch light can make.
  • 47. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 23Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!BEFORE AFTERDownload this image. See pg. xi.After
  • 48. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop24 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesStep One:I’m going to show you two differentmethods for brightening the whites ofthe eyes. Here’s the first image we’regoing to work on. It’s pretty well lit, butas is often the case, the whites of hereyes look almost gray (or off-white atthe very least). So, start by clicking onthe Create New Adjustment Layer’s iconat the bottom of the Layers panel andchoosing Levels (as shown here). By theway, it doesn’t really matter which adjust-ment you add at this point—we just needsome adjustment layer, any adjustmentlayer, so we can change its blend mode.Why not just duplicate the Backgroundlayer? Because doing it this way doesn’tadd any size to your Photoshop document,which keeps Photoshop running faster. Hey,it all adds up. (Again, you can downloadthis image from the website mentioned in“Seven Things You’ll Wish You Had KnownBefore Reading This Book.” While you’rethere, why not read the six other things? ;-)Step Two:At the top of the Layers panel, changeyour blend mode for this adjustmentlayer from Normal to Screen. The Screenblend mode makes your image muchbrighter (compare the brighter imageshown here with the one in Step Oneand you’ll see what I mean).This is a retouch I do to every single photo where my subject’s eyes are open. It seems like no matter how much light you get intothe eyes during the shoot, the whites of the eyes end up off-white at best, but usually a light gray. This is one of those retouchesthat you just have to do once or twice—even if you think the eyes look white enough—because once you see the difference, you’lldo this every single time. It makes that big a difference.Brightening the Whites of the Eyes
  • 49. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 25(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:The problem with our image at this pointis we only want the whites of her eyesbrighter (and maybe her irises), but nother skin or anything else. So, we’ll haveto do some simple masking. Start bypressing Command-I (PC: Ctrl-I), whichinverts the layer mask, making it blackand hiding the brightening brought onby changing the blend mode to Screen.Step Four:Zoom in on one of the eyes, pressX to switch your Foreground color towhite, then press B to get the Brushtool. Choose a very small, soft-edgedbrush from the Brush Picker in theOptions Bar, and begin painting overthe whites of the eyes (as shown here,where I’m painting over the left side ofthe eye on the left). As you paint, thisarea becomes much brighter, becauseyou’re revealing the Screen layer youapplied earlier.
  • 50. 26 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:The tricky part of this technique comeswhen you try to paint that little bit ofwhite that appears right below the iris.It’s just so tiny that getting in there anddoing it without spilling over onto theedge of the iris, or the bottom eyelid,is really a pain. So, what’s the solution?Don’t worry about it—just paint rightover the whites, and if your brush extendsover onto the iris or the bottom eyelid(like you see here), it’s okay. The reasonit’s okay is I’ve found it’s much easier toerase the spillover than it is to try to paintit just right with a super-small brush. Afterall, you’ve already got a layer mask applied;to clean this up will be a five-second fix(as you’ll see in the next step).Step Six:To get rid of the spillover (brighteningof the iris or lower eyelid), just press theletter X to set your Foreground colorto black, then paint over the spillover toremove it (as shown here). It couldn’t beeasier or faster. When you’re done, justpress X again to swap your Foregroundand Background colors, making white yourForeground color again. Now, move overto the other eye and do the same thing.
  • 51. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 27(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:When you’re done painting over both eyes,they’ll probably look too white (giving yoursubject a freaky, possessed look), so inmost cases, leaving the Opacity of thislayer at 100% is unlikely. The best way tojudge how white the whites of the eyesshould be is to zoom out (like you seehere), then lower the Opacity of this layerto around 50% and see how that looks. Ifit’s still too bright, lower it a little bit more.The Opacity slider becomes your “white-ness amount slider,” so just adjust it towhere it looks natural, but brighter than itwas before. A before/after is shown on thenext page (I painted over the irises a littlebit, too. They looked a little dark). Then,I’ll show you an alternative that offers alittle more control (because you don’thave much control over how bright Screenmode is). This alternative method lets youmake things brighter in either the mid-tones, highlights, or both.TIP: Brightening the EntireEye SocketIf you need to lighten the entire eyesocket area, you can use the Screenblend mode, but in a slightly differentway. Press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) toduplicate the Background layer, then changethe blend mode to Screen to make thewhole image brighter. Option-click (PC:Alt-click) on the Add Layer Mask icon in theLayers panel to hide this brighter versionbehind a black mask. With your Foregroundcolor set to white, get the Brush tool (B),and choose a medium-sized, soft-edgedbrush set to 100% Opacity. Now, paint overher eyes and the surrounding eye socketareas. I know she looks like she’s been lyingin the sun with sunglasses on, but we’ll fixthat by lowering the layer’s Opacity untilthe brightening matches the rest of herface. If any edges look brighter, switchyour Foreground color to black and paintright over them.
  • 52. 28 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 53. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 29(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Eight:The alternative technique actually usesthe options in the Levels adjustmentlayer (but we leave the blend mode setto Normal). Doing it this way, you canreally adjust the whites just the way youwant them—adjusting the highlightsand midtones, either together or sepa-rately. Here’s the image we’ll use forthis technique.Step Nine:Choose Levels from the Layers panel’sCreate New Adjustment Layer icon’spop-up menu and then, in the Adjust-ments panel, drag the highlights InputLevels slider (the white triangle under theright side of the histogram) to the leftquite a bit. If you want to make the whitesof the eyes really bright (like this photoneeds), drag the center midtones InputLevels slider to the left, as well (as shownhere). You can see the whole photo isreally bright now and that it’s a different,edgier kind of bright than Screen modebrings. (By the way, which method is“right?” That’s easy—the one that looksthe best to you. If you try the Screenmethod and don’t like the results, thentry this Levels method, or vice versa.)
  • 54. 30 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 10:Press Command-I (PC: Ctrl-I), whichinverts the layer mask, making it blackand hiding the Levels brighteningbehind that mask.Step 11:Zoom in on one of the eyes, make sureyour Foreground color is set to white,then press B to get the Brush tool. Choosea very small, soft-edged brush from theBrush Picker, and begin painting over thewhites of the eyes (as shown here, whereI’m painting over the left side of the eyeon the left). Basically, you’re going to fol-low the same steps as before—includingpainting over the bottom eyelid, so youcan get the whites under the iris, and thenpainting the spillover away, then paintingthe other eye, and then zooming back outand lowering the opacity. So, the rest ofthe technique is pretty much the same, butthe actual whitening uses Levels instead ofScreen. The good news is that now youhave two techniques for whitening eyes inyour bag of tricks, rather than just one.
  • 55. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 31Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 56. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop32 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to retouch,and if you look at the eye on the right, youcan see some red veins that need to beremoved. We’re at a 25% magnificationhere, but you’re going to need to zoom into at least 100% to really see what you’reworking on, so grab the Zoom tool (Z)and zoom in on the eye on the right. Then,click on the Create a New Layer icon atthe bottom of the Layers panel to createa new blank layer.Step Two:You’re going to remove these red veinsusing two tools: the Brush tool and theEyedropper tool. So, get the Brush tool(B), then press-and-hold the Option (PC:Alt) key and your cursor will temporarilyswitch to the Eyedropper tool, so you cansample any color in your image to instantlymake it your Foreground color. You’regoing to want to click the Eyedroppertool right near the red vein you want toremove (as shown here, where I’m clickingthe Eyedropper tool right below the veinI want to remove). A large circular ringappears around your Eyedropper toolwhen you click—the inside of the ringshows the exact color you just sampledand the outside of it is a neutral gray tohelp you see the color without beinginfluenced by surrounding color (but justfor the record, I don’t think that ideaactually works—at least not with thatsmall a ring, but hey, that’s just me).Over the years, I’ve tried just about every trick for “getting the red out” and removing red eye veins—everything from the HealingBrush, to the Patch tool, to the Clone Stamp—but I don’t think any of them work nearly as well as this simple, fast technique thatremoves all the veins, yet leaves the eyes looking clean and clear. This is also a great technique for removing contact lenses vis-ible in your subject’s eyes.Removing Eye Veins
  • 57. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 33(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Let go of the Option key to return to theBrush tool, set your brush Opacity (up inthe Options Bar) to 20%, and choose asmall, soft-edged brush that’s just a littlebit larger than the vein you want to remove.Now, just start painting a few strokes rightover the vein, and in just moments—it’sgone! Remember, at 20% opacity, thepaint builds up, so you have a lot of controlas you build up your paint over the vein, sodon’t be afraid to go over the same strokemore than once. Since the eye itself is asphere, the shading changes as you moveacross the eye, so be sure to sample againnear what you’re painting over as you’reremoving these veins, so the color andtone stay right on the money (I resampledabout 10 or 12 times during this retouch).Step Four:Lastly, to keep the whites of the eyesfrom looking pasty after your retouch,we’re going to add a tiny bit of noise toyour retouch layer. Go under the Filtermenu, under Noise and choose AddNoise. When the filter dialog appears,choose 1%, click on the Uniform radiobutton, and turn on the Monochromaticcheckbox. Click OK to add this textureto your retouch. Although it’s subtle, itdoes make a difference. A before/afteris shown on the next page.
  • 58. 34 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AFTERBEFOREAfter
  • 59. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Eyes Chapter 1 35(Continued)Step One:In this image, our subject has hazel eyesand we want to change them to blue.So, start by clicking on the Create NewAdjustment Layer icon at the bottomof the Layers panel and choosing Hue/Saturation from the pop-up menu.Step Two:Zoom in on the eye on the right andthen, to choose a new eye color, startby turning on the Colorize checkbox inthe Adjustments panel. Choose a bluecolor by dragging the Hue slider to theright to a blue hue. Here, I dragged theHue slider over to 234. Of course, thismakes the entire image appear blue, butwe’ll deal with that in the next step. Fornow, my concern is that the blue is toovibrant and artificial looking, so to takethe intensity of the blue down, lower theSaturation amount to just 10. Lastly, youcan control the brightness of the blueusing the Lightness slider. Here, I justtweaked it a tiny bit by lowering the Light-ness to –2, which just darkened up theblue a bit.While you wouldn’t normally change your subject’s eye color if you were just shooting a portrait for them, if you’re shooting fora client, the art director might call on you to change eye color to match the color of an outfit, or a scene, or for just about anyreason at all. Luckily, this is usually one of the easiest retouches to pull off.Changing Eye Color
  • 60. 36 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:To keep the entire photo from havingthis blue tint, just press Command-I (PC:Ctrl-I), which inverts the layer mask onthe adjustment layer, making the maskblack and hiding the blue tint behind it.Now, get the Brush tool (B), choose asmall, soft-edged brush from the BrushPicker, make sure your Foreground coloris set to white, and paint over just the iris(avoiding the black pupil, as shown here).As you paint, the eye takes on that bluetint (as seen here).Step Four:Here’s how it looks when you paint in theother eye, as well. Because you loweredthe Saturation and tweaked the Lightness,the blue color looks very natural. Of course,you still have the option of backing offthat blue a bit by lowering the Opacityof the adjustment layer at the top ofthe Layers panel.
  • 61. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 37Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!TIP: When changing thecolor of dark eyes, you mayneed to drag the Lightnessslider to the right a tiny bitin the Adjustments panel.Don’t take it too far, though,or it’ll just look fake.Download this image. See pg ix.AfterAFTERBEFORE
  • 62. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop38 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesStep One:Open a photo that has dark circlesbeneath the eyes that you want to lessen(you have to choose whether you want toreduce them or remove them all together.You’ll have to make the call based on thesubject’s age—if they’re over 30, justreduce them).Step Two:Start by zooming in on the eye area andthen pressing Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J)to duplicate the Background layer (so we’reworking on a copy of the Background. Thisis important, because we’re going to usethis layer to control the amount of removallater on). Get the Healing Brush tool (pressShift-J until you have it) and, in the OptionsBar, choose a small, hard-edged brushfrom the Brush Picker, and make sure theSample pop-up menu is set to CurrentLayer. Now, totally remove the dark areasby Option-clicking (PC: Alt-clicking) in anearby area that has kind of the same skintone as where the dark areas are (usuallyjust below the dark area). Then, paint overthe dark areas (and wrinkles) to get com-pletely rid of them as best you can (as seenhere). It looks a little artificial at this point(though, you see this look on magazinecovers all the time), but we’ll adjust thatlater. For now, just remove the dark areas.Although you don’t see this on the cover of magazines, most people have dark circles under their eyes. In fact, as long asyour subject isn’t four years old, it’s almost a certainty that they’re going to have some kind of dark circles under their eyes.And, depending on the lighting you use, you can make them less noticeable, or more so, but they’re almost always there. Here’snot only how to reduce or remove them, but how to deal with one of the most annoying side effects of using the Healing Brush(or the Patch tool) to do this type of retouch.Reducing Dark Circles Under Eyes
  • 63. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 39(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Although the Healing Brush does a prettydecent job of getting rid of the dark areas,it usually leaves kind of a smeared darkarea under the eye, which stinks, becauseyou’re trying to remove the dark circle,right? So, this retouch usually requires twotools: you start with the Healing Brush(like we just did in Step Two) and then youswitch to the Clone Stamp tool. So, getthe Clone Stamp tool (S) from the Toolbox,then go up to the Options Bar, lower theOpacity of it to around 40%, then changethe Mode pop-up menu to Lighten (thatway, when you use the Clone Stamp tool,you’ll only affect areas that are darker thanthe area you sampled).Step Four:Press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyand click once in an area near the eyethat isn’t affected by the dark circles.If the cheeks aren’t too rosy (like in thisimage), you can click there to sample, butmore likely you’ll sample an area justbelow the dark circles under the eyes.
  • 64. 40 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Now, take the Clone Stamp tool andpaint a stroke (from left to right) over thedark circles to lessen or remove them.It may take two or more strokes for themto pretty much disappear (go right, thenback to the left, and so on), so don’t beafraid to go back over the same areaagain, if the first stroke didn’t work.Step Six:You can control the amount of dark circlearea and wrinkles appearing under theeye by lowering the Opacity of the toplayer. Here, I’ve lowered it to 60%, so justa little tiny bit of the natural dark circlearea and wrinkle appear, and of course,the whole retouch now looks much morenatural. That being said, remember—theremay be situations where, as the retoucher,you decide that for a particular subject(or intended use) you don’t want any darkcircles or wrinkles to appear whatsoever.If that’s the case, just leave the layer opac-ity at 100%. But, that’s a call only you canmake. A before and after (at 60% opacity)is shown on the next page.
  • 65. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 41Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 66. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop42 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesStep One:Here’s a regular-sized eye we want toenhance by making it larger. (By the way,if you want to download the images I’musing here in the book to follow alongwith, I provided the URL for the book’scompanion website in the front of thebook in “Seven Things You’ll Wish YouHad Known Before Reading This Book.”See? This is one of those things.)Step Two:Get the Elliptical Marquee tool from theToolbox (or press Shift-M until you haveit. Honestly, I don’t know anybody whocalls it that. We all just call it the “RoundSelection” tool), and make an oval-shapedselection around the eye, like you seehere. Make sure you fully enclose theeyelashes inside your selected area, butdon’t make the selection any larger thannecessary—make it pretty much like thesize you see here. If you need to movethe selection around as you’re creatingit, just press-and-hold the Spacebar.This is a very common retouch, especially in fashion or glamour images, because big eyes really draw a viewer’s attention(and we generally seem to love big eyes. Look at any Disney cartoon and notice the size of the eyes in their drawn characters.They’re huge! But they’re huge because they look great). Here’s how to make your subject’s eyes a little bit larger and howto use a slightly different technique if your subject has…ahem…bug eyes.Making Eyes Larger (or Smaller)
  • 67. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 43(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:To help hide the retouch, we’re going tosoften the edge of our selection by add-ing a feather to it. Go under the Selectmenu, under Modify, and choose Feather(as shown here). In the Feather Selectiondialog, enter 10 pixels and click OK. Thissoftens the edge all the way around theoval, so you won’t see a hard edge aroundthe area we’re about to adjust.TIP: Feather Selection ShortcutWe use feathering a lot throughout thisbook, so you might as well learn the key-board shortcut now to save you loads oftime later—it’s Shift-F6. If you hate thatkeyboard shortcut (I do), you can create acustom shortcut by going under the Editmenu and choosing Keyboard Shortcuts.On the Keyboard Shortcuts tab of theKeyboard Shortcuts and Menus dialog,click on the right-facing arrow to the leftof Select and scroll down to Modify. Clickon the existing shortcut for Feather, typein a new one (mine’s Command-Option-Shift-F), and click OK.
  • 68. 44 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Four:Now, you’re going to copy that selectedarea of the eye up onto its own separatelayer. So, press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J)to do that and then press Command-T(PC: Ctrl-T) to bring up Free Transform,which puts a bounding box around youreye copy layer (as seen here).Step Five:In the Options Bar, you’ll see W (width)and H (height) fields. First, click on thelittle link icon that appears betweenthe two fields to link them together, sowhen you type in a width, the heightwill increase the same exact amount.Now, enter a percentage of how muchlarger you want the eye. Start with 104%(which is actually just 4% larger) and yousee the entire eye grow in size. By theway, 4% may not sound like a lot, but it’sactually a fairly large move, as you’ll seewhen you try it yourself. I’ve increased asmuch as 6%, but usually anything abovethat, and it can start to look kind of obvi-ous. But, of course, it depends on theimage, so use your best discretion. If 9%or 10% looks good, go for it. Press Return(PC: Enter) to lock in the transformation.
  • 69. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 45(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Six:Because we feathered the edges of theoval selection, it’s fairly likely that, at first,you won’t see any edges overlappingwhatsoever. But if you zoom in tighter,you might see a little extra skin from thelarger eye overlapping a bit. If you do, it’seasy to fix. Just click on the Add LayerMask icon at the bottom of the Layerspanel (shown circled here in red). PressX to set your Foreground color to black,then press B to get the Brush tool, andchoose a medium-sized, soft-edged brushfrom the Brush Picker in the Options Bar.Now, just paint over the edges of thelarger eye to blend them smoothly awayand into the original skin surrounding theeye on the Background layer. You mighthave to go all the way around the eye,but just try not to erase the eyelashes.Everything else outside that is fair game.BEFORE AFTER
  • 70. 46 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Another way to increase eye size is touse the Liquify filter. This way works bestif you just want to increase the iris itself,and not the rest of the eye and eyelashes,but you can make it work to increase theentire eye (like we just did) if you want.So, start by going under the Filter menuand choosing Liquify (it’s right near thetop of the list) to bring up the Liquifydialog you see here. Get the Zoom tool(Z) from the Toolbox in the top left ofthe dialog and zoom in on an eye.Step Eight:Now, get the Bloat tool (B) from theToolbox (it’s the fifth tool down, showncircled here in red) and make your BrushSize a little larger than the eye itself.Here’s another keyboard shortcut you’regoing to want to know, because you’llbe changing brush sizes quite a bit insidethis dialog: Press-and-hold the Shift keyand then press the Left Bracket keyto make the brush smaller or the RightBracket key to make it larger (the bracketkeys are to the right of the letter P onyour keyboard). This shortcut decreases/increases the brush size in incrementsof 20. Here, I had to press Shift-Right-Bracket key a few times to make my brushreally large. (Note: If you’re not comfort-able with the keyboard shortcuts, youcan use the Brush Size slider, which isnear the top right of the dialog, in theTool Options section.) Now, move yourbrush over the left side of the eye andclick twice to increase the size of thatside of the eye.
  • 71. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 47(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Move your brush over the center of the eye,click twice again, and that area increasesin size. (By the way, if you just wanted theiris bigger, you’d start in the middle andclick two or three times to increase just thesize of the iris. This brush kind of bulgesfrom the center out, so it works great formaking just the iris larger.) Because eachclick makes the eye bulge out a little larger,you want to move evenly from left to right,so if you click once on the left side of theeye, then you want to be consistent as youmove across the eye to the right—clickonce each time. If you click twice on theleft (like we did here), then you need toclick twice each time as you move acrossthe eye, so it looks even. Don’t paint withthis tool, just click. When you reach thefar right, if it looks good to you, click theOK button. Also, if you mess up (some-times you’ll click once, and it applies like10 clicks at once), just press Command-Z(PC: Ctrl-Z) to undo that click, then doit again. See the next page for a beforeand after using Liquify.
  • 72. 48 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.BEFORE AFTERAfter
  • 73. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Eyes Chapter 1 49(Continued)Step One:Here’s the image we’re going to retouch,and if you look at her eyes, you’ll see thatthe eye on the right is open wider than theone on the left. So, what we’re going to dois use a copy of the one on the right to fixthe one on the left, so that they’re bothopen the same amount.Step Two:Start by getting the Zoom tool (Z) andzooming in on the eyes. Then, with theElliptical Marquee tool (press Shift-Muntil you have it), make a selection aroundthe entire eye on the right. It’s okay ifyou get a lot of extra area around it—it doesn’t matter at this point, we’ll dealwith that later. For now, just drag outyour selection around the entire eye likeyou see here. By the way, we won’t needto feather this selection, because we’regoing to mask the excess eye area awaylater with a soft-edged brush.If your subject has one eye that is larger, smaller, or open more than the other eye, or if they have a “lazy eye” or any other physicalreason where you’d want to swap one eye for the other (including the very common instance where your subject’s hair is coveringone eye, and where it would be too hard or too time consuming to repair), here’s a tried and true way to use one eye to fix the other:Swapping One Eye for the Other
  • 74. 50 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:You’re going to need to put the selectedarea up on its own separate layer, sopress Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J). Get theMove tool (V) and drag this copied eyearea on the right over so it covers the eyeon the left (as shown here). The lightingon the eye on the right is different thanit is on the one on the left, so it’s reallygoing to stand out a lot (as seen here),but we’ll deal with that in just moment.For now, just kind of get that copied eyein the area of the one on the left. Now,you’re probably concerned about morethan just the lighting on the copied eye,because now our subject has two lefteyes (which looks kinda creepy), so we’llfix that in the next step.Step Four:Zoom in more on the eye on the left andthen press Command-T (PC: Ctrl-T) tobring up Free Transform. Right-click any-where inside the Free Transform boundingbox and a pop-up menu of transformationsappears. Choose Flip Horizontal from thismenu (as shown here) to flip this copiedeye horizontally, so it becomes a left eye.Don’t press Return (PC: Enter) to lock inthe transformation just yet, though.
  • 75. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 51(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Here’s the copied eye layer after it’s beenflipped horizontally, and you can see itnow looks like a right eye (though there’sstill some work to be done).Step Six:Now we have to align this new eye soit fits perfectly over the old eye (if it’s toohigh, or too far to the left or right, it willlook weird). The trick is to, while the FreeTransform bounding box is still in place,go to the Layers panel and lower theOpacity of this layer, so you can actuallysee through the layer (in this case, I low-ered it to 43%). That way, you can seethe original eye (on the layer below), whichyou can now use to align the two eyes(use the iris as a guide). Drag it to whereit’s fairly close, then use the Arrow keyson your keyboard to nudge it perfectlyinto place. Once you get it pretty close,I find it’s helpful to lower the Opacityto 0, then back up to 100%, and comparehow it looks. You shouldn’t see a wholelot of movement when you hide andreveal the copied eye from 0% to 100%.If you see much movement (like it movesleft or right, or up or down), you don’thave it properly aligned, so try loweringthe Opacity even more and try again.
  • 76. 52 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Once you feel like you’ve got thempretty well lined up, then you can raisethe Opacity back to 100%, press Return(PC: Enter) to lock in your transformation,and you’re ready to move on. Two quickthings: (1) I leave Free Transform in placewhile I’m nudging things around in caseI need to tweak the size of the copied eyea bit to match. Sometimes I need to makeit a tiny bit bigger or smaller, dependingon which way my subject is facing, orwhich eye is closest to the camera. And(2) I usually show/hide the eye a few timesat this point just to make sure it’s right onthe money (click on the Eye icon to theleft of your copied layer to show/hide it).Step Eight:Now, we’re going to get rid of the excessarea around the eye. First, click on theAdd Layer Mask icon at the bottom of theLayers panel (it’s shown circled here in red).Then, get the Brush tool (B), choose a large,soft-edged brush from the Brush Picker inthe Options Bar, and with your Foregroundcolor set to black, gently paint over theexcess area around the eye, so just the eyeremains. Here, I’m painting over the top-left side of the copied eye (I zoomed backout a little so I could see what I was doingbetter). You’ll be surprised how easy this isusing a large, soft-edged brush. Becausethe edges of the brush are so soft, it’s easyto just paint away the edges while stayingfar away from them, and letting the out-side edge of your brush do all the work.
  • 77. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 53(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Continue painting around the outside of theeye with your black, soft-edged brush, untiljust the eye itself is left, and all the excesshas been brushed away (as seen here).Step 10:Now, it’s time to hide your tracks a bit.One dead giveaway that you’ve done aneye swap is that the catch light in the neweye on the left is on the wrong side of theeye. Since the copied eye was flipped, yourcatch lights are now cross-eyed (a deadgiveaway), so you’ll have to move the catchlight itself to the other side of the eye(don’t worry—it’s easier than it sounds).First, let’s create a merged layer, whichis a new layer that looks like a flattenedversion of our image. That way, if we needto go back to this layer again, for whateverreason, it’s still there. So, press Command-Option-Shift-E (PC: Ctrl-Alt-Shift-E) tocreate a new merged layer at the top ofthe layer stack. Then, get the EllipticalMarquee tool again, and drag out a smallcircular selection around the catch light inthe copied eye, with a few extra pixels ofblack around the outside (as shown here).
  • 78. 54 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:Press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to put thiscatch light up on its own separate layerand then press Command-T (PC: Ctrl-T)to bring up Free Transform. With the Movetool (V), drag this catch light copy straightover to the left side of the pupil to whereit should have been if we hadn’t faked it.Now, Right-click anywhere inside the FreeTransform bounding box, and choose FlipHorizontal from the pop-up menu (that’sright—we’re going to flip that catch lightback to how it would have looked in theoriginal eye on the left). Press Return (PC:Enter) to lock in your transformation.Step 12:In the Layers panel, click on Layer 2 (thelayer with the backwards catch light) tomake it active. You can either use the Eye-dropper tool (I) and click anywhere on thepupil to sample its color (as shown here),and then simply paint over the old catchlight using a very small, soft-edged brush,or you can use the Clone Stamp tool (S) toclone part of the pupil over the old catchlight. Either method will work, so choosewhichever is more comfortable to you.
  • 79. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 55(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTERStep 13:Here, I used the Clone Stamp toolto do my dirty work. I Option-clicked(PC: Alt-clicked) on the pupil to use thatas my cloning source (the area I’m goingto use to clone over my old catch light),then I painted directly over the old catchlight (as seen here) to clone the sampledpupil right over it. (If this doesn’t workfor you, in the Options Bar, make sureyou have the Mode set to Normal andAll Layers selected in the Sample pop-up menu.) The final thing I usually do isto just clone away one or two of the eye-lashes on Layer 2, so the two eyes don’thave identical eyelashes. I’ve found justcloning away one or two makes it lookdifferent enough. See a side-by-sidecomparison on the next page.
  • 80. 56 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Tip: This second practice image istricky, because she’s not facing thecamera directly, so if you use the tech-nique as is, she’ll look cross-eyed. Here’show to get around that: At the end ofStep Three, add a layer mask and erasethe eye itself, leaving just the eyelids andlashes from the copied eye visible. Then,add a new blank layer below that layer.Get the Clone Stamp tool (S), make sureit’s set to sample All Layers in the OptionsBar, then Option-click (PC: Alt-click) onthe pupil of the good eye, move over towhere the other eye should be, and clonein the good iris and pupil over the othereye. Since they’re on their own layer, youcan erase any parts that overlap.Download this image. See pg. xi.After
  • 81. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Eyes Chapter 1 57(Continued)Step One:Here’s the image that we want to addsome pretty fabulous lashes to (see, thisis what happens when you start hangingaround makeup artists. You start usingwords like “fabulous” and “luscious,” andother terms you normally wouldn’t usewhile playing Call of Duty: Black Ops).We’re going to build the eyelashes on theirown separate layers, so start by creatingyour first new blank layer by clicking onthe Create a New Layer icon at the bottomof the Layers panel (as shown here).Step Two:Like I said above, we’ve created a set of cus-tom eyelash brushes just for you (again, bigthanks to Corey Barker and Shelley Giard)and you can download these from the book’scompanion website (you’ll find the addressin the book’s intro). To get these customeyelash brushes into Photoshop, first getthe Brush tool (B), then click on the Brushicon on the far-left side of the Options Bar(the second icon from the left) to open theBrush Picker. From the Brush Picker’s flyoutmenu, choose Load Brushes, and then findthe “Scott’s Eyelash Brush Set.abr” file thatyou downloaded (I believe “abr” stands for“Asian Boat Rat”) and click Open (PC: Load).Retouching eyelashes is pretty tough, because you basically have to create them. So, to make things easier, I asked my buddy CoreyBarker (who’s a wizard with Photoshop’s brushes) to work with professional makeup artist Shelley Giard to come up with a set ofbrushes for creating great-looking eyelashes (you get these for free, by the way), including one-click complete lashes. But, his setof brushes also includes individual eyelash hair brushes that work brilliantly (thanks to a little Photoshop trick), and I’ll show youthe long way, too, using them to create new eyelashes (just in case you’re charging by the hour).Enhancing Eyelashes
  • 82. 58 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopCat Eye Natural LashCat Eye LashTop Individual LashesBottom Individual LashesLash ClusterVolumizing Dramatic LashAudrey Hepburn LashVolumizing Natural LashFeather LashLengthening Natural LashThicker Feather LashStep Three:These new eyelash brushes will appearat the bottom of the Picker beneath yourregular brushes (as seen here. You’ll seeright- and left-eye versions of each brush).We made the brush sizes really large (someas high as almost 700 pixels), so you canuse them on very-high-res images—like18- to 24-megapixel. The only downside isthat if you’re not working on very-high-resimages like this, you’ll have to lower thesize of the brush to fit your subject (it’seasy enough, though, you just change theSize at the top of the Picker, but it is anextra step). Now, you have to decide if youwant to go with some really dramatic eye-lashes—maybe some cat-eye eyelashes—or something a bit more conservative.Since she’s wearing a pretty conservativeoutfit (it doesn’t look like she’s on her wayout to a club), we’ll go with something abit tamer. Click on the Feather Lash Rightbrush we loaded (the first 601 pixel brush,as shown here; the second 601 brush is asimilar shape—it’s just thicker).Note: By the way, when you load thebrushes and look at their thumbnails inthe Brush Picker, they’ll appear archedand looked squished in the square thumb-nails (you’ll see how they’re really shapedby looking at your cursor, once you choosea brush). If you want to see them at a largerthumbnail size in the Picker, choose LargeThumbnail from the Picker’s flyout menu.
  • 83. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 59(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Four:Zoom in on the eye on the right of theimage and then, in the Brush Picker, lowerthe Size of this brush until it’s about theapproximate size of the eye you want toadd it to. I move the brush to approxi-mately where I think it might go (as shownhere), so I can make a reasonable estimateabout how big to make it (in this case,I lowered the slider from 601 pixels downto around 236).Step Five:Now, press D to set your Foregroundcolor to black, and click once near whereyou want the eyelash to appear. At thispoint, it won’t be the exact right size, orrotation, or any of that stuff, but we atleast need a starting point. So, just clickit once (as shown here). Remember, it’son that blank layer you created back inStep One, so you’ll have a lot of flexibilityabout its size and shape after the fact.
  • 84. 60 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Six:The eyelash needs to be rotated a bit to fither eye, so press Command-T (PC: Ctrl-T)to bring up Free Transform. Click anywherewithin the Free Transform bounding boxand drag the eyelash, so it’s in a betterposition. Now, move your cursor outsidethe bounding box, and you’ll see that yourcursor has changed into a two-headedarrow. Click-and-drag counterclockwiseto rotate the eyelash, so it’s more in linewith the eye (as shown here).Step Seven:To make it actually fit the eye perfectly,we’re going to warp it. While your FreeTransform bounding box is still in place,just Right-click anywhere inside the box,and from the pop-up menu that appears,choose Warp (as shown here).
  • 85. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 61(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Eight:The cool thing about Warp is that it letsyou pretty much treat whatever you’reworking on (in this case, her eyelash) as ifyou were using the Liquify filter. You justclick anywhere within those nine squaresand drag it to reposition it. You don’t evenhave to be clicking on one of those lines—just click-and-drag right on the image,right where you want to move the eyelash,and it’ll move and bend like it was liquid(well, less like water, and more like molas-ses). This lets you pretty much just slideit around until it wraps right around theeyelid (as shown here). I had to nudge it upin the middle to make the eyelash arc more,but again, it’s just a matter of clicking-and-dragging the lash where you want it to go.Step Nine:Once you have the eyelash positionedright where you want it, press Return(PC: Enter) to lock in your Free Transformchanges. To make the eyelashes blend inbetter with the existing eyelashes (andto look more natural), I normally lower theOpacity at bit. Here, I lowered it to around65%, and now it looks much more natural.Now, the top eyelash of one eye is done,and luckily, doing the other eye only takesa fraction of the time, because we use thefirst eyelash to build the second.
  • 86. 62 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 10:Press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) toduplicate your eyelash layer, then getthe Move tool (V) and drag it over theother eye. Now, at this point, you havetwo right top eyelashes (even thoughI provided you with both right and lefteyelash brushes in my custom set, sincethis one is already tweaked, you mightas well use it and save some time). You’llneed to flip this copied right eyelash overhorizontally, so it becomes a left eyelash.So, just go to Free Transform, Right-clickinside the bounding box, and chooseFlip Horizontal from the pop-up menu(as shown here).Step 11:You’re now going to do a minor tweak tothe shape of the eyelash, so it’s a perfectfit on the eye on the left, as well (rarelyare both eyes the exact same size andshape). Right-click inside the boundingbox again, but this time choose Warp.You can warp this eyelash to be a perfectfit in just seconds by dragging it aroundlike it’s liquid (as shown here). Whenyou’re done, press Return.
  • 87. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 63(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 12:Before we move on to the bottom eye-lashes, let’s go ahead and start to nameour layers (I don’t worry about this whenit’s just one or two layers. But, once youget above three layers, it’s a real time saverto know which layer is which, so you don’thave to guess). In the Layers panel, double-click directly on the first eyelash layer’sname, and name it “Top Right” and thenname the copied layer “Top Left.” Now,add a new blank layer for the bottomlashes to the top of the layer stack, thengo back to the Brush Picker and scroll tothe single eyelash brushes. This soundslike it’s going to be hard, but honestly,it’s a breeze. Start by choosing BottomLash 3 (the 687-pixel single-hair brush;yeah, that’s one huge brush) and thenyou’re going to need to lower your brushSize to around 16 pixels (as shown here).Step 13:Now, you’re going to paint in the bottomlashes. The problem is that every lash youpaint will look exactly the same—the samesize, angle, etc.—and it’ll look pretty weird.Luckily, there’s a Photoshop trick to slightlyvary the size and angle of each eyelashevery time you click, so they look morerandom and much more realistic. You turnthis feature on in the Brush panel (click onthe Brush panel icon to the right of theBrush icon in the Options Bar to open it).In the section on the left, turn on the ShapeDynamics checkbox. To automatically varythe size of each hair, drag the Size Jitterslider to 40%, and to vary the angle ofeach hair, drag the Angle Jitter slider to3% (that’s really all you need). Also, makesure the Control pop-up menu at the topof the panel is set to Off (as seen here;if Smoothing is turned on in the sectionon the left, turn it off). You can see thedifference these settings make in the pre-view window at the bottom of the panel.
  • 88. 64 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 14:Real eyelashes aren’t all at the same angleas you move from left to right under theeye, so you’re going to have to manuallyvary them as you go. To do this, at the topleft of the Brush panel, click on Brush TipShape. You see that circular Angle previewin the middle right of the panel? You’regoing to use that to slightly turn your brushafter each five or six clicks. I start fromthe right beneath the eye and make a fewclicks (as seen here), then click-and-dragthe Angle preview clockwise a little tochange the angle (here, I dragged it to–12°). Luckily, the eyelash brush cursorchanges onscreen as you do this, so youcan hold it up near the eye, make a slightrotation in the Brush panel, and you’llsee how the cursor changes. This is mucheasier and more intuitive than it sounds,so give it a try.Step 15:Now, paint a few more lashes, then rotatethe brush again in the Brush panel. Whenyou get to the middle of the eye, you’regoing to have to flip the brush, so the eyelashes fan out like they normally would(they blend to the left on the inside, they’realmost straight in the middle, and then theybend to the right as it gets closer to theoutside—the part closest the ear. Look atthe top lash to see what I mean about howthey bend from the left side, straight in themiddle, then they bend right). Once youget past the middle, to make the flip, justturn on the Flip X checkbox in the middleof the Brush panel (shown circled here inred), and then rotate the Angle preview,so your lashes are going in the right di-rection. As you get to the inside of theeye (the part closest to the nose), the sizeof the eyelashes shrink as well, so be sureto drag the Size slider in the Brush panelto the left a bit (here, I decreased the sizeto around 10 pixels, from 16 pixels).
  • 89. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 65(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 16:Lower the Opacity of this bottom eyelashlayer to help blend it in with the real lashesunderneath. To add a little depth anddimension to the bottom eyelashes, justadd a layer style. Click on the Add aLayer Style icon at the bottom of theLayers panel, choose Drop Shadowfrom the pop-up menu, and then lowerthe Opacity to around 65%. Also, thisis a good time to not only rename yourbottom-right lash layer, but to do alittle housekeeping and put them intoan order that makes sense.
  • 90. 66 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 17:Now, you’re going to pull the same trickwith the bottom lash that you did withthe top—we’re going to duplicate thatBottom Right layer and use it for thebottom-left eyelash on the other eye.So, go ahead and duplicate your BottomRight layer, and with the Move tool (V),drag it over to the other eye and positionit as close as you can. Then bring up FreeTransform again and move your cursoroutside the bounding box to rotate itinto position (as shown here).Step 18:Lastly, go ahead and rename this duplicatelayer “Bottom Left” and then put it rightbelow the Top Left layer. Once you’ve gota full set of lashes built like this for yourimage, to keep things organized, let’s putthem into a folder (Photoshop calls this aGroup). This does two things: (1) it keepsyour Layers panel from getting clutteredup with dozens of layers as you work,which can really slow you down and addvisual confusion, and (2) now you can seea before/after of your eyelashes with justone click (showing or hiding the Eyelashesgroup) by clicking on the Eye icon to theleft of its name. To get these four layersinto a group, click on any of the eyelashlayers, press-and-hold the Command (PC:Ctrl) key, and then click on the other eye-lash layers to select them. Now, fromthe Layers panel’s flyout menu at the topright of the panel, choose New Groupfrom Layers (as shown here), give thisgroup a name, and they’re now all inone convenient folder.
  • 91. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 67Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 92. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop68 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesStep One:Here’s the image we want to retouch, andwhile our subject’s eyebrows aren’t at allbad, we can take them up that extra notchand make them look really beautiful.Step Two:Zoom in tight on the eyebrow on the left,then get the Pen tool (P) and make surethe Paths icon is selected in the OptionsBar. (By the way, if you’re brand new tothis tool, I created a special video just foryou, showing you how to use it. It’s one ofthose tools you really want to know howto use to make great selections. Learninghow to use the Pen tool will take your skillsup a big notch, so make sure you checkout the video. You can find it on the book’scompanion website mentioned at the be-ginning of the book in “Seven Things You’llWish You Had Known Before Reading ThisBook.”) What you’re going to do here withthe Pen tool is draw out a path in the shapethat you’d like the eyebrow to be (as seenhere. Be mindful of the original shape ofthe eyebrow as you draw your path, so itdoesn’t look too freaky or fake). The Pentool kind of works like a “connect the dots”tool, so if you click in one spot, moveto another area, and click again, it drawsa straight line between the two points.However, if instead of just clicking, youclick-hold-and-drag, it lets you curve thepath, which is what I did here to create apath around her eyebrow.This is one part of the portrait retouching process that a lot of photographers just skip over, probably because it’s fairly subtle, butagain, this is one of those little things that help give the entire image a more professional look. Once you’ve done a few, this is also oneof those retouches that will really stick out like a sore thumb to you in photos where the photographer didn’t retouch the eyebrows.At the end of the technique, I’ll also show you a quickie version that does a pretty darn good job of trimming those brows fast.Creating Beautiful Eyebrows
  • 93. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 69(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Once you’ve drawn your path whereyou’d like the eyebrow to be shaped,you’ll want to turn that path into a regularselection by pressing Command-Return(PC: Ctrl-Enter). Now that you have aselection around your eyebrow, we’llwork on trimming away everything out-side the selection first (which is a bigpart of this process—removing excesseyebrow), so go under the Select menuand choose Inverse (as shown here). Thisinverses your selection, so that instead ofhaving a selection around the eyebrow,you have a selection of everything butthe eyebrow (if you zoom out, you’ll seethe selection border around the photo).The reason we do this is to protect theeyebrow—you can’t accidentally eraseany part of the eyebrow you originallyselected at this point, because it’s theonly part of the photo not selected.Step Four:Now, to soften the transition between theeyebrow and the retouch, go under theSelect menu, under Modify, and chooseFeather. Enter 3 pixels in the FeatherSelection dialog (seen here) and click OKto soften the edges of your selection.
  • 94. 70 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Before we do any retouching, go aheadand create a new blank layer (by clickingon the Create a New Layer icon at thebottom of the Layers panel). Now, pressCommand-H (PC: Ctrl-H) to hide yourselection from view (your selection is stillin place, but you no longer have to seethose annoying “marching ants” whileyou retouch). (Note: When you pressCommand-H on a Mac, you may get adialog asking if you want to hide Photo-shop or hide its extras. Just click theHide Extras button.) Now, your firstthought might be to grab the HealingBrush, but since your retouch will beright up against the eyebrow (whichcould cause the Healing Brush to smearthe edges—it likes things to be all bythemselves, like an island, and doesn’tdo well when what you’re removing istouching something else), get the CloneStamp tool (S) instead, and choose asmall, soft-edged brush from the BrushPicker. Now, press-and-hold the Option(PC: Alt) key and click once just abovethe part of the eyebrow that extendsoutside your selected area to samplethat area and start cloning over the partsof the eyebrow that extend outside yourselection (as shown here).Step Six:Once you’ve cloned around the topof the eyebrow, go ahead and clonethe bottom (underside) of it (as seenhere), as well as both ends (if the skintone changes as you move around theeyebrow, Option-click again to resamplea closer area to where you’re cloning).Anything outside your selection (whichyou hid in Step Five, so it’s not distract-ing) gets trimmed away. Here, I’m trim-ming away the bottom side of the eye-brow and you can see it starting to takeshape (although we’re not done yet).
  • 95. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 71(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Now that you’ve trimmed away theexcess on the eyebrow, you’re going tofill in what’s still there by, again, cloning.Start by going back under the Selectmenu and choosing Inverse once again.This inverses the selection, so now justthe eyebrow itself is selected (by theway, when you choose Inverse, it makesyour hidden selection visible again, soif you want, you can hide it again bypressing Command-H).Step Eight:With the Clone Stamp tool still selected,what you’re going to do is Option-clickinside the eyebrow itself to sample anarea, and then you’re going to clone inthe direction of the hair, painting fromright to left to extend the eyebrow hairout toward the edges. If you clone anarea and you see a repeating pattern(where some of the hair looks obviouslyduplicated), then sample a different areaand paint over the duplicate. Fill in allthose little gaps for full and smooth eye-brows that fill in your entire selectedshape, then press Command-D (PC:Ctrl-D) to Deselect. Now, go to theLayers panel, click on the Backgroundlayer, and do the exact same thing forthe other eyebrow. A before/after ofthe retouch is shown on the next page.
  • 96. 72 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Here’s an alternate method when youneed to do a quickie fix, and althoughthis one is really quick, it does a surpris-ingly good job. You’re going to draw aselection about 1/8" to ¼" right above theeyebrow that needs trimming (as shownhere). So, start by getting the Lasso tool(L) and drawing out the bottom of theshape—make it kind of like the shape ofthe eyebrow itself. The sides and top don’treally matter (because you’re not goingto use them), but I generally make myselection the shape of an eyebrow, likeyou see here.BEFORE AFTER
  • 97. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 73(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 10:You need to soften the edges of the selec-tion just a little bit, so go under the Selectmenu, under Modify, and choose Feather.When the dialog appears, enter 3 pixels(just enough to add a little bit of edgesoftening), and click OK (as shown here).Step 11:Now, press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) toplace that selected area up on its ownseparate layer. Switch to the Move tool(V) and drag that shape down over thetop of the eyebrow (as shown here) andlook at how it perfectly trims the top ofthe eyebrow. Now, go to the Layers panel,click on the Background layer, and do theexact same thing for the other eyebrow.A before and after is shown on the right,and as you can see, it does a prettynice job.
  • 98. 74 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AFTERBEFOREAfter
  • 99. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Eyes Chapter 1 75(Continued)One thing we don’t want in eyebrows is gaps, but as you might expect, it’s very common to find just that. So, we can literallypaint in a few extra hairs to cover up those gaps. Now, if you’re thinking, “I’m not good at painting,” you don’t have to worry.What you’re going to do here is so simple that you’ll be able to pull it off the first time around, even if you’re using a mouse(rather than a tablet).Making Fuller EyebrowsStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to addfuller eyebrows to. Start by clicking on theCreate a New Layer icon at the bottom ofthe Layers panel to create a new blanklayer where we’ll do all of our retouching(as shown here).Step Two:You’re going to need to zoom in reallytight for this one—I zoomed in to 300%on the eyebrow on the right. Now, get theBrush tool (B) and choose a very, verysmall, soft-edged brush from the BrushPicker that’s about the size of the hairsin the eyebrow (here I chose a 1-pixel,soft-edged brush. Of course, you’ll haveto choose the size based on the photoyou’re working on. The way I composedthis image, it’s not really super-tightin on her face, so once we zoom in,a 1-pixel brush is about the size ofher eyebrow hair in this photo).
  • 100. 76 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Start by pressing-and-holding the Option(PC: Alt) key, and your Brush tool willtemporarily change into the Eyedroppertool, so you can steal a color from theeyebrow hair itself. Click right on a darkarea of eyebrow (as shown here) to snagthat color as your new Foreground color.Eyebrow hair is usually a slightly differentshade as you move from one end of theeyebrow to the other, so don’t be sur-prised if you have to resample the colora number of times while you’re workingon the eyebrow.Step Four:Now, you’re going to paint in your owneyebrow hairs, right over any place thathas gaps or is thin within the eyebrow(as shown here, where I’ve painted a fewdark brown strokes). It looks pretty bad atthis point, and will soon look even worse,but don’t worry, it all comes together inthe last step. Paint little strokes goingfrom left to right, and follow the directionof the existing hairs as you fill in the gaps.
  • 101. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 77(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:It’s now starting to look really full, andreally bad. The brown strokes don’t lookvery real, and they stand out, but that’sall going to change very soon—for nowjust keep painting nice little strokes. Ifyou’re using a tablet and pen, just makelittle flicking-type strokes that follow thedirection of the hairs. Make sure you doboth ends, and taper off at the endclosest to the ear.Step Six:To blend your painted eyebrow hairwith the real eyebrow hair, you havetwo choices: (1) Just lower the Opacityof this layer until the two blend together(here, I had to lower it to around 40%for a nice combination). Or, (2) changethe layer blend mode to Multiply (fromthe layer blend mode pop-up menuat the top of the Layers panel) andthen lower the Opacity to around 30%(Multiply mode does some blending onits own, but it also darkens as it blends,so you usually have to lower the Opacitymore than you would if you just left it inNormal mode. But, depending on theeyebrows, Multiply mode usually looksbetter. You just have to try both and seewhich one works for the image you’reretouching). A before and after is shownon the facing page, using the Multiplymode method.
  • 102. 78 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.BEFORE AFTERAfter
  • 103. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Eyes Chapter 1 79(Continued)In those cases where the eyebrows look pretty full, but just need a quick darkening, here’s a really quick way to get there.Don’t let the fact that we’re using Curves throw you off if you’ve never used Curves before. We’re going to do something so simple,you won’t even break a sweat. Plus, once you’ve learned this technique, you can use it anytime you need anything darkened.Darkening the EyebrowsStep One:In this image, her eyebrows are a littlelight and need to be darkened. So, clickon the Create New Adjustment Layer iconat the bottom of the Layers panel andchoose Curves from the pop-up menu.Then, from the Curves pop-up menu atthe top of the Adjustments panel, chooseDarker (RGB) to darken the midtones inthe image. Press Command-I (PC: Ctrl-I)to Invert the adjustment layer’s mask, andhide this darker version behind a blackmask. Grab the Brush tool (B), choose asmall, soft-edged brush, make sure yourForeground color is set to white, andpaint over just her eyebrows to makethem darker (as seen here, where I’mpainting the eyebrow on the right).Step Two:If you think her eyebrows need to beeven darker, just go to the Adjustmentspanel, click on the center point of thecurve, and drag it farther down (as I havehere). Since you already masked the eye-brows, as you drag the curve downward,only the eyebrows get darker. However,darkening the midtones can change thecolor of the eyebrows, as well. So, changethe adjustment layer’s blend mode toLuminosity (as seen here) to keep thecolor looking the same, but give them theadded darkening they need. If they looka little too dark, you can simply lower theOpacity of the adjustment layer (as I didhere, where I lowered it to 75%).
  • 104. 80 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!80 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesDownload this image. See pg. xi.BEFORE AFTERAfter
  • 105. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Eyes Chapter 1 81(Continued)Step One:Here’s the image we’re going to retouch,and although I already applied a basicsharpening to the whole image, usingthe Unsharp Mask filter, I usually sharpenthe eyes separately to really give themthat sparkle that makes them look alive.I generally do this sharpening on a dupli-cate of the Background layer. That way,(1) I can easily toggle the layer on/off tosee a before/after while I’m sharpening,(2) I can lower the Opacity amount of thelayer if I think I’ve over-sharpened the eyes,or (3) I can delete the layer altogether ifI decide I don’t want any sharpening atall. So, press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) toduplicate the Background layer.Step Two:In the Toolbox, nested under the Blur tool,you’ll find the Sharpen tool (seen here). Ithas been in Photoshop for many years, butit has been pretty much unusable, becauseit usually did more harm than good. It wasa harsh type of sharpening that seemedto have a personal grudge against pixels,but that all changed in Photoshop CS5,when Adobe’s engineers decided to notonly fix this tool, but to make it Photo-shop’s most advanced sharpening tool(I got that straight from one of Adobe’sown Photoshop product managers). Thiscomes courtesy of the Protect Detailcheckbox in the Options Bar, so makedarn sure that’s turned on (as shownhere, circled in red), or you’ll be usingthe old version of the Sharpen tool(with the old results).Sharpening is the final retouch I do to the eyes, and it’s this finishing touch that can really make your subject’s eyes sparkle.As you’ll learn throughout this book, we don’t generally sharpen the entire image at once—it’s usually just a part here and a partthere, and this is one of those instances where spot sharpening really makes a big difference. Plus, we’re going to do this usingthe most advanced form of Photoshop sharpening ever, which was introduced in Photoshop CS5.Sharpening Eyes to Make Them Sparkle
  • 106. 82 Chapter 1 Retouching EyesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Zoom in on the eyes, then take theSharpen tool, and paint over an iris. Ifyou look up at the Options Bar, you’ll seethat the default setting for the Strengthis 50%, but I recommend setting it downto around 20%, so the sharpening buildsup as you paint over the eye. Using alower amount like this gives you morecontrol because you’re adding sharpen-ing in layers, rather than all at once. Don’tjust paint over the inside of the eye—sharpening is all about edges. So, makesure your brush cursor extends just a tinybit outside the edge of the iris (as seenhere). Do the same thing with the othereye, and keep in mind that since you didthis on a layer, if you need to, you canlower the Opacity of this layer, whichlowers the amount of sharpening you’veapplied to the eyes.Step Four:Now, since doing any kind of sharpeningcan sharpen random bits of noise orchange the colors, change the layer’sblend mode from Normal to Luminosity.A before/after of the retouch is shownon the next page.
  • 107. Retouching Eyes Chapter 1 83(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterAFTERBEFORE
  • 108. 85Have you ever been on a flight and heardone of the passengers say, “Hey, that wasa really nice takeoff!” No? That’s becausenobody really cares about takeoffs (well,as long as the plane does, indeed, takeoff). But, when it comes to landing theplane, that’s where you really judge thequality of a pilot (well, it’s where otherpilots judge the quality anyway). Now,if there’s one thing I’ve learned overthe years about retouching, it’s thatnobody in the retouching industryreally cares which technique you useto brighten the eyes, or slim someone’slove handles, or add highlights to thehair. To them, they’re all like takeoffs.But when it comes to skin, the glovescome off. If they catch you blurring theskin to soften it, they will pull out ashank and stab you like a Rikers Islandinmate during lockdown (by the way,I have no idea what that means). For high-end retouchers, it’s all about creatingflawless skin while maintaining realskin texture throughout, and they areabsolute masters at it. They’ll spend fourhours or more on just the face, goingpore by pore, until it’s absolutely perfect.So, how are we, as photographers, goingto get perfect, non-blurred skin like that?Actually, it’s pretty easy. We’re going tosend our photos to high-end retouchersand have them do it for us, becausethere’s no way we can spend four hourson a face. Ever. Since we have very littletime available for retouching at all, wehave to cut a few corners when it comesto skin—investing only 5 or 10 minuteson the skin at best. But to do that, wesometimes have to do some unspeak-able things that might get us shankedon our way to “the yard,” but if we canuse some tricks to bring back enoughtexture (and we bribe them with a packof smokes), they might let us by withjust a snarling glance.Chapter2UNDER MY SKINRetouching Skin
  • 109. 86 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to retouch.We’re going to use the Healing Brushtool (it’s nested below the Spot HealingBrush tool) for removing blemishes, be-cause most blemishes are alone and nottouching any edges, which is when theHealing Brush works best. If you use itto remove a blemish near the edge ofsomething (right near the lips, or the hair,or eyebrows, etc.), it tends to smear (inwhich case, you should undo the healing,and switch to the Clone Stamp tool,because it doesn’t smear). Now, go upto the Options Bar, click on the HealingBrush icon to get the Brush Picker (shownhere), choose a brush size that’s just alittle larger than the blemish you wantto remove, and lower the Hardness to75% to get a little smoother blending.Also, from the Sample pop-up menu,choose All Layers, so it can samplefrom your Background layer.Step Two:Zoom in, then click on the Create a NewLayer icon at the bottom of the Layerspanel to create a new blank layer. Press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) key, andclick in a clean area right near the blemish(as shown here). Because this particularblemish is on her forehead, I had to sample(Option-click) to the side of the blemish,because on the forehead, the texture ofthe skin goes horizontally (side to side). It’snot as critical on other parts of the face,but on the forehead you usually get bet-ter results if you sample to the side of theblemish, rather than above or below.When it comes to skin, I always start by removing the blemishes. One reason is that after you remove all the blemishes,you might not have to soften or smooth the skin at all. Plus, even if you know you’re going to have to soften the skin,you’re going to have to remove the blemishes first, so it’s a great place to start.Removing Blemishes
  • 110. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 87(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, move your cursor directly over theblemish. Don’t paint, just click once. That’sit—it’s gone (as seen here). That’s how youremove blemishes: sample a nearby area,move your cursor over the blemish, andjust click. You don’t have to resample(Option-click) each time you remove ablemish, just when you move to a differ-ent area of the face (nose, cheeks, chin),as they all have slightly different textures.Step Four:Let’s move to another part of the face.Same routine: Option-click in a clean areanear the blemish, then move over theblemish, and just click. You’re going torepeat this process all the way aroundthe face, removing the blemishes oneby one. At this point in the retouchingprocess, I just remove the blemishes thatreally stand out—smaller ones will getremoved in the skin smoothing processlater on. A before/after is on the followingpage, and I did nothing more than whatyou saw on this page—sample, moveover the blemish, and just click.
  • 111. 88 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!AfterDownload this image. See pg. xi.BEFORE AFTER
  • 112. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 89Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBad Blurring Controlled BlurBlurred Plastic-LookingSkin (Yeech!):This is what you want to avoid (see thephoto on the left), and what has givenskin blurring, in general, a bad name.There are really no visible pores, and theskin looks plastic, which makes the eyesand lips look over-sharpened and weird.In general, it just looks fake and obviouslyretouched. Okay, over-retouched. Avoidthis like the plague (unless you’re retouch-ing for children’s beauty pageants. Forsome reason, they dig this).Softened Skin with Texture:Although I’m going to show you twoways to soften skin that don’t blur theskin at all, sometimes the fastest way forus photographers to get the job done isto use some kind of blurring, but don’tworry—when we do, we’ll use a trick ortwo to bring back some of the originaltexture, so the skin looks realistic (andnot plastic, like the image on the right).So, just remember, although blurring ingeneral is bad, if you use the blurringtechniques shown here in the book,you’ll get smooth-looking skin fast, withtexture and detail, but without the fakeplastic look. By the way, there’s still moreretouching left to be done on the photoon the right—it’s just an example to showskin smoothing (just in case you were won-dering, I used the technique on page 113).How to Avoid Plastic-Looking SkinHigh-end retouchers cringe when they hear that you applied blurring to the skin, because we’ve all seen so many exampleswhere the subject has grossly over-blurred skin, with no visible texture, and it looks plastic (like the shot on the left below).So, any mention of skin blurring freaks them out. However, as photographers (and not high-end retouchers), we have to geteach photo retouched really quickly, so in some cases we use “controlled” skin blurring, which gives us good-looking skin,but without losing all the texture and detail (as seen on the right below).
  • 113. 90 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep One:Okay, before you consider using this tech-nique, consider this: If your photo willbe published anywhere professional re-touchers might see it, this isn’t the one touse. If it’s going to be used on a photo ofUncle Earl for his Christmas card, then it’sprobably okay (but only if you don’t reallylike Uncle Earl all that much). Of course,before you do any skin softening of anykind, remove all the major blemishes first(see page 86). Once they’re gone, pressCommand-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to duplicate theBackground layer (as seen here).Step Two:Now, go under the Filter menu, underBlur, and choose Gaussian Blur. When theGaussian Blur dialog appears (seen here),set the Radius to 20 pixels to really blur theentire image (as shown here) and click OK.When you smooth skin, there’s definitely a tradeoff: You can use techniques that totally avoid blurring the skin, but they take areally long time. Or, you can use a technique that’s really quick, but you’ll have to blur the skin a bit (which, in high-end retouchingcircles, is a huge no-no, because you lose skin texture). As photographers, we sometimes have to get the job done really fast, andthat means using some blurring. However, there are two things we do at the end of this technique to help retain some of the origi-nal texture, and add some additional texture in. That way, this quickie skin technique actually looks pretty decent for somethingthat takes us no more than two minutes to do.Basic “Quickie” Skin Softening
  • 114. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 91(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Lower the Opacity of the blurry layerto 50% (as shown here) to reduce theimpact of the blurring. I know that a lotof people leave this setting at 50%, butthe skin looks way too blurry. I’ll leave itat 50% for now, though, because it makesit easier to see what you’re painting (so,50% opacity is a visual tool, not a finalnumber by any means).Step Four:Press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyand click on the Add Layer Mask iconat the bottom of the Layers panel (it’sshown circled here in red) to hide yourblurry layer behind a black mask (sonow your image looks like it did whenyou first opened it). Press D to set yourForeground color to white and get theBrush tool (B), then in the Options Bar,choose a medium-sized, soft-edgedbrush (at least to start with) and set theOpacity to 100%. Now, paint over every-thing except the areas that are supposedto have full detail, like the eyebrows, eyes,hair, nostrils, lips, teeth, and the edgesof the face (you have to stop right beforethe edges of her face or they will soften).You’ll have to shrink the size of your brushwhen you get to places like the area thatgoes from her nose down to her top lip(technically called the philtrum, butI always call it “the area that goes fromher nose down to her top lip”).
  • 115. 92 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:To quickly check to see if you missedsoftening any areas, go to the Layerspanel, press-and-hold the Option (PC:Alt) key, and click directly on the layermask thumbnail that is attached to yourtop layer. You’ll see the actual layer maskyou’ve been painting on, and any areas thatappear in black haven’t been softened yet(see those areas on her forehead and nosethat I completely missed?).Step Six:Just take your brush and paint in white,right on the mask, over any spots youmissed (as shown here), until the onlyplaces that are still black on the face arethose detail areas you didn’t want tosoften. Now, Option-click on that layermask thumbnail again to bring back theregular color image.
  • 116. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 93(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Here’s where you get some of your skindetail and texture back. Lower the Opacityof your layer to at least 35% (as shownhere) and see how that looks. If you canget away with less, try that (but, of course,to see how it really looks, you’ll need tosee a before/after by toggling the top layeron/off by clicking on the little Eye icon thatappears to the left of the layer’s thumb-nail). I’ve used as little as 18% on a subjectwith pretty good skin, but more often it’saround 25% to 35%. Remember, the loweropacity you can get away with, the moreof the original skin texture you’ll get back.Step Eight:If you look at the image at this point andthink you need even more skin texture(but it looks bad if you lower the Opacityany further), then you can fake the textureusing a very popular technique. Start byCommand-clicking (PC: Ctrl-clicking)directly on the layer mask thumbnail fromyour blurred layer, so it loads the maskas a selection. Now, click on the Createa New Layer icon at the bottom of theLayers panel to add a new blank layer,go under the Edit menu, and choose Fill.In the Fill dialog, from the Use pop-upmenu up top, choose 50% Gray, and clickOK to fill your selected area with gray.Don’t deselect yet.
  • 117. 94 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Go under the Filter menu, underNoise, and choose Add Noise. Inthe filter dialog, enter 2.5% to 3%for your Amount, choose Gaussianfor your Distribution, and turn on thecheckbox for Monochromatic, thenclick OK. Now, press Command-D(PC: Ctrl-D) to Deselect, then changethe layer’s blend mode from Normalto Soft Light (for more subtle texture)or Overlay (for the full texture effect).To see a before/after onscreen whenyou have more than two layers, simplyOption-click (PC: Alt-click) on the Back-ground layer’s Eye icon. This will turnoff all layers above the Backgroundlayer, then you can Option-click againto turn them back on. A before/afterat 35% opacity (through Step Seven)is shown on the next page.
  • 118. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 95Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopAFTERBEFORETry thistechnique onanother image!AfterDownload this image. See pg. xi.
  • 119. 96 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep One:Here is the beauty-style image we’regoing to retouch (the model is leaningon a sheet of plexiglass held up by twoassistants. She couldn’t put any weighton the plexiglass, because it started tobow, so she’s standing there, lightly rest-ing on it). It’s hard to see at this zoomedout view, but she’s got a nice skin texture,and of course we want to preserve that.This technique does a great job of that.So, start by pressing Command-J (PC:Ctrl-J) to duplicate the Background layer.Step Two:Go under the Filter menu, under Blur,and choose Gaussian Blur (don’t worry—we’re not actually going to blur the skinhere, we’re just using this dialog to doa calculation for us that we’re going toneed to use in a different dialog). Dragthe slider to the right until you see theskin smooth out, and the different tonesof skin start to go away (as shown here).Don’t click OK. Instead, just rememberthe number you stopped at (in this case,it’s 8.4). Now, click the Cancel button toclose the dialog without applying the blur.This is a technique I use when I need a nice, quick skin smoothing without blurring out the skin, and it works really well—especially because of how it maintains skin texture. I want to give credit to “byRo,” a Brazilian retoucher who invented thetechnique (he’s a forum moderator over at RetouchPRO.com—a really great site for professional retouchers).Softening Skin While Retaining Texture
  • 120. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 97(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Go under the Filter menu, under Other,and choose High Pass. When the HighPass filter dialog appears, enter that num-ber you memorized from the GaussianBlur dialog—8.4 (as shown here)—andclick OK. At this point, our texture layeris really, really sharp (the High Pass filteracts like an Unsharp Mask on steroids,but we’ll fix that in just a moment).Step Four:Now, reopen the Gaussian Blur filter again,so we can apply a small amount of blur tothis sharp texture layer. First, a little math:you’re going to enter an amount of blurthat is approximately 33% (1/3) of theamount you entered in the High Pass filterin the previous step. In this case, 33% of8.4 is approximately 2.8 (I’m not proudof the fact that I had to get a calculatorto figure that one out. I should have justchosen 9 and made it easy on myself).So, enter 2.8 and click OK.
  • 121. 98 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Now, you’re going to Invert this High Passlayer by going under the Image menu,under Adjustments, and choosing Invert(as shown here), or by just pressingCommand-I (PC: Ctrl-I).Step Six:Next, go to the Layers panel and changethe blend mode from Normal to LinearLight (as shown here). This is lookingreally, really bad. But, continue on!
  • 122. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 99(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Lower the Opacity of this layer to 50%,and things are starting to look a lot betterfor the skin areas—except, of course, forthe edges of…well…everything, so we’llhave to fix that in the next step.Step Eight:Press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyand click on the Add Layer Mask iconat the bottom of the Layers panel (it’sshown circled here in red) to hide yourHigh Pass filter layer behind a black mask(as seen here).
  • 123. 100 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Now, press D to set your Foreground colorto white and get the Brush tool (B), then inthe Options Bar, choose a medium-sized,soft-edged brush and set the Opacity to100%. Now, paint just the skin areas (asshown here), avoiding all the detail areaslike the eyebrows, eyes, hair, nostrils, lips,teeth, and the edges of the face (avoid theedges of her face, or they will get softer).Step 10:To check and see if you missed any areas,go to the Layers panel, press-and-hold theOption (PC: Alt) key, and click directly onthe layer mask thumbnail that is attachedto your top layer (as shown here) to see justthe layer mask. Any areas that appear inblack haven’t been painted over yet (clearly,I need this “mask only” view pretty badly).Take your brush and paint in white right onthe mask over any spots you missed. Now,Option-click on that layer mask thumbnailagain to return to the normal image. Lookat the before and after on the next page,and you can see that the skin has beensmoothed out nicely, and yet you seelots of texture in it.
  • 124. Try thistechnique onanother image!Retouching Skin Chapter 2 101Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopAfterDownload this image. See pg. xi.BEFORE AFTER
  • 125. 102 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopThis one takes a few steps, but it’s not hard at all. In fact, it’s simple, so don’t let the number of steps throw you. Also, atone point it does have a teeny, tiny bit of blur in it, but not enough to hurt anybody. It uses the Surface Blur filter at onestage, but don’t worry, the whole idea of this technique is to have loads of texture, so don’t freak out when you see theSurface Blur filter.Softening Skin & Adding Texture Back InStep One:As always, before you do any skin soften-ing, remove all the major blemishes usingthe Healing Brush (see page 86). Here,I removed them already, so we can justfocus on softening the skin. Start by press-ing Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to duplicatethe Background layer, as shown here.Step Two:Go under the Filter menu, under Blur, andchoose Surface Blur. There are big advan-tages to using this filter over Gaussian Blur,and one is that it does a better job ofpreserving edges (rather than GaussianBlur, which just blurs everything equally).I set the Radius (which controls the amountof blur) to around 39, and I make sure theThreshold slider (which controls the tonalvalues that get blurred) doesn’t get higherthan the Radius amount (here, I have set itto 31, and I usually have it between 5 and10 lower than the Radius setting). This givesa blocky, almost posterized look to yoursubject’s skin at this point. Go ahead andclick OK to apply this filter to your image(it’s doing a lot of math to make someparts blurry while the edges maintaindetail, so don’t be surprised if a progressbar appears onscreen, as this one usuallytakes a few extra seconds to apply).
  • 126. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 103(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, go to the Layers panel and lowerthe Opacity of this Surface Blur layer to50% (as shown here). Although it looks alot better at this point (and the skin lookspretty decent), the rest of the image alsohas the effect applied. We just want it onher skin, so we’re going to have to mask it.Step Four:Press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyand click once on the Add Layer Maskicon at the bottom of the Layers panel.This adds a black layer mask to your blurrylayer (seen here to the right of the toplayer), which hides the blurry layer, so allyou’re seeing now is the original, unblurredBackground layer. Press D to set your Fore-ground color to white, get the Brush tool(B), and choose a medium-sized, soft-edged brush from the Options Bar. Now,paint over her skin, but be careful toavoid all the detail areas, like her eyes,hair, clothing, eyebrows, nostrils,lips, etc.
  • 127. 104 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:To make sure you haven’t missed any areas,in the Layers panel, Option-click (PC: Alt-click) directly on the layer mask thumbnail(as shown here). This displays just the maskby itself, and any areas on her face thatappear in black aren’t getting the effect,so you’ll see instantly whether you missedany areas or not. These missed areas arereally easy to fix—just take your Brush tooland paint right over them (you’re paintingright on the mask itself, so you’ll be able tosee perfectly as you paint). Here, you cansee I missed a bunch of areas on her fore-head and by her nose, and a few tiny areashere and there. When you’re done (don’tforget her neck and shoulders), Option-click directly on the layer mask thumbnailagain to return to your normal image.Step Six:Now that you can see your full-color imageagain, you’re going to load your layer maskas a selection. So, press-and-hold the Com-mand (PC: Ctrl) key and click once directlyon the layer mask thumbnail (as shownhere). This loads your mask as a selection,as seen here. Remember, that selection ismade from your mask, and your mask isa selection of all her skin, but without hereyes, nostrils, mouth, and the other detailareas included.
  • 128. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 105(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:While your selection is still in place,go to the Layers panel and click on theBackground layer (this is original unsoft-ened layer). Now, press Command-J(PC: Ctrl-J) to take just that selectedarea and put it on its own layer (as seenhere, where just her original unretouchedfacial skin is on its own layer now).Step Eight:In the Layers panel, click-and-drag that“just the skin” layer up to the top of thelayer stack (so it’s the top layer, as seenhere). Now, we’re going to bring out thetexture in her skin by going under theFilter menu, under Other, and choosingHigh Pass. When the dialog appears, dragthe Radius slider all the way to the left (sothe preview looks solid gray), and thendrag the slider to the right until you seelots of nice skin texture coming throughyour solid gray image. Stop when you seea glow starting to develop (here, I was ableto go to around 6.4. When I went too muchhigher, things started to glow). Click OK.
  • 129. 106 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:To have your skin texture layer blendin with your softened skin layer below it,go to the Layers panel and change theblend mode for this High Pass layer fromNormal to Soft Light (as shown here).There’s now a layer of skin texture overyour softened layer (so basically, yousoftened and smoothed the skin, thenbrought back some skin texture on topto bring back the detail lost by runningthe Surface Blur filter).Step 10:This face texture (High Pass) layer on topgives you its full effect (the most texture)when the layer’s Opacity is set at 100%.If you lower the Opacity, it actually makesthe skin softer, because you’re loweringthe amount of texture. Here, I’ve loweredthe Opacity of the High Pass layer abit to soften up the skin a little more,because there’s plenty of texture visiblein the image. Whether you lower thetexture amount or not is totally your call,but you’ll make that call based on theskin of your particular subject. A before/after of the retouch is shown on thenext page.
  • 130. Try thistechnique onanother image!AfterDownload this image. See pg. xi.Retouching Skin Chapter 2 107Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 131. 108 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopI know, you’re probably thinking: “High Pass! Doesn’t that make skin sharper?” Normally it does, but in this technique(which has been around for years now), you invert the layer you apply the High Pass filter to, so it acts more like a blurringfilter, which sounds bad at first, but this is actually a great technique for keeping texture, and it’s faster and easier thanthe other High Pass methods in this chapter. So, which one looks better? It just depends on the skin of the particularperson you’re retouching. That’s why it’s handy to know them all.High Pass Skin SofteningStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to retouch.Start by pressing Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J)to duplicate the Background layer.Step Two:Change the blend mode of this duplicatelayer from Normal to Overlay. Now, pressCommand-I (PC: Ctrl-I) to Invert the layer(it should look pretty bad at this point,like you see here).
  • 132. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 109(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Go under the Filter menu, under Other,and choose High Pass. When the filterdialog appears, enter 10 pixels, and clickOK. This is the part that freaks peopleout, because normally the photo wouldlook super-sharpened at this point,but instead, it looks pretty blurry(as seen here).Step Four:Now, to limit how blurry your imagelooks, you’re going to add a GaussianBlur (I know, I know…just stick with thisand you’ll see that somehow it actuallyworks). So, go under the Filter menu,under Blur, and choose Gaussian Blur.Just so you can see how this filter affectsyour image, when the Gaussian Blur filterdialog appears, drag the Radius slider wayover to the right, adding lots of blur, andyou’ll see that the photo gets very sharp,not blurrier. Now, drag the Radius sliderall the way to the left (to 0.1 pixels), andit’s blurry again. Because we inverted theHigh Pass layer, everything is working inreverse, but in this case, that’s exactly whatwe want. So, with your Gaussian Blur setat 0.1, start slowly dragging to the right,and somewhere between 1 and 4 pixels(here I dragged to 3.8), the skin will startlooking good, and you’ll see lots of smoothskin texture, then click OK.
  • 133. 110 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Of course, when you’re applying a filterover the entire image like this, it makeseverything have that texture, but you justwant that limited to the skin (avoidingthe detail areas like the eyes, lips, eye-brows, and so on). So, press-and-holdthe Option (PC: Alt) key, and click onthe Add Layer Mask icon at the bottomof the Layers panel to hide the texturedlayer behind a black mask (as seen here).Step Six:Now, get the Brush tool (B), choose amedium-sized, soft-edged brush withthe Opacity set to 100% up in the OptionsBar, make sure your Foreground color isset to white, and paint over the skin areasto reveal the softened texture in thoseareas. Don’t forget to Option-click (PC:Alt-click) on the layer mask to only seethe mask, and to see if you’ve missedany spots, just as we did in the previousskin softening techniques.
  • 134. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 111(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!AfterDownload this image. See pg ix.Step Seven:If the texture seems too intense, all youhave to do is lower the layer’s Opacityuntil the skin tone looks right (I loweredit to 85% here). A before/after is shownon the next page.
  • 135. 112 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 136. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 113(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep One:Here’s the image we want to retouch.As always, we start by removing theblemishes, so the image you see herehas had them removed using the Heal-ing Brush tool and the exact techniqueyou learned earlier in this chapter.Step Two:Go to the Channels panel (go under theWindow menu and choose Channels, ifit’s not already open) and click on theRed channel (as shown here). In portraits,the Red channel almost always has theleast amount of skin texture in it, but whileyou’re already in the Channels panel, goahead and click on the Green and Bluechannels for just a moment, and you’ll seewhat I mean (they have all the serious skintexture—the stuff we don’t want).Softening Skin Using ChannelsCorey Barker, one of my “Photoshop Guys” here at Kelby Media Group, came up with a slick skin softening technique thatlets us keep lots of skin texture, because it’s based on using the skin texture as the mask part of a layer mask. What’s coolabout this technique is that, if you feel the skin needs extra softening, you can add a Surface Blur along the way, but thereally cool thing is that you don’t have to—you can avoid the blurring altogether (it’s totally up to you). My thanks to Coreyfor letting me share this technique with you here in the book.
  • 137. 114 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Press-and-hold the Command (PC: Ctrl)key, and click directly on the Red channel’sthumbnail (as shown here) to load thischannel as a selection.Step Four:This step is totally optional, and I encour-age you to try this technique without usingthis step (which will forever be known asthe “evil blurring step” by high-end re-touchers, who will scorn you for this, soI beg you—try it without this step at leastonce and see what you think). To do thisoptional, bonus, don’t-really-try-this step,first you have to Deselect what you did inthe previous step, so press Command-D(PC: Ctrl-D). Now, duplicate the Red chan-nel by dragging it down onto the CreateNew Channel icon (which looks just likethe Create a New Layer icon). Next, gounder Filter menu, under Blur, and chooseSurface Blur. Enter 5 pixels for the Radiusand 5 levels for the Threshold, and clickOK. Press-and-hold the Command (PC:Ctrl) key, and click directly on the duplicateRed channel’s thumbnail (named “Redcopy” in the Channels panel) to load thischannel as a selection. Now, just continueon with the rest of the technique.
  • 138. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 115(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Go back to the Layers panel and click onthe Create a New Layer icon to add a newblank layer. Now, while your selection isstill in place, click on the Add Layer Maskicon at the bottom of the Layers panel, andit takes your selection and turns that intoyour layer mask. Take a look at the thumb-nail for the layer mask attached to this layer,and you’ll see what I mean. Remember,any other time we add a layer mask, it’salways solid black or solid white (well, untilwe start painting on it, anyway), but herethe layer mask looks like the Red channel.That’s the secret to this technique (but thiswill make more sense in just a moment).Another big difference is that we’re notgoing to paint on the layer mask, like usual.Instead, we’re going to paint on the blanklayer itself, and then the layer mask willbe used to maintain the texture. To dothis, you need to go to the Layers paneland click on the blank layer’s thumbnail(as shown here), so the layer is active,instead of the mask.Step Six:Get the Brush tool (B), set the brush’sOpacity to 20% up in the Options Bar(unless you’re using a tablet with PressureSensitivity turned on, in which case youcan leave it set at 100%), choose a largebrush, then Option-click (PC: Alt-click)on the skin area right around where youwant to smooth the skin to sample thecolor, and start generally building upstrokes over the area you want to soften.As you paint over the area, it starts tosoften. You’ll have to let it build up, sopaint over the area at least a couple oftimes, and as you paint, you’ll see theskin starting to soften. The more youpaint, the softer it gets, so you don’twant to paint too much.
  • 139. 116 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:The real key to making this technique workfor you is to make certain you resampleagain and again as you move around theface to different color tones. Also, you’llneed to shrink your brush size as you movearound to tighter areas, but don’t forgetto resample again and again as you movearound. Here, I’ve painted over nearly allthe areas I wanted to soften, being carefulnot to soften the lips, nostrils, eyes, eye-brows, hairs, and so on.Step Eight:Okay, this step is really just to help youunderstand what’s going on in this tech-nique (and it will help you understand whyher skin looks so plastic in the shot yousee here). Press-and-hold the Shift key,and click directly on the layer mask thumb-nail attached to your layer, and it hides theeffect of the mask from view (and puts abig red X over your mask, as seen here,to let you know it’s hidden). Now her skinlooks really plastic, because without thatmask, all you’ve really done is sampled aflesh tone and then painted a solid colorright over her skin. To toggle this on/offso you can compare, just keep that Shiftkey held down and click on that layer maskthumbnail and few times, and you’ll seeexactly what’s going on. When you’re done,just make sure the mask is active again(so there’s no big red X across it).
  • 140. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 117(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg ix.AfterStep Nine:The great thing about this is that you didall this painting on a layer, so if you thinkthe skin looks too soft, you can just lowerthe Opacity to reduce the intensity of thesoftening (here, I lowered the Opacityto 70% to keep even more skin texture).A before and after of our work is shownon the next page.
  • 141. 118 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 142. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 119(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopReducing or Removing WrinklesThe older the subject, the deeper and longer any wrinkles on their face may be. The thing about wrinkles is that, forthe most part, you can’t remove them or the subject looks weird. Instead, you just have to reduce them by lighteningthe shadows in the wrinkles themselves. The thing to keep in mind when reducing wrinkles is that you want to makeyour subject look 10 years younger, not 40 years younger.Step One:Here’s our subject, and we’re going todo a simple two-step process to removethe wrinkles. First, we’re going to removeall the wrinkles completely, then we’regoing to bring back some of them tomake it look realistic. Start by clickingon the Create a New Layer icon at thebottom of the Layers panel to create anew blank layer (we’ll be doing all ourretouching up on this new layer).Step Two:Zoom in, and get the Healing Brushtool (press Shift-J until you have it). Inthe Options Bar, choose a small brushsize and, from the Sample pop-up menu,choose All Layers (if it’s not already cho-sen). That way, when you use the Heal-ing Brush on this new blank layer, it willsample from your photo on the Back-ground layer. Option-click (PC: Alt-click)in a clean area near some wrinkles (asshown here). Make sure you choose anarea to sample that has a similar textureto the area surrounding the wrinkles.
  • 143. 120 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, you’re going paint over thewrinkles with the Healing Brush. In thiscase, I painted a stroke from left to rightover the wrinkle under the eye on theright. In the capture shown here, you cansee where my brush cursor is, and youcan also see the little crosshair cursor (+)that shows the spot I sampled from. Now,here’s some good news: since you’re goingto bring back some of these wrinkles alittle later on, making absolutely perfectwrinkle removal isn’t a big worry. So, if youremove a wrinkle and it doesn’t look great,don’t sweat it, because a lighter version ofthe wrinkle is coming back soon, and it willcover up most of your work here anyway.Step Four:Chances are it’s going to take morethan just a few strokes to get all of thewrinkles, so feel free to paint morestrokes to completely remove them.Here I zoomed in tighter, and workedon the next wrinkle up. I also had toremove a few little “straggler” wrinklesleft over right near the eyelashes andat the corner of the eye. It took aroundthree big and six little strokes to removeall the wrinkles here.
  • 144. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 121(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Let’s switch over to the other eye andrepeat the process: use a small-sizedbrush, and sample (Option-click) nearthe area of wrinkles you want to remove(as shown here).Step Six:Now, paint a stroke going from leftto right to remove the bottom wrinkle,like I did here (I zoomed in tight to 200%here, so you could see better. While zoom-ing beyond a 100% full-size view makesthings a little soft and pixelated, you haveto do it sometimes with detail work).
  • 145. 122 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Here, you can see I’ve removed thewrinkles from beneath the eye on theleft, but we’ve got to do a little more workin this area. You also need to remove thosewrinkles to the left of her nose. They’remuch more noticeable than the ones tothe right because of the lighting, but eitherway, you’re going to have to remove them.Start by sampling in a nearby area thathas basically the same texture, butdoesn’t have a wrinkle in it.Step Eight:Now, start painting over the wrinkles tomake them go away. You might have toresample a few times to get this entirearea (you can see me resampling here),but just be patient and remove most ofthe wrinkles. Compare this side of thenose with the one in Step Seven, andyou can see it’s quite a bit better. Again,it’s not perfect, but because we’re goingto be bringing some of those wrinklesback, it doesn’t have to be.
  • 146. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 123(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Let’s move down to the cheeks and moutharea. She has some little smile lines rightabove her lips, extending from one endto the other like a half-oval. We’re goingto get rid of those first. Option-click in anearby clean area (as shown here).Step 10:Paint over those smile lines (again, it mighttake more than one stroke) until they’regone (as seen here). Now, we’re going totackle something much larger—the largersmile lines on her cheeks extending downto her jaw. Our goal here is to completelyremove them, and then when we bringthem back, it will soften those shadows,which makes them look less deep, andmakes the subject look younger (the olderwe get, the deeper these lines get, andthe darker the shadows get. Man, thisgetting old thing is a blast!). Here, I’vesampled near the bottom of the line onthe right side of her mouth, just to theright of the line.
  • 147. 124 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:Now, you’re going to paint away thatentire line. It’s going to take a few strokesand a medium-sized brush to get thisone done. Plus, you’ll probably have toresample a few times, in other nearbyclean areas, along the way (as I have here).Step 12:I did the smile line on the other side ofher face the exact same way. It took afew strokes to completely remove it, butif that’s what it takes, that’s what it takes.So, here’s the image with the most obvi-ous wrinkles, crow’s feet, and smile linescompletely removed. Now, you can seehow freaky it looks when you remove allthe wrinkles from a person’s face (thegoal is to make her look 40—not 14).In the next step, we’ll fix that fast.
  • 148. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 125(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 13:The final step is simply to lower the Opacityof your healing layer (the layer you didall your healing on from the beginning)in the Layers panel to bring back some ofthe original wrinkles. Here, I’ve lowered thelayer Opacity to 40%, and you can see hownatural it looks. The shadows are all lighter,and while you can see all the wrinkles,they look less deep, which makes her lookyounger. The amount will be different forevery person you retouch, based on theirage and their wrinkles. If you’re doing thison someone much younger, and you justwant a hint of natural wrinkles, then youmight leave the Opacity up at around 80%,but again, you have to make the call basedon age, amount of wrinkles, etc.Step 14:If you want to bring back a little more ofan area, like the laugh lines, just click on theAdd Layer Mask icon at the bottom ofthe Layers panel, then get the Brush tool(B), lower its Opacity to around 10%, makesure your Foreground color is set to black,and paint over the lines or wrinkles youwant to bring back a little more. You cansee the before and after (at 40% opacity)on the next page.
  • 149. Try thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.After126 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 150. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 127(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRemoving Hot SpotsHot spots are those shiny areas on your subject’s face that reflect the lighting and almost make their face look likethey’re sweating. I try to fix these while we’re on the shoot, but one set of shots with them always seems to sneakthrough (unless I have a makeup artist on the set—they never let the models get shiny). If a few sneak into one of yoursets, here’s how to quickly get rid of them:Step One:Here’s a shot of our subject, with hotspots on the bottom of her forehead, onher nose, her cheek on the right, and herchin. The Patch tool (shown here) workswell with these larger repairs, but you canuse the Healing Brush tool to do this, too.If you do, though, you have to remove theentire hot spot in just one stroke (you’llsee why in a minute).Step Two:Zoom in on her face, then press Com-mand-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to duplicate theBackground layer—we’ll do all our patch-ing on that layer. Take the Patch tooland draw a selection around the hotspot on her forehead (as shown here).The Patch tool works just like the Lassotool for making selections, so you’llfeel pretty comfortable with it thefirst time you use it.
  • 151. 128 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, click inside your selected area anddrag that selection to a nearby area thathas a similar texture (so, somewhere on theforehead), but isn’t shiny (as shown here).Release your mouse button (or removeyour pen from the tablet surface), and yourselection snaps back to its original position(over the hot spot), and your hot spot isgone. Sadly, so is the highlight, whichwe don’t want to lose—a nice highlightarea adds dimension, so we don’t wantit removed—we just want the amount ofhighlight lessened, so we’ll fix that in thenext step. For now, whatever you do,don’t deselect (you need to keep yourselection in place).Step Four:Press Command-H (PC: Ctrl-H) to hideyour selection around the area wherethe hot spot used to be. Now, go underthe Edit menu and choose Fade PatchSelection. This brings up the Fade dialog(shown here), which I like to think of as“Undo on a slider.” At 100%, you havethe full effect of whatever you did last(in this case, you used the Patch tool toremove the hot spot, and everythingelse, on her forehead). If you lower theOpacity to 0%, it would all come backas if you never did anything. So, yourjob here is to lower the Fade Opacityamount until the highlight comes back,but you want to stop before the shininesscomes back. In this case, 29% broughtback the highlight we want, without theshiny stuff we don’t want. Click OK, andyou’re done with that hot spot.
  • 152. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 129(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:You’re going to continue this process oneach of the other hot spots, and don’tbe surprised if you use a different FadeOpacity amount for each one—just useyour best judgment. Also, Fade only workson the very last thing you do, which iswhy immediately after you use the Patchtool, the very next thing you need to dois Fade it—the Fade command will dis-appear as soon as you do anything else(luckily, it doesn’t count the Command-H[Hide Selection] keyboard shortcut asa step). So, I always do it in this order:(1) remove the hot spot, (2) hide the selec-tion, and then (3) go right to Fade andlower the Opacity. Now, select the hotspot on her chin (as shown here) and dragit to a nearby clean area with similarskin texture.Step Six:Hide the selection (so you can clearly seewhat you’re doing), then go under theEdit menu, choose Fade Patch Selection,and lower the Opacity until it looks aboutright (as shown here; for this hot spot, theamount that looked right to me was 36%).Remember, all your patching was doneon a copy of the Background layer, so ifyou feel like the highlights all still look alittle too dull, you can lower the Opacityof the layer a little bit and it will all backdown proportionally. A before/after ofthe retouch is shown on the next page.
  • 153. Try thistechnique onanother image!130 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopDownload this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 154. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 131(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBalancing Skin TonesYou’re definitely going to run into situations where your subject has a patch of skin, maybe on their arm, or back, or leg,that is either brighter or darker than the surrounding skin. So, we should do a quick retouch to balance those areas beforewe start any kind of skin softening or smoothing. You don’t want to spend a lot of time on this, but if you can get the skintones in these areas closer in just 60 or so seconds, it makes things easier down the road. Luckily, it’s a very quick andeasy technique.Step One:Here’s the image we want to retouch, andif you look between our subject’s collar-bone and her chest, you’ll see a large areaof skin that’s darker than her surroundingskin. Ideally, we’d like to balance theseareas of skin before we do any skin soft-ening or enhancing.Step Two:Get the Lasso tool (L) and trace rightaround that darker area (as shown here).Try to keep your selection pretty darnclose to that area, but don’t spend a lotof time making it exactly perfect, becauseyou’re going to add a huge feather to theedges that will make up for not having aperfect selection, but you should at leasttry to get close. Now, go under the Selectmenu, under Modify, and choose Feather.When the dialog appears, enter 10 pixels ifyou selected a smallish area, or 20 pixels ifit’s a larger area, like the one we have here.
  • 155. 132 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, click on the Create New AdjustmentLayer icon at the bottom of the Layerspanel and choose Curves from the pop-upmenu. Notice that your selection is alreadymasked out on the Curves adjustmentlayer mask.Step Four:Now, don’t worry, even if you’ve neverused Curves before, you’ll be able to dothis. You’re going to change the tone ofthese patches of skin (whether they’retoo dark, like the ones shown here, or toobright, which is often the case) by adjust-ing the midtones. So, start by clickingonce right on the center of the diagonalline in the Curves graph (shown circledhere in red) in the Adjustments panel toadd a point to the midtones area of thecurve. So far, pretty easy, right? You justclick once right in the middle of the line.
  • 156. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 133(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:All you’re going to do now is drag thatmiddle point diagonally up and to the leftto brighten that whole darker area. Justdrag a tiny little bit, keeping an eye onyour selected area as you drag, and withjust a little bit of dragging, you’ll be ableto make that darker area of skin matchthe surrounding area (this is much easierthan you’d think, so make sure you try itfor yourself). Also, if the area had beenbrighter, instead of darker like it is here,you’d drag that center point diagonallydown toward the bottom-right corner.Either way, this is usually a very smallmovement, and to know exactly howmuch to move, keep an eye on the areaof skin you’re adjusting. Also, it some-times helps to move the curve a lot—making it much brighter—and then pullit back down again to match (this is kindof like turning the focus ring on your lensso it goes way out of focus, and thenturning it back the other way to snap itinto sharp focus. By putting it way out offocus, it makes seeing when it’s in sharpfocus that much easier. Same thing here).Step Six:Now that we’ve balanced that large area,if you wanted to take it a step further,I see two other remaining parts of thatsame general area that could use a littlemore balancing. So, first, in the Layerspanel, click on the Background layer. Onearea is on the right side of her collarbone,so go ahead and trace it with the Lassotool (as shown here), and then apply a10-pixel feather. The reason we’re onlyusing 10 pixels this time is because the sizeof the selected area is so much smaller.
  • 157. 134 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Add another Curves adjustment layer, clickon the center of the Curve to add a pointto the midtone area, and once again, dragup just a tiny bit until that darker area bet-ter matches the surrounding skin (as shownhere). You can see, once again, it’s just atiny move of that Curve.Step Eight:The last thing I might adjust is thoseremaining dark areas within that first largearea we brightened. Click back on the Back-ground layer, and trace around them withthe Lasso tool (select the first area, thenpress-and-hold the Shift key, and selectthe second area), add a 15-pixel feather(for medium-sized areas), and add a Curvesadjustment layer. Add a point to the centerof the curve, and move it just a little bit up,once again, to brighten those areas. Justa reminder: This process should be prettyquick, and you won’t do it to every photo,just to ones where a darker or lighter areaof skin really jumps out at you. A beforeand after is shown on the next page.
  • 158. Try thistechnique onanother image!AfterDownload this image. See pg. xi.Retouching Skin Chapter 2 135Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 159. 136 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to retouch,and you can see he has a one- or two-daygrowth going on. If you want to get ridof that, or reduce it, start by pressingCommand-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to duplicatethe Background layer.Step Two:Now, get the Clone Stamp tool (S), goup to the Options Bar, and change theMode from Normal to Lighten, thenlower the Opacity to 40% (as shownhere). By changing the blend mode toLighten, you’re telling the tool to onlyaffect pixels that are darker than thearea you’ve sampled (so when yousample a clean area of skin, it willonly affect pixels darker than thatclean area).This is a quick trick for getting rid of, or lessening, facial stubble. I’m not sure what else to say about it, but that onesentence alone just looked kinda lame, so please consider this extra sentence filler.Reducing Stubble
  • 160. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 137(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Get a small, soft-edged brush, press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) key, and clickonce in a clean area of skin nearby the areawhere you’re going to start “cleaning up.”Move your cursor over some of the stubbleand start painting it away, following thecontours of the stubble (in other words,clone in the direction the hairs are going).Step Four:Continue your way around the face, anddon’t forget to resample (Option-click on)different areas from time to time to keepthings looking random. Also, resample anytime you’re repairing a different area ofthe face, because the skin texture andtone may change. Here, I’ve gone downthe side of his face, and part of the sideof his stubbly mustache.
  • 161. 138 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Here’s what it looks like after about a five-minute cloning job (so it could use a littlemore work, but you get the idea). Youcan still see plenty of original skin tex-ture using this technique, which is whyI prefer it to just blurring it all away.Step Six:If it looks a little too clean for you, just goto the Layers panel and lower the Opacityto bring a tiny bit of the original stubbleback from the Background layer (here,I lowered the Opacity to 80% and I thinkit looks clean, but a bit more natural).
  • 162. Try thistechnique onanother image!AfterDownload this image. See pg. xi.Tip: When the whiskersare lighter than the skin,because of their color orhow the light hits them,you’ll need to change theMode of the Clone Stamptool to Darken (instead ofLighten) to affect them.Retouching Skin Chapter 2 139Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 163. 140 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to applydigital makeup to—we asked our modelnot to wear any makeup for this shoot,so we could apply it all from scratch. Ofcourse, we start by removing any majorblemishes or wrinkles first, before we addany makeup, so let’s do that first using theHealing Brush tool (press Shift-J until youhave it), and the technique for removingblemishes you learned on page 86. Also,she has a couple of stray hairs crossingonto her face, so go ahead and get rid ofthem, too, using the Healing Brush (thatone hair going right over her eye was apain. You’ll have to switch to the CloneStamp tool [S] with a really small brush forthat one). If those stray hairs on the sideof her face are distracting you (they areme), you can get rid of those, too, usingthe technique on page 196. Also, sincewe’re going to be applying eye makeupbefore long, you might want to removeany red eye veins (page 32).Step Two:Ahhhh, that’s better. It could still use a lotof retouching work (like filling in that gapin her hair, for one), but at least the maindistracting stuff is out of the way. Start byclicking the Create a New Layer icon toadd a new blank layer, and name it “Base”(as seen here). We’re going to use this layerto balance out the skin tones, and makethe skin look even (from a makeup pointof view, anyway). Next, we’ll set up ourbrush for painting the Base layer.Professional makeup artists are worth their weight in gold during a shoot, and I hire one every time I can, because they aremiracle workers (and they make our retouching jobs dramatically easier). What I’m going to show you here won’t replace usingan MUA, but if you need to touch up, add, or enhance makeup, you’ll find this really helpful. We’re starting from scratch on a facewith no makeup at all, and going through the whole process. A big thanks to professional MUA Shelley Giard for guiding methrough how she applies makeup in the real world, and to and my friend and brush master, Corey Barker, for his help and input.Applying Digital Makeup
  • 164. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 141(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Get the Brush tool (B), choose a large-sized, soft-edged brush, then go up tothe Options Bar and lower the Opacity to10%, so the strokes you make build up,one on top of another. Now you’re goingto press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyto temporarily switch to the Eyedroppertool, and click once on a bright area ofskin (as shown here) to make that yourForeground color. Release the Optionkey to return to the Brush tool.Note: If you’re using a Wacom tablet, thisworks great using pressure sensitivity:click on the Brush panel icon next to theBrush icon in the Options Bar to openthe Brush panel, click on Transfer in thelist on the left, then from the Flow Jitterand Opacity Jitter pop-up menus, choosePen Pressure (as shown here). Then setyour Opacity in the Options Bar to 100%,because now you’re controlling both theflow and opacity with how hard you pressdown on the tablet with your pen—in thiscase, you’ll press down very softly.
  • 165. 142 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Four:Now you’re going to lightly build up colorover the areas of her face that are white, sothe skin tone looks even (don’t worry, we’regoing to highlight and contour the bonestructure in a minute). If you’re using a tab-let, press lightly and build up your strokes.If you’re not, your brush is already set at10% opacity and you’ll see a similar type ofbuildup. Here, I’m painting on both cheeks,down the top of her nose, on the whiteareas on her forehead, on her chin, on ei-ther side of her nose, kinda below her eyes(as seen here), and basically any area thatlooks whiter than the rest, you’re goingto tone using that flesh-tone color. If youtoggle on/off this Base layer (by clicking onthe Eye icon to the left of the layer in theLayers panel), you’ll see the difference thisbuildup made. Of course, since you did thisbuildup on a separate layer, if it looks toointense (you think you built up too manystrokes), you can just lower the opacityuntil it looks right to you.Step Five:It’s time to add some contouring, andwe’ll start by defining her cheekbones.Create a new blank layer (name it “DarkContour”), change its blend mode toMultiply (so strokes made on this layerdarken that part of the image), then usethe same temporary Eyedropper tipyou learned earlier to sample the darkerskin tone from her shadow areas (asshown here).
  • 166. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 143(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Six:You’re going to darken beneath her cheek-bone, so use the same Brush tool, but youmight want to lower the Opacity settingto around 5% for this step, because thosedark strokes are really going to jump outat you. Now, take your brush and lightlypaint strokes from top to bottom in thatshadow area, following the same lines,almost down to her jaw, and building upas you go, painting over the same strokea few times. Again, you’re on a separatelayer, so if it looks too dark when you’redone, you can lower the layer’s Opacity(here, I lowered mine to 60%).Step Seven:Next we’ll add some highlighting, soadd a new layer, name it “Light Contour,”change its blend mode to Screen (so ourpaint strokes on this layer get brighter),then increase your brush’s Opacity backto 10%. Now, sample a bright area of herskin using the Eyedropper tool (I chose abright area right on her cheek), and thenpaint a stroke like the bottom half of adonut under both eyes (Mmmm. Donut).Also paint a few strokes right down thecenter of the nose, a little right under thenose, and on the front of the chin (basi-cally, anything that protrudes forwardfrom the face). If it’s too bright, lowerthe layer’s Opacity a little (I loweredmine to 79% here). Add another newlayer, name this one “Blush,” and changeits blend mode to Multiply.
  • 167. 144 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Eight:Now you’ll need to choose a color foryour blush. Click on the Foregroundcolor swatch (at the bottom of the Tool-box) to bring up the Color Picker. Inthis case, we’re going to use a pinkishflesh tone (if you want the same settingsI used here, type this in the RGB fields:R=226, G=165, B=159). We added darkcontouring under the cheekbones backin Step Six, but now you’re going toaccentuate the cheekbones themselves.Start by lowering your brush’s Opacityto 5%, then begin painting light strokes,and building up gradually over thecheekbone (as shown here) using thispinkish flesh tone color. Again, if it lookstoo intense, lower the layer’s Opacity.Once you’re done, in the Layers panel,Command-click (PC: Ctrl-click) on allthese makeup layers to select them,then choose New Group From Layersfrom the panel’s flyout menu to com-bine these into a layer group. Name it“Foundation.” If the whole thing lookstoo intense, lower the Opacity of thisgroup (I lowered mine to 70%).
  • 168. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 145(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Now let’s work on the eyes (of course,I would fill in and darken the eyebrows,but I covered that back on pages 76, and80). We’ll start with applying eye shadow(we’re going to do a casual daytime eyeshadow look). Create a new blank layer,name it “Eye Shadow,” and change itsblend mode to Multiply. You’re going touse the same brush settings, and samepinkish flesh-tone hue, as we did for theblush in the last step. Before we startpainting, zoom in on one of the eyes.Step 10:Shrink the size of your brush, and thenbegin lightly painting over the eyelid tobring in the color (as shown here). By theway, don’t forget to do both eyes. Next,we’ll add some eyeliner to give the impres-sion of darker and thicker lashes (again,just remember—this is digital makeup.If we want to add thicker lashes, we canuse the technique on page 57).
  • 169. 146 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:Create a new blank layer, change its blendmode to Multiply, and name it “Eyeliner.”You’re going to use the same brush set-tings again, but you’re going to need toclick on the Foreground Color swatchand, in the Color Picker, change yourcolor to a dark brown (I used: R=124, G=91,B=55 here). Shrink the size of your brushso it’s very small (I used just a 5-pixel, soft-edged brush here), but you need to makethe brush a little bit harder, so increasethe Hardness amount (in the Brush Pickerup in the Options Bar) to around 20%.Now, trace right along the upper lash lineto darken it. Start at the inner corner andcontinue out to the end of the eye (asshown here). Do the same thing on thebottom lash line, as well—painting rightalong the line where the lashes meet theeyelid. Don’t forget the other eye.
  • 170. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 147(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 12:Now you’re going to highlight the browbone, which opens up the eyes a bit.Create a new blank layer, change its blendmode to Screen, and name this layer “BrowBone.” You’re going to use the same brushsettings, but make the brush size quite abit larger, and set the Hardness amountback to 0%, so the brush is really soft. Usethe Eyedropper to sample a bright area ofskin right under her eyebrow, then painta few strokes over the brow bone areato build that up a bit with a brighter tone(it’s brighter because the layer is in Screenmode), then do around the tear duct area,as well. Again, if it seems too bright, justlower the layer’s Opacity a bit. Once youdo both eyes, go to the Layers panel,select all those eye makeup layers, putthem into a layer group, and name it“Eye Makeup.”Step 13:Now, let’s work on the lips. We’re goingto smooth out the lips, then add in somecolor, but before we do that, for thisparticular image, we’re actually going toinsert a small retouch (so we’re going tostep aside from applying makeup for justa moment). We’re going to create themissing center dip in her top lip. Start byclicking on the Background layer. Now,go under the Filter menu and chooseLiquify. Next, get the Forward Warp tool(W), and then push the top center of herlip down just a tiny bit to make an indent.Push it down so it creates a subtle shapeof a “V” (as shown in the After here), thenclick OK to lock in your retouch. Okay,back to makeup.Before After
  • 171. 148 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 14:Before we add color, to keep the lipsfrom looking too dry, we’re going tosmooth out some of the rough areas abit. In the Layers panel, click on the EyeMakeup group at the top, then createa new blank layer above it, and name it“Lip Smoothing.” You’re going to usethe same brush settings, but you wantto use the lip color, so press-and-holdthe Option (PC: Alt) key to get the Eye-dropper tool, and click on the existinglip color (as shown here) to make it yourForeground color, then paint overthe lips a bit, building up tone, until itstarts to smooth those rough edges.Step 15:Now we’re going to darken the density ofthe lips. Create a new blank layer (name it“Lip Density”), and change its blend modeto Multiply. You can use the sample coloryou already have, because it will auto-matically appear darker since you’re on aMultiply layer. Now, begin painting overthe lips to darken them (as shown here).
  • 172. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 149(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 16:It’s time to add some highlights backinto the lips. Create a new blank layer(name it “Lip Highlights”). Press D, thenX to set your Foreground color to white,keep your brush size about the same, anduse the same brush settings we’ve beenusing. Now, you’re going to paint somehorizontal strokes over the middle centerof the top and bottom lips, kind of in anarc, following the contour of the lips,to add a highlight area. It’ll probablybe too bright, but that’s okay, you cantone it down after the fact by loweringthe Opacity setting of the layer.Step 17:Lastly, just to keep things organized,I would go to the Layers panel, selectall those lip layers, put them into a layergroup, and name it simply “Lips.”
  • 173. Try thistechnique onanother image!AfterDownload this image. See pg. xi.150 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 174. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 151(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopCreating Porcelain-Looking SkinStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to convertto a porcelain skin look. You’re going toneed to do the main part of this in eitherPhotoshop’s Camera Raw or Lightroom’sDevelop module, because you needthe Oranges slider in the HSL panelthat doesn’t appear in Photoshop’s nor-mal Hue/Saturation feature. So, startby opening your image in Camera Raw.(By the way, it does not have to be aRAW image to open it in Camera Raw—Camera Raw in CS5 supports TIFFs,JPEGs, and even PSDs. To open an imagein Camera Raw from Bridge, just click onit and press Command-R [PC: Ctrl-R]. Toopen it using the regular Photoshop Open[PC: Open As] dialog, just select the photo,then from the Format [PC: Open As] pop-up menu, choose Camera Raw.)Step Two:Once your image is open in Camera Raw,click on the HSL/Grayscale icon, then clickon the Saturation tab (or scroll down tothe HSL/Color/B&W panel in Lightroom’sDevelop module and click on HSL, thenclick on Saturation). Drag the Orangesslider all the way to the left (as shownhere). Depending on the image, you maynot need to drag it all the way, but forthis image, I took it all the way to the left.At this point, her skin doesn’t look white,it looks kind of gray, so we’ll fix that next.But one of the things it does do well is itkeeps the color in the eyes and lips, whichwe’ll need later.In this technique, you actually turn the skin white (then I wipe out all the skin texture, and add a few other tweaks). I usedto use a series of screen layers, and another popular technique had you using the Diffuse Glow filter, but now I use a trickI picked up from my friend, German retoucher Calvin Hollywood, where now turning the skin porcelain white takes justtwo sliders and five seconds. Of course, we do other stuff, too, but at least the white skin part is now incredibly simple.
  • 175. 152 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Next, click on the Luminance tab, drag theOranges slider to the right (as shown here,where I dragged to +82), and the skin turnswhite. Now, if you look closely, there’s stillsome red left under her eyes, around thetop of her ears, and on her neck and hands,so we’ll have to do a little adjusting to thisparticular image that you probably won’talways have to do. Here, we need to getrid of those areas. Also, I want to be ableto bring back some of her original haircolor. The trick to do this is to open theimage in Photoshop as a Smart Object.That way, we can return to the Camera Rawdialog any time by just double-clicking onthe layer’s thumbnail. So, press-and-holdthe Shift key and the blue Open Imagebutton will change to Open Object (showncircled here in red). Clicking it will openyour image as a Smart Object.Step Four:Here’s the image opened in Photoshopas a Smart Object. I need to make aduplicate of this Smart Object layer, soI can return to Camera Raw’s HSL/Gray-scale panel and remove the extra redareas, but I need to do that withoutdisturbing the original layer. There’s aweird thing about Smart Object layers:if you just duplicate the layer like usual,the new layer is linked to the original layer,so any changes you make to this duplicatelayer are also automatically applied to theoriginal layer. We need to break this link,so we can edit them individually (which isone of the big benefits of Smart Objects).To make a copy and break that link, justRight-click directly on the Smart Objectlayer in the Layers panel, and choose NewSmart Object via Copy from the pop-upmenu, as shown here.
  • 176. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 153(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Now that you have a duplicate SmartObject layer, you can edit it separately.Double-click on its layer thumbnail andthe image opens in Camera Raw. Go tothe HSL/Grayscale panel, click on theSaturation tab, and drag the Reds to theleft until the red leaves the area under hereyes, on her ears, and so on (as shown here,where I dragged to –93). Now, click OK toapply these changes to just this single layer.Step Six:Press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyand click on the Add Layer Mask icon atthe bottom of the Layers panel to hide thislayer behind a black mask. Now, press Dto set your Foreground color to white, getthe Brush tool (B), choose a medium-sized,soft-edged brush from the Brush Picker,and paint over the reddish areas to removethem (as shown here).
  • 177. 154 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Now, let’s duplicate the original back-ground layer, so we can bring back someof the original color. In the Layers panel,Right-click on the bottom Smart Objectlayer, then choose New Smart Objectvia Copy from the pop-up menu. Dragthis duplicate layer to the top of the layerstack (so it’s the top layer in the Layerspanel), and double-click on the thumbnailto open it in Camera Raw. Next, fromCamera Raw’s flyout menu (at the top-right corner of the Panel area), chooseCamera Raw Defaults (as shown here)to reset the image to how it looked whenyou first opened it. If you did some tweak-ing to the image before we started this,you can do that again now, but we’re justgoing to use this to get her hair color back,so if that looks okay to you, just click OK.Step Eight:Add a black layer mask to this layer, too,and paint in white over her hair to revealits original color. I know it’s a bit much atthis point, but we’re going to back off theintensity in a moment, so for now just paintit back in. You might have to decrease thesize of your brush quite a bit to paint oversome of those areas where there’s just alittle bit of hair extending down onto herskin. It doesn’t have to be perfect, becauseit won’t be nearly as dark in just a moment,and it won’t stand out as severely.
  • 178. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 155(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Go and lower the Opacity of this layer,so the original color doesn’t overwhelmthe rest of the image (as shown here,where I lowered mine to 46%).Step 10:Now, we’re going to make a mergedlayer (a layer that looks like a flattenedversion of our image), so press Command-Option-Shift-E (PC: Ctrl-Alt-Shift-E) andit creates a new layer on top of the layerstack (as seen here). Next, we’re goingto do something very different than wedo in other parts of this chapter. You see,here, we’re not concerned with keepingskin texture. In fact, we’re going to re-move all of it. You can blur the skin (as I’mdoing here, using the “Quickie” methodyou learned earlier in this chapter), or usethe Healing Brush tool to remove pores,or use whichever horribly destructivetechnique you like to remove the textureand replace it with smooth, porcelain-like skin.
  • 179. 156 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:If you want really, really white skin, youcan tweak this a little bit more to reallywhite it out. Click on the Create NewAdjustment Layer icon at the bottom ofthe Layers panel, choose Selective Colorfrom the pop-up menu, then in the Adjust-ments panel, switch the Colors pop-upmenu to Whites. Now, drag the Blackslider to the left and you get mega-white(as seen here, where I dragged to –45).Tip: Make the Lips Really RedIf you want to make the lips really red here,you can add a Selective Color adjustmentlayer and choose Blacks from the Colorspop-up menu, then drag the Black sliderto the right. That really saturates the redin the lips.
  • 180. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 157(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 12:We’re actually going to change her lipcolor to a dark, almost black, silver look,that better matches the look (for this photo,anyway). Start by making another mergedlayer and remove the color from this layerby pressing Command-Shift-U (PC: Ctrl-Shift-U), which is the keyboard shortcut forDesaturate. This removed all the color, butit didn’t do much for making her lips darksilver, so we’ll fix that next.Step 13:We’re going to use a very simple moveto darken her lips. Choose Levels fromthe Create New Adjustment Layer pop-upmenu, and when the Levels options appearin the Adjustments panel, move the shad-ows Input Levels slider (the black one onthe left underneath the histogram) to theright quite a bit to fill in the shadows, andthen move the midtones Input Levels slider(the gray one in the middle) to the right,as well. It trashes the rest of the image,but we’re only worried about the lips,which look pretty good at this point.Press Command-E (PC: Ctrl-E) to mergethis Levels adjustment layer with yourdesaturated layer right below it, sothey’re just one layer (but the imagewill look exactly the same).
  • 181. 158 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 14:Option-click (PC: Alt-click) on the AddLayer Mask icon to hide this darker layerbehind a black mask (as seen here). Then,get the Brush tool, choose a small, soft-edged brush, and with its Opacity set at100%, set your Foreground color to whiteand start carefully painting over the lips(as seen here) to bring in the darker color.Step 15:There’s a lot of lipstick bleed along theedges of the lips, so lower the Opacityof your brush quite a bit and paint alongthose areas just outside the lips that arestill a little red. Since the skin around it iswhite, you don’t have a lot to worry about,but just be reasonably careful and paintover those red areas with your low-opacitybrush until they’re all gone. Although thereare a lot of steps in this technique, it takesjust a few minutes, so don’t let that throwyou off—it’s easy and quick. A before/afterof the retouch is shown on the next page.
  • 182. Try thistechnique onanother image! AfterDownload this image. See pg. xi.Retouching Skin Chapter 2 159Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 183. 160 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to sharpen(the cover shot of this book), and we’llstart with the quick and easy version (andthe one you’ll probably use the most),which has you targeting just the Red (ofthe RGB—Red, Green, Blue) color channel,and then applying your sharpening there,because there’s so little skin texture on theRed channel (as you’ll see). But, first, let’slook at the other channels, so you’ll seeprecisely why we choose the Red channelto hold our sharpening.Step Two:Go to the Channels panel (if it’s not open,go under the Window menu and chooseChannels), and click on the Blue channel(as shown here). I zoomed in a bit so youcan get a clear look at the skin texture,and you can see there’s plenty of it. Thisis the last place you’d want to sharpen,because you’d be sharpening the skintexture big time.In most cases, sharpening a guy’s skin is easy, because nice, sharp skin texture usually looks pretty good on guys.However, when sharpening a woman’s skin, we want to avoid sharpening the existing skin texture as much as possible,and instead have our sharpening just affect the detail areas, like the eyes, eyebrows, mouth, etc. Here are three greatways to do just that: one that’s super-quick and does a pretty good job, one that takes a bit of time and effort, but you’reguaranteed to have the sharpening only where you want it, and a third in Camera Raw.Sharpening Portraits
  • 184. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 161(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Next, try clicking on the Green channel(which doesn’t make a bad black-and-white conversion), and while there’s lessskin texture here, there’s still a prettydecent amount. Since our goal is to side-step all that texture, the Green channelwouldn’t be a good choice.Step Four:Click on the Red channel, and look atthe image now. Basically, what’s on thischannel is all the detail areas, like hereyes, eyebrows, lips, and hair—the verystuff you want to sharpen. But if youlook at her skin, there’s very little tex-ture or detail there at all, which is whythis is a great place to sharpen photosof women. So, now that you’re on theRed channel, go under the Filter menu,under Sharpen, and choose UnsharpMask. When the filter dialog comes up,enter your favorite settings. I generallyuse Amount: 120%, Radius: 1.0, andThreshold: 0 when sharpening on theRed channel like this.
  • 185. 162 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Click OK to apply the Unsharp Maskfilter to the Red channel, then in theChannels panel, click back on the RGBchannel (as shown here) to return to thefull-color image (as seen here). Look atthe eyes, lips, even the jewelry—they alllook sharper, yet we avoided applying alot of sharpening to her skin. Plus, the bigadvantage of this technique is that youcan record an action for it (see page xxii),which will totally automate this processfor you, so it’s down to just one click, andfive seconds later—it’s done.Step Six:The second method takes more timeand effort on your part, but with thismethod, you get the sharpening exactly—and only—where you want it. The firstpart of this sharpening method is also themethod I use for sharpening men’s skin(I’ll tell you where to stop in Step Seven).Start by going under the Image menu,under Mode, and choosing Lab Color,then press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) toduplicate the Background layer. This con-verts your RGB image to Lab Color mode,and while your Channels panel definitelylooks different, it doesn’t change the lookof your image, or do any damage to it.Basically, it separates the color in yourimage from the detail in it, putting all thecolor in the “a” and “b” channels, andleaving the detail in the Lightness channel.In the Channels panel, click on that Light-ness channel, then apply your sharpening.I bumped up my Unsharp Mask settingshere quite a bit (to Amount: 81%, Radius:1.5, and Threshold: 0), so you can reallysee a clear difference between what yousee in the filter’s preview window, andwhat you see in the image itself.
  • 186. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 163(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Go back under the Image menu, underMode, and choose RGB Color to returnto RGB mode. When the warning dialogappears, choose Don’t Flatten. Now, ifwe were sharpening a man’s skin, we’dbe done, and you can end the sharpeningprocess here (at the beginning of StepSeven). However, if you’re sharpening awoman’s skin, you’ll need to do some morework. So, press-and-hold the Option (PC:Alt) key and click on the Add Layer Maskicon at the bottom of the Layers panel tohide this super-sharpened version of yourimage behind a black mask (as seen here).Then, press D to set your Foreground colorto white, get the Brush tool (B), choose asmall, soft-edged brush at 100% Opacity,and paint over all the areas that you wantsharpened in your image (for example, theeyebrows, eyes, eyelashes, mouth, edgesof the nostril openings, hair, jewelry, finger-nails, and so on). So, this method does takesome time, but you get exactly what youwant sharpened, and you completely avoidthe skin.Step Eight:The third way to sharpen a woman’s skin isto open the image in Photoshop’s CameraRaw, and use its pretty darn brilliant built-in sharpening masking there. To do that,go under Photoshop’s File menu andchoose Open (PC: Open As), and in thedialog, click on the JPEG, TIFF, or PSDimage you want to sharpen, and then fromthe Format (PC: Open As) pop-up menuat the bottom, choose Camera Raw (asshown here) and click the Open button.
  • 187. 164 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:When your image opens in Camera Raw,click on the Detail icon to open the Detailpanel, and you’ll see four Sharpening slid-ers at the top. The Amount and Radius arelike the ones found in the Unsharp Maskdialog, but it’s the Masking slider thatholds the trick for sharpening women’sskin. Start by pressing-and-holding theOption (PC: Alt) key, then click-and-holdon the Masking slider (as shown here) andthe preview area will turn solid white (asseen here). This lets you know that theentire image is being sharpened equally.Step 10:Now, start dragging that Masking sliderto the right, and as you drag it, parts ofthe image will begin to turn black. Thoseblack areas are now not getting sharpened,which is great, because as you can see inthe preview area now, her skin is all in black(not getting sharpened). The areas that ap-pear in white are getting sharpened, andare exactly the areas we want sharpened—the eyebrows, eyes, hair, edges of the nos-tril openings, lips, jewelry, and edge detailon her face. It’s really pretty darn amazingthat one slider can do all the masking foryou—but it does. So, drag this slider to theright until just those detail areas appear inwhite (here, I dragged over to 61), and nowyou’re ready to apply your sharpening.
  • 188. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 165(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:Drag the Amount slider to the right untilthe sharpening looks good to you (I gener-ally leave the Radius at 1.0, and the Detailslider, which is really more of a “halo avoid-ance slider,” so you don’t get halos or othersharpening side effects, set at its defaultsetting of 25, as seen here). For this image,I dragged the Amount slider to 72. That’sall there is to it. Now, click the Open Imagebutton to reopen the image in Photoshop,or the Done button if you’re done retouch-ing this image. On your next project, takea minute to try all three methods of sharp-ening, and see which process and/or resultfeels the best to you, because all three doa great job of sharpening without accentu-ating the skin texture. You can see a beforeand after on the next page.Try thistechnique onanother image! AfterDownload this image. See pg. xi.
  • 189. 166 Chapter 2 Retouching SkinProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 190. Retouching Skin Chapter 2 167Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
  • 191. 169Every profession winds up developingits own special jargon, which helps peo-ple quickly and effectively communicatewith others in their same line of work.Well, not surprisingly, retouchers havetheir own jargon, too, and since you’regoing to be doing some of your ownretouching, you don’t want to feel outof place when you get around a full-timeretoucher, so you’ll want to learn someof their lingo so you can “talk the talk.”The first thing to learn is that retoucherssee a person’s face very differently thanphotographers do. For example, let’s sayyou’re shooting a portrait session, andyour subject casually jokes that they thinktheir nose is “a little too big” (a hint theywant it retouched). So, you might say toa friend, “I did that headshot of Cindy,and she wants me to reduce her nosea little bit.” However, a pro retoucherwould never say that. For example, here’sa typical conversation between tworetouchers looking at a photo of yoursubject, Cindy. “Hey, Frank, did you seethe schnoz on that model?” And hisretouching colleague might answer back,“How you plannin’ on taming that bighonker? Pucker tool?” Then the first guywould answer back, “I dunno. That’s oneheck of a beak!” It’s that kind of crisp,to-the-point communication that enablesretouchers to work as efficiently as pos-sible. Now, as photographers, we’re notexpected to refer to every subject whohas love handles as having “lard bags,”nor will they look down upon us if wecall excess skin at the top of their neck a“double chin,” when retouchers refer to itsimply as “nasty neck fat.” You’re not ex-pected to know all of this lingo yet, but ifI were you, I’d start testing a few of theseout on your portrait subjects right away,so you’re fluent when the time comes.FACE TO FACEReshaping Facial FeaturesChapter3
  • 192. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop170 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesStep One:Here’s our shot to retouch. It’s a classicbeauty-style shot (I always jokingly refer tothis as the “Oil of Olay” look), and typi-cally this look has your subject’s hair pulledback tightly behind her head in a ponytail(which means you have to clone out anyof it that peeks out from behind her neck.Honestly, it’s easier just to tapeit in place behind her neck during theshoot than to have to retouch it later).In this retouch, we’re going to primarilytuck in the left and right sides of her jaw,and we’re going to tuck in the ear onthe left side, but at the end, I’m going toreshape her entire head, even though itreally doesn’t need it (so if you need to doit, at least you’ll know how).Step Two:Go under the Filter menu and chooseLiquify. When the Liquify dialog appears,choose the Freeze Mask tool (F) from theToolbox (it’s shown circled here in red),and paint over all the facial features onyour subject’s face that you don’t wantmoved when you do your retouch. Youliterally just paint over the lips, nose,eyes, eyebrows, forehead, and surround-ing skin to basically “lock down” thoseareas (as shown here). As you paint, a redtint appears over those areas to show youwhich areas are frozen. By the way, if youmake a mistake and accidentally freezesomething you didn’t want frozen, youcan paint over it with the Thaw Mask tool(I am not making this up), which appearsdirectly below the Freeze Mask tool inthe Toolbox.If you need to make an adjustment to your subject’s cheeks, chin, ears, or even their head, the first place I go is to theLiquify filter, because it was born for retouches like this. The thing you have to watch out for in a retouch like this isthat you don’t move parts of the face or head that you don’t want to be reshaped, so we’re going to spend part of ourtime letting the Liquify filter know what’s okay to move, and what needs to stay put.Reshaping the Face and Head
  • 193. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 171(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now that your frozen area is in place,you don’t really need to see that dis-tracting red oval in the center of yourimage, so I always hide it by going tothe View Options at the bottom rightand turning off the Show Mask check-box (it’s shown circled here in red). Next,get the Forward Warp tool (W), andchoose a brush that’s a little larger thanthe area you want to adjust, then, usingvery small, gentle little nudges, tuck inthe left side of the jaw a bit (as shownhere). By making the brush this large, itmoves the whole area as one unit. If youmake it much smaller, you run the riskof moving just part of the jaw, and thenyou have to go back and try to retouchyour mistake, so in this one particularcase, bigger is better. Now, just tuck inthat side a bit by nudging your brushinward at a 45° angle toward her face.Remember, gentle little moves—justnudge it. Note: Moving things too muchwith Liquify is a common mistake youcan see even in major magazines, causingthat funky squished or stretched-pixellook. So, be careful out there, and usethe Liquify tools judiciously.TIP: Faster Brush Size ChangingUsing the Command-[ (Left Bracket key;PC: Ctrl-[) or Command-] (Right Bracketkey; Ctrl-]) shortcut to change your brushsize (the first making it smaller, the lattermaking it larger) is notoriously slow becauseit goes up/down in 1-pixel increments.To greatly speed things up in Liquify, usethe Shift key (so it’s Shift-[), which jumpsup/down 20 pixels at a time. This Shiftshortcut is the only way I resize brushes—the 1-pixel method is just too slow.
  • 194. 172 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Four:Next, go to the jaw on the right side andtuck that in a bit, as well. Again, small,gentle nudges look best. After you’redone, take a look at the side of her neckon both sides—right below where youretouched. Now that you’ve moved herjaw in, you might want to make a smallinward move near the top of her neck,as well, using the same brush and sametechnique (totally up to you).Step Five:Click OK and take a look at your results(a mini before/after is shown here). Youcan see what a difference this retouchingmove made. Now, I would generally stopat this point, but while we’re here, I wantto fix the ear on the left side (it’s stickingout farther than the one on the right), andwe’re going to reshape her head to makeit even less round (which, again, isn’tnecessary, but it gives you an idea ofwhat can be done when you need to).
  • 195. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 173(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Six:We’re going to use the same techniquehere that we just used to reshape herjaw—we’re going to freeze the part ofthe face that’s touching the ear, then we’regoing to nudge the ear in a little bit. Startby going back into Liquify and gettingthe Freeze Mask tool, then paint rightdown the edge of her face on the left side,leaving the ear untouched. That way, whenwe nudge her ear inward, it won’t changethe shape of her face—only the ear willbe affected. Get the Forward Warp toolagain, make the brush a little smaller thanthe ear (so we can mostly focus on movingthe center of the ear inward), and nudgeit in toward her face (as shown here), andafter just a few little nudges—it’s fixed.Step Seven:We’re going to do the whole headreshaping now—just for practice. Startby freezing the center of her face againand hiding the mask, like we did back inStep Two. Next, using the Forward Warptool, make your brush really huge (don’tforget that Shift key tip from back afterStep Three) and nudge over the entireleft side of her head (as shown here).
  • 196. 174 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Eight:Now, switch over to the right side of herhead and do the exact same thing, usingthat huge brush and smooth, small, gentlenudges in toward her face.Step Nine:Lastly, shrink down that brush and tuck inthe sides of her neck. Since we’ve madeher head much thinner, you don’t want hertrim little head sitting on some big ol’ thickneck. Now, while this is much thinner thanI personally would make her head, I’veseen images that have had this type ofthinning done and more. It’s all a matterof taste (yours and the client’s), but nowat least you know what can be done ifyou need to.
  • 197. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 175Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Push the point onthe top of his headdown & tuck inhis ears.BEFORE AFTERAFTERBEFOREDownload this image. See pg. xi.After
  • 198. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop176 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesStep One:Here’s the image we want to retouch, andif you really study her face, you’ll see thatthe eye on the left is a little smaller andthe eyelid is not as open as the eye on theright. However, the eye on the right isalso up a little higher and angled in a bitmore than the one on the left (just twoeyes, and yet there are four differencesbetween them). Also, take a look at herears—the one on the right is sticking outmore than the one on the left (mostlybecause of how her hair is situated, butnevertheless, it looks different). Her noseis slightly larger on the right side than theleft, and it’s twisted just a tiny bit. Lastly,take a look at her lips, and compare theleft side with the right, and you’ll see theshape changes from one side to the other.Now, you’re going to retouch all of that.Step Two:We’ll start by evening out the size of theeyes. Get the Lasso tool (L) and make avery loose selection around the eye on theleft (as shown here). Make sure you includeplenty of skin around the eye area, butnot the eyebrow. Now, to soften the edgeof the selection (which will help it blendin better after we resize it), go under theSelect menu, under Modify, and chooseFeather. When the Feather Selectiondialog appears, enter 10 pixels (asshown here) and click OK.More often than not, the features on your subject’s face won’t be perfectly symmetrical (one eye might be higher thanthe other, or their nose might be a little crooked at the nostrils or the bridge, or one side of their smile might extend higherthan the other, and so on). Luckily, you can bring all these misaligned features back into alignment using just a few tools,and some techniques you’ve already learned (but we do get to learn a helpful new tool this time, as well).Making Features More Symmetrical
  • 199. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 177(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to copyyour selected eye area up to its own layer.Now, to resize it, you’re going to useFree Transform, so press Command-T(PC: Ctrl-T). When the Free Transformbounding box appears, press-and-holdthe Shift and Option (PC: Alt) keys, sowhen you drag a point it does two things:(1) it stays proportional as you drag, so youdon’t distort the eye, and (2) it increases insize outward from the center point, ratherthan from a corner point (that’s what theOption key brings to the party). Now, graba corner point and drag outward until thesize of the eye on the left approximatelymatches the size of the one on the right(as shown here). Press Return (PC: Enter)to lock in your resizing.Step Four:Go ahead and adjust the other eye.First, click back on the Backgroundlayer but then, this time, make yourlasso selection around both the eyeand eyebrow (as shown here), becausewe’re going to need to move themtogether as a unit. Don’t forget to adda 10-pixel feather to soften the edges.
  • 200. 178 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Duplicate this selection and bring upFree Transform again, but this time you’regoing to use the Down Arrow key onyour keyboard to nudge the eye andeyebrow combo down a few pixels untilthe eyes line up straight across from eachother. Next, move your cursor outside thebounding box and your cursor changesinto a two-headed arrow (as seen here).Now, you need to rotate the eye clock-wise a little bit, so it matches the eye onthe left. Press Return when you’re done,then press Command-Option-Shift-E(PC: Ctrl-Alt-Shift-E) to merge all yourlayers into a new layer on top of thelayer stack.Step Six:Next, you’re going to work on openingthe eyelid on the left side a bit. With yourmerged layer active, go under the Filtermenu, and choose Liquify. Get the FreezeMask tool (F) and paint over her eyebrowon the left. That freezes it in place, so itcan’t be accidentally moved while you’readjusting the eyelid. Now, get the ForwardWarp tool (W), choose a small brush size,and gently nudge her eyelid above theeye on the left up just a little bit (it’s hardto see my brush cursor here, becauseit’s black and we’re over a dark part ofthe image, but I started above her pupilmaking very small, gentle nudges just atiny bit upward. It doesn’t have to move abunch—just a little. Remember, you’re try-ing to match the eye on the right, so keepan eye on how it looks as you’re nudging,so you don’t move too far). Don’t clickOK yet.
  • 201. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 179(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Now, let’s work on making both sides ofher nose more symmetrical. We’re going tostart by shrinking the right side of the noseusing the Pucker tool (S). This tool basicallycollapses the pixels under it, so you haveto be very gentle with it (are you sensing atheme here?). Don’t paint with it. Instead,just lightly click, and each time you do, itkind of shrinks whatever is under the brush,with the greatest effect happening in thecenter of the brush. Get a large brush (likeyou see here) and just click over the rightnostril a few times, very gently. Don’t besurprised if after one of your clicks, all ofa sudden, the entire side of the nose getssucked in and it looks horrible. I’ve alwayssaid this is a bug in Liquify, but I haven’tgotten anybody at Adobe to agree yet—it’s like the sensitivity suddenly jumps to100. Anyway, when it happens to you, justpress Command-Z (PC: Ctrl-Z) to Undothe cave-in and try again with very lightclicks, not strokes.Step Eight:Once you get the right side of the noseto more or less match the left side, you’llsee that the nostrils aren’t matching up.To fix this, you’ll need to nudge the topof the nostril on the right down a bit usingthe Forward Warp tool (W) with a slightlysmaller brush, as shown here. It will takea few nudges to get it pretty close tohow the one on the left side looks, justremember the rule—small, gentle nudges.If you mess up, undo, and try it again.
  • 202. 180 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Now, look at the bridge of the nose. Theleft side is out of line a bit (versus theright side), so take your brush and justnudge it into line (as shown here).Step 10:Our last retouch on the nose will be toslightly twist the entire nose counter-clockwise to make it straight. You dothis using the Twirl Clockwise tool (C; ittwists things, kind of like a whirlpool, asyou click-and-hold it down). Choose ahuge brush size that covers the entirenose (like you see here). By default, thetool wants to twirl in a clockwise rotation,so to go counterclockwise you need topress-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyfirst, then click-and-hold the tool overthe nose (like you see here) for just amoment or two. As soon as you do,you’ll see the nose start to twirl (andyou’ll immediately get what this tooldoes). Release the mouse button whenthe nose looks straight. If you mess up,just undo, and then try again.
  • 203. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 181(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:Don’t click OK yet, but here’s a minibefore/after of just the changes to thenose. The changes looks much moresubtle at this small size than they willon your screen, and you’ll see it muchbetter at the end of the retouch, butI at least wanted you to see the noseretouch at this point.Step 12:Looking at the retouch up to this point,take a closer look at her ear on the rightside, and the right side of her lips. Asmentioned back in Step One, to haveeverything look more symmetrical, we’regoing to have to adjust them so bothsides are somewhat similar. So, in theLiquify dialog, get the Freeze Mask tooland paint over the side of her face nearher right ear to freeze it. Then, get theForward Warp tool again and nudge herear in a bit (as seen here).Before After
  • 204. 182 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 13:Now, shrink your brush size way down,and let’s balance out the lips by justnudging the right side of the top lipdown a bit, and basically nudging theright side around until it looks more likethe left side (as shown here). I know thatall these changes look very subtle, butin a moment, they’ll all come togetherto create a very pleasing symmetricallook for your subject’s features.Step 14:Click OK in the Liquify dialog to seehow the changes you just made look inthe overall composite image (seen here).A before and after, that’s zoomed out abit, so you can really see how it affectsthe overall face symmetry, is shown onthe next page. Things to look for: eyesize, rotation, eyelid fix, and alignment.The right side of the nose matches theleft. The lips are more balanced, andthe ears are balanced, as well
  • 205. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 183Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTip: Here, I lifted theeye on the left a bit, soit aligned better with theone on the right.Try thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 206. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop184 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to use forour dodging and burning project. (Note:This dodging-and-burning technique is forsculpting the face. It’s not to be confusedwith the dodging-and-burning techniqueused by high-end retouchers for smooth-ing skin, using the pixel-by-pixel, pore-by-pore method.) Start by going to the Layerspanel and choosing New Layer from thepanel’s flyout menu. In the New Layerdialog (shown here), change the blendMode to Soft Light, then turn on the Fillwith Soft-Light-Neutral Color (50% Gray)checkbox, and click OK. This adds a newlayer filled with 50% gray (as you see here),but because it’s set to Soft Light, it appearstransparent, which makes it perfect fordodging and burning, because later wecan blur this layer to soften the effect.Step Two:Get the Brush tool (B), choose a medium-sized, soft-edged brush from the BrushPicker up in the Options Bar, and whileyou’re there, lower the brush Opacityamount to 10%. You want to be able togradually build up your strokes as you go(of course, if you’re using a Wacom tablet,just leave your Opacity set at 100%, anduse the Pressure Sensitivity of the tabletto control the buildup of your strokes).This is a very popular technique that accentuates the existing highlights and shadows in your subject’s face, and gives theface lots of depth and dimension for a really pleasing look. This adds so much dimension, I take the extra time to do thisto nearly every image I retouch, so for me, it’s almost like a “finishing move” that gives the image that extra depth.Sculpting the Face by Dodging & Burning
  • 207. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 185(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, here’s what we’re going to do: onthis new layer, we’re going to paint overthe dark shadow areas in black to makethem darker, and then paint over the high-light areas in white to make them brighter(so, things that extend out from the faceget brighter, and the shadow areas getdarker). Here, with my Foreground colorset to black, I’m making a few strokesalong her cheek on the left to darken thatarea. So, exactly what areas are we goingto darken? Basically, we darken the areason either side of the bridge of her nose,right under her bottom lip, and along thecheekbones on either side of her face.Step Four:Another area I always burn is right along thehairline, all the way around her forehead (asshown here), kind of making a semi-circlegoing from her left ear, up to the top of herhead, then down to the other ear. In this case,some of her hair is blocking me from goingall the way down on the left side of her face,but that’s perfectly fine.TIP: Changing the Ring ColorThe ring the model is wearing was actually adark green when I took the shot, but I didn’tthink it matched her eyes very well with itthat close to her face. So, with the EllipticalMarquee tool (press Shift-M until you haveit), I put a circular selection around the cen-ter of the ring, went under the Select menu,under Modify, chose Feather, and addeda 2-pixel feather to soften the edge a bit.Then, I pressed Command-Shift-U (PC: Ctrl-Shift-U) to Desaturate the green part of thering, making it black and white. While my se-lection was still in place, I added a new blanklayer, got the Eyedropper tool (I), clickedit once on her iris to steal that color andmake it my Foreground color, then pressedOption-Delete (PC: Alt-Backspace) to fillthe circle with that color. Then, I changedthe layer blend mode to Color and dese-lected. That’s it.
  • 208. 186 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:After the face, I move down to the sub-ject’s neck and darken all the shadow areasthere and on their shoulders and arms, ifthey’re visible (as seen here). I follow thecontours of the skin, so where you see mycursor, I’m painting almost up-and-downstrokes (at a little bit of an angle). WhenI’m doing dodging and burning like this,I prefer to take a few extra strokes, andmake the burning really dark (which makesit easier for me to see what I’m doing asI go), knowing that later, I’ll be able tocontrol the amount by lowering the opac-ity of the layer. Once you’ve burned overall the shadow areas, it’s time to do yourbrightening by switching your Foregroundcolor to white.Step Six:Now, it’s decision time. You can do yourdodging on the same layer you did yourburning on, or if you want even more con-trol, you can choose to do your dodgingon its own separate layer, so you can varyits opacity separately from the burninglayer (just so you know, I usually do mineon the same layer). If you want to keepthem separate, then create another Soft-Light-Neutral Color (50% Gray) layer justlike you did in Step One, and then do yourdodging on that layer. Again, I do both onthe same layer myself, so that’s what we’llbe doing here. Now, with your Foregroundcolor set to white, and using the samebrush settings, start painting over thehighlight areas to make them even brighter.Here, I’m painting over that highlight thatruns along the edge of her chin on the right.This highlight is there because of the wayI backlit the shot in the studio, so it won’talways be there, but since it’s a highlight,I accentuate it with dodging. Don’t forgetto follow the contours of her skin, paintinglong strokes from the bottom of her chinup to the side of her cheek.
  • 209. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 187(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:So, which things do we brighten whenwe’re dodging? Typically, I brighten anyareas that protrude outward from herface, so I dodge the highlight that runs thelength of the center of her nose (as shownhere), I dodge both cheeks just outside thedark area that surrounds the bridge of hernose, then the center of her forehead, thecenter of the front of her chin, the two littleridges right above her top lip, the area justabove her eyes (where eye shadow goes),and just below the bottom left and rightsides of her lips. You’ll have to vary yourbrush size—making the brush smaller forsmall areas (like her chin, or right above hertop lip) and much larger for things likehighlights down her arms or shoulders.Step Eight:I continue by dodging the highlights on herneck, hands, shoulders, and pretty mucheverywhere there are highlights created bythe lighting I used. Basically, if it’s bright, Imake it brighter, and if you look in theLayers panel, you can see how the darkerand lighter areas appear on that gray layer.Also, by now you’re probably thinking thatthis dodging and burning looks really obvi-ous, and way over the top, and at this stage,it does. But, don’t worry, we’re not done yet.
  • 210. 188 Chapter 3 Reshaping Facial FeaturesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Here, I hid the Background layer (by click-ing on the Eye icon to the left of the layer),so can you see what we’ve really done,which is to paint a bunch of black, white,and gray strokes over our subject. You’llalso notice that the brush strokes don’tseem very soft, which is why the next stepis so important, and it’s one of the twofinal things we do to control the amount ofthis retouch.Step 10:Turn the Background layer back on, so youcan really see what’s happening to yourdodging and burning. To soften your strokes,go under the Filter menu, under Blur, andchoose Gaussian Blur. Now, you’re goingto blur the living daylights out of those paintstrokes to make them much softer andsmoother, and have them blend nicely withthe rest of the image. When the GaussianBlur dialog appears, drag the Radius sliderquite a bit to the right to totally blur yourstrokes (as seen here, where I dragged to47 pixels) and have them smoothly blendthe dodging and burning. It helps to togglethe Preview checkbox in the dialog on/off afew times, so you can really see the effectit has and to help choose the right amountof blurring. When you’ve found the rightamount, click OK. Now, you get to dialin just the amount of overall dodgingand burning by going to the top of theLayers panel and lowering the Opacity ofyour dodging/burning layer. If you usedtwo different layers (one for dodging;one for burning), then you can use theOpacity slider to control each individually.In the final image, I lowered the Opacityto around 80%, but I often go much lowerthan that. Here, I wanted to leave it higher,though, for example purposes.
  • 211. Reshaping Facial Features Chapter 3 189Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!BEFORE AFTERDownload this image. See pg. xi.After
  • 212. 191I know, at first glance, it looks like I justtook the most obvious name possiblefor a chapter on retouching hair, butI’m actually naming this chapter afterthe 1968 Broadway musical, Hair, whichis, coincidentally, enjoying a revival onBroadway right now, and playing topacked houses for the same reason itdid back in ’68—the actors are naked.That’s right, nudie nakedness, whichis exactly what you’re going to see alot of in this chapter. Okay, not really,but you were getting psyched therefor a moment, weren’t you? Come on,admit it, you were like, “Cool!” for justa second there, and then I pulled therug out from under you, just like theypull their clothes off in this chapter (see,I got ya again, didn’t I? Man, you areincredibly naughty for a photographer/retoucher). Anyway, this chapter is abouthow to make people’s hair look lustrous,which is a word you don’t get to useevery day (well, it’s not a word you wantto use on the playground if you hope towalk away without a few broken bones),but the word “lustrous” is actually derivedfrom the Latin phrase lustyamadeus,which loosely translates to “naked con-ductor,” which is exactly what you’ll findon page 72. (Man, you are so gullible.So now you’re actually naughty andgullible. You’re naughtible.) Now, if Ireally wanted to make sure you read thischapter, I wouldn’t have named it “Hair,”I would have named it “Bare.” Better yet,“Bare Naked” or perhaps “Bear Naked”or “Br’er Rabbit” (man, did that just takean unexpected turn). Anyway, there’snothing in this chapter that I would beembarrassed to show to my brother-in-law, who manages a casino/truck stopjust outside Vegas, and I think that alonespeaks volumes.HAIRRetouching HairChapter4
  • 213. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop192 Chapter 4 Retouching HairStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to workon (don’t forget to download it fromthe website mentioned in the book’sintro up front). Because of the light fromthe window, she already has some goodhighlights on the left side, and there arealso some on the right, but we’re goingto enhance both to make her hair reallyhave shine (and to make the lighting lookeven better, which isn’t a bad thing).Step Two:Start by duplicating the Backgroundlayer by pressing Command-J (PC:Ctrl-J), then change the blend modeof this layer from Normal to Screen(as shown here). This makes the entireimage much brighter (as you cansee here).I use this retouch on nearly every portrait I shoot, because not only does it add more depth and dimension to thelook of the hair, it actually enhances the lighting you used to make the shot.Adding Highlights to Hair
  • 214. Retouching Hair Chapter 4 193(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:As you saw in Step Two, the entire photois brighter, but of course, we only want thehair brighter, and then just the highlightareas. So, press-and-hold the Option (PC:Alt) key, and click on the Add Layer Maskicon at the bottom of the Layers panel (it’sshown circled here in red). This hides thisbrighter layer behind a black mask. Now,get the Brush tool (B), choose a small, soft-edged brush set at 100% Opacity up in theOptions Bar, make sure your Foregroundcolor is set to white, and start to paint overthe brightest areas of her hair (the high-light areas). As you do, it reveals a brighterversion of her hair. So, basically, if you seea bright area of her hair, paint over it tomake it brighter (as you see here, whereI’m painting over the hair on the left side ofthe photo near her shoulder).Step Four:Continue painting the highlights up atthe top of her head, as well. These aren’tnearly as bright, but that’s all the better—you’re making the subtle highlights upthere less subtle.
  • 215. 194 Chapter 4 Retouching HairProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Here, I’m painting over highlights on theright side. Continue all the way around,until all the highlight areas are paintedover, so they reveal the lighter layer injust those spots.Step Six:Now it’s time to tweak the brightnessamount, so it looks natural, by loweringthe Opacity of this brighter layer. In thisexample, I had to lower it to 60% to giveus the final image you see here, whichlooks pretty natural, but dependingon the image, you might have to golower, or even leave it at 100%—that’sa call you’ll have to make as thephotographer/retoucher.
  • 216. Try thistechnique onanother image!Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Hair Chapter 4 195Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 217. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop196 Chapter 4 Retouching HairStep One:Here’s the image we want to retouch,and if you look closely, the subject’s hairis...well...it could use some anti-staticretouching—mostly on top, and a bit onthe side, and there’s one hair extendingonto her forehead we should probablyfix while we’re there, too. Start off byduplicating the Background layer bypressing Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J). We’llbe doing all our stray hair removal on thislayer (which not only gives us an out ifthings get really squirrelly, but it’s a greatway to see a quick before/after).Step Two:Because we’re going to have to trimright up to the sides of the hair, theHealing Brush isn’t going to work wellon this retouch—it would smear theedges when we got up close to theoutside edge of her hair. So, instead,my tool of choice for this is the CloneStamp tool (S), with a hard-edged brush,like the one you see me choosing herefrom the Brush Picker. Now, it’s timeto zoom in (to at least 100%) and getto work. (Note: If your background isn’tan even color, you may have to start withthe Healing Brush tool, and switch tothe Clone Stamp tool as you get closerto her head.)This is another one of those little things that makes a big difference, and once you take the few extra minutes to removestray hairs, when you see portraits where the photographer didn’t take the time, they stick out like a sore thumb. Luckily,this one is much easier and faster than you might think (as long as the stray hairs extend outside of your subject, which isusually the case. If they cover an eye, or extend onto their face or clothes, be prepared to become a very patient person).Removing Stray Hair Strands
  • 218. Retouching Hair Chapter 4 197(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:The actual brush size you choose shouldbe just a little bit larger than the hairs youwant to remove, so don’t just go with thesize I’m using here for your other projects.Look at the hair strands and choose yourbrush size based on that—a little largerthan the strand you’re trying to remove.Now, pick a starting point where you canfollow around the head and not miss anyspots (I’m starting on the lower-left side ofthe photo here). Here’s what to do now:press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyand click once just outside the strand youwant to remove, in a clean area withoutany hair. It needs to be pretty darn close,so the color, tone, and texture you’resampling here are nearly identical to what’saround the strand you’re about to remove.Step Four:Start at the end of the hair farthestaway from the head, and follow alongthe path of the hair, almost like you’retracing it, and stop when you reach herhead (as seen here). The little plus signto the left of my brush tip cursor showsyou how close to where I’m painting Isampled (Option-clicked) in the previousstep. Don’t sample so close that youclone over yourself (and repeat some ofthe hair you’re trying to remove), but getfairly close. If you make a mistake, justpress Command-Z (PC: Ctrl-Z) to Undoyour last stroke and try again. If you needto undo more than one stroke, pressCommand-Option-Z (PC: Ctrl-Alt-Z)up to 20 times to undo your last 20 steps(that’s all you get by default). If you thinkyou’ll need more undos, then you andI need to have a talk (kidding!). Go toPhotoshop’s Preferences (under the Photo-shop menu on a Mac, or the Edit menuon a PC), to Performance, and where itsays History & Cache, type in a highernumber of History States. It takes upmore memory, but you get more undos.
  • 219. 198 Chapter 4 Retouching HairProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:That’s basically the process—you samplenear a strand of hair, and use the CloneStamp tool to remove it, stopping rightat the main body of her hair. Now, thatbeing said, you notice how the hairs arestarting to look kind of straight and loppedoff in a straight line (retouchers call this“helmet head”)? I try to do two things tokeep things looking a little more random:(1) I don’t remove all the stray hairs—I try to leave a few short ones here andthere, so it looks somewhat natural, and(2) I try not to leave them looking cut offstraight. Here’s a great tip for what to dofor that: get the Smudge tool from theToolbox (shown here, nested below theBlur tool) and, using its default settingsand a brush size just a tiny bit bigger thanthe hair, paint a few strokes over the ends.It pulls the hair out, so it tapers at the endand looks natural (just paint your strokes inthe direction of the hair). Now, let’s look atthis really annoying strand here, becauseit’s going to pose its own problem. Startby switching back to the Clone Stamp tooland sampling right above it (as shown here).Step Six:Clone it away, starting at the part farthestaway from the head, and stopping rightat the edge of the rest of her hair. You seehow it just kind of stops there, like youbroke the hair as if it were an uncookedstrand of spaghetti? If I see that, I usuallyuse the next technique, where we pick upand move existing hair to cover problems.But, in the next step, I’ll show you some-thing else I do, which breaks the rules,but only a tiny bit.
  • 220. Retouching Hair Chapter 4 199(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:You’re going to Option-click (PC: Alt-click)inside the hair, just above the “broken off”end of the strand you just removed, anduse that to cover the end a bit. Now, justmove down over the broken off end, andsimply click once (as shown here).Step Eight:This kind of moves the end back a littlemore inside the hair, and it doesn’t lookas obvious. Yes, this is a very subtle thing,and you have to decide if it’s even worthdoing for the intended final use (for exam-ple, if the final use is somebody’s Facebookprofile photo, I’m not sure I’d even considerdoing this), but again, as the photographer,you have to decide what level of retouchingis necessary for the job. Now, just continuearound the head, going from the left, upover the top, and ending on the right,removing as many stray hairs as you feelis practical. Just remember not to makeit look like you did this with the Path toolor a pair of scissors.
  • 221. 200 Chapter 4 Retouching HairProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Now, let’s look at stray hairs that extendover the skin, like you see here on herforehead, where one big one, and a fewfriends, are encroaching on our otherwiseunfettered skin area (I know, I went allMasterpiece Theatre on you there for amoment). Since part of it is on skin, andpart of it goes near the hair, I use a two-tool approach in cases like this.Step 10:I start with the Healing Brush tool (pressShift-J until you have it) to get rid of mostof the stray hair extending over the skin.We’re basically doing a skin repair, andthe Healing Brush works well for this, sosample (Option-click [PC: Alt-click]) anarea of skin very near the stray hair andpaint over it, stopping when you start toget near the hairline (as seen here).
  • 222. Retouching Hair Chapter 4 201(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:Switch to the Clone Stamp tool again, andchoose a very small, soft-edged brush at100% opacity. Sample a clean area verynear the last bit of hair you need to re-move, and clone that final section away, soit’s completely gone (as seen here). WhileI was there, I cleaned up the other fewstray hairs over the skin using the sametwo-tool combination.Step 12:Now, you can see other hairs out of placethat are over the main parts of her hair(meaning they’re not extending onto herskin, or onto the background. They’re justmessy hairs). For example, take a look atthe hair I have circled here in red. For these,I mostly use a technique for moving piecesof hair (which you’ll learn next), becausewhen you start cloning hair, it usually lookskind of fake. It might look okay from adistance (and fine for low-res Web photos,or Facebook profile pages, and stuff likethat), but if this is going to be a print oran image that really matters, you’ll needto move existing pieces of clean hair downover the stray hair to cover it.
  • 223. 202 Chapter 4 Retouching HairProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 13:Start by getting the Lasso tool (L) anddraw a selection around the hair in ques-tion, leaving just a little space around it.While you still have the Lasso tool, clickinside your selected area and drag thatselection just a tiny bit above the hair,to a clean area of hair, as seen here (ofcourse, if there isn’t a clean area aboveit, try just below it). Now, to soften theedges, go under the Select menu, underModify, and choose Feather. When theFeather Selection dialog appears, enter4 pixels for just a tiny bit of edge soften-ing, and click OK.Step 14:Press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to lift thatselected area of clean hair and put it upon its own layer. Now, switch to the Movetool (V), and drag this layer down andposition it right over the stray hair to coverit completely (as shown here). If you madeyour selection small enough, it should bea perfect fit and not overlap anything orcause any other problems. If, for someweird reason, it’s not a perfect fit, pressCommand-T (PC: Ctrl-T) to bring up FreeTransform, then press-and-hold the Com-mand (PC: Ctrl) key, click on one of theFree Transform corner points, and bendthe hair so it fits the right way (holdingthat key lets you distort the shape the wayyou want it), then press Return (PC: Enter)to lock in your transformation. Again, youprobably won’t need to do that last part,but hey—ya never know.
  • 224. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Retouching Hair Chapter 4 203Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 225. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop204 Chapter 4 Retouching HairStep One:Here’s the image we want to retouch,and you can see the gaps in her hair,just above her shoulders. Again, usingthe Clone Stamp tool or Healing Brushtool here would be a nightmare (and adead giveaway), so instead, we’re goingto pick up chunks of nearby hair and usethem to cover the gaps.Step Two:Get the Lasso tool (L) and draw a selectionover a chunk of hair that’s near the gapyou need to remove (as shown here, whereI’ve selected an area just to the right ofthe gap on the left). You’re going to needto soften the edge of this selection, so itblends in when we move it over the gap.So, go under the Select menu, underModify, and choose Feather. When theFeather Selection dialog appears, enter4 pixels and click OK. By the way, 4 pixelsisn’t a magical number—it’s just my start-ing place. The higher the number, thesofter (and more transparent) the edgeswill be, so if they seem too soft, try 3,or even 2.Retouching hair is one of the trickiest retouches, because the Clone Stamp tool and the Healing Brush tool usually giveyou pretty lame results. So, you usually have to move hair from one place to another to cover the problem, and this isone of the situations where you need to do just that—covering a gap in the hair caused by your subject’s position, ormovement, or a fan, or one of the dozen things that cause a gap to appear temporarily and mess up your shot. Here’sthe best way I found to fix it:Fixing Gaps in Hair
  • 226. Retouching Hair Chapter 4 205(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) toplace that chunk up on its own separatelayer. Switch to the Move tool (V) andmove that chunk layer over to the leftuntil it covers the gap. Now, althoughit does sometimes happen, more oftenthan not, it’s not going to cover the gapperfectly and just blend right in with thehair around it. So, in the next step, you’regoing to have to tweak it, but don’t feellike you made a bad selection—you nearlyalways have to transform the copied hairchunk a bit to make it work.Step Four:Press Command-T (PC: Ctrl-T) to bringup Free Transform, so you can rotate thechunk clockwise to match up with theexisting hair around it better (as shownhere). Just move your cursor outside theFree Transform bounding box, and yourcursor changes into a two-headed arrow(seen here). Now, just click-and-drag ina small circular motion to your right andthe chunk rotates. Once it’s rotated, youmay have to move your cursor inside thebounding box to reposition the chunk alittle to make the hair match up better.Granted, it’s not perfect, but that’s okay—we still have more tweaking to do.
  • 227. 206 Chapter 4 Retouching HairProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Press Return (PC: Enter) to lock in yourFree Transform rotation. You can kind ofsee an edge area on the right side of thechunk that isn’t quite blending very well,so we’re going to mask that away in justa couple of brush strokes. Click on theAdd Layer Mask icon at the bottom ofthe Layers panel to add a layer mask tothis layer. Now, get the Brush tool (B),press X to set your Foreground color toblack (because your layer mask is white),set your brush Opacity to 100%, andchoose a small, soft-edged brush. Painta few small strokes over the top of thechunk to help blend that part in withthe surrounding hair.Step Six:If you look at the top of the copied area inStep Five, you can tell pretty easily that it isa duplicate of that area next to her earring,so we’re going to copy a darker area of hairjust above the gap we’re fixing. Click backon the Background layer, use the Lassotool to make a new selection, feather theselection, and copy it up onto its own layer.Since we’re trying to cover the top of ourfirst fix, click-and-drag this new copiedlayer above the first copied layer. Then,use the Move tool to drag it into place,and use Free Transform, if you need to, torotate it.
  • 228. Retouching Hair Chapter 4 207(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:In this case, it looks like we covered mostof that bright spot, but there’s still a smallbright area beneath our last fix. So, pressCommand-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to duplicate thatlast fix, then use the Move tool to dragit down a little, add a layer mask, andpaint some of the edges away to makeit blend better.Step Eight:Use the same process to fill in a little moreon the left side. After you get some of itfilled in, you may want to press Command-Option-Shift-E (PC: Ctrl-Alt-Shift-E) tocreate a merged layer, then make yourselection from it. When you’re done withthe left side, move over to the right sideand fill those gaps, too. Now, we got luckywith this one, that all it took was a littlerotation to get these chunks pretty closeto where all we had to do was a little mask-ing. Sometimes, you’ll have to actually flipthe hair horizontally, so it doesn’t look likea copy of hair sitting beside itself (a deadgiveaway). If that’s the case, once you bringup Free Transform, just Right-click insidethe bounding box and when the menuappears, choose Flip Horizontal. Thenyou’ll have to rotate it back into place,but this little horizontal flip can really helphide that fact that you “borrowed” hairfrom a nearby area. See the next pagefor a before and after.
  • 229. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!208 Chapter 4 Retouching HairDownload this image. See pg. xi.BEFORE AFTERAfter
  • 230. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Hair Chapter 4 209(Continued)Step One:Here’s the image where we’re going to(eventually) change her hair color fromblonde to brunette, but we’re going tohave a couple of stops at different colorsalong the way, along with a techniquevariation, so you’ve got lots of options(especially if your subject, or client, wantsa big variation in color).Step Two:Start by getting the Quick Selection tool(W) and then literally paint over your sub-ject’s hair to select it. If it over-selects, andstarts selecting her face, you can removethat spillover by pressing-and-holding theOption (PC: Alt) key and painting over thespillover areas to deselect them. Use afairly small brush, and just keep paintinguntil it’s all pretty much selected (as shownhere). Also, you don’t have to worry aboutmaking a perfect selection for two reasons:(1) we’re going to have Photoshop fine-tunethe selection for us in the next step, and(2) we’ll automatically have a layer mask, sowe can fine-tune the mask just by paintingon it if it needs tweaking. So, relax, andget your selection kinda close, then moveon to Step Three.This is fairly common, especially if you’re working with an art director who wants the model’s hair to match the clothes,but luckily, most of the time, a change of hair color is fairly subtle, and not from one extreme to another.Changing Hair Color
  • 231. 210 Chapter 4 Retouching HairProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Once your selection is in place, and whileyou still have the Quick Selection tool, goup to the Options Bar up top and click onthe Refine Edge button (as shown here).This brings up the Refine Edge dialog,and gives you a preview of your selection(you can choose to view your selectionon different backgrounds—choose theOn White background from the Viewpop-up menu, so it looks like it doeshere). You can see from the selectionwe have here, it’s pretty harsh andjaggy, but don’t worry—that’s allabout to go away.Step Four:To get a much better, smoother, andmore encompassing selection, go to theEdge Detection section of the dialogand turn on the Smart Radius checkbox.This helps you get a better, more accurateedge around your selection (especiallyhelpful with hair), but just turning on thecheckbox isn’t enough—you need tothen take the Radius slider and drag itto the right (as shown here), and you’llsee the edges start to change from harshto very usable (as seen here). Again, theydon’t have to be perfect—you can alwaysedit the mask we’re going to make ina moment by just painting on it. So, atthis point, we’re definitely closer, but ifit’s not perfect, just roll on.
  • 232. Retouching Hair Chapter 4 211(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:When you click OK in the Refine Edgedialog, the dialog goes away and yourselection is back in place, and of course,even though you can’t see it, your selec-tion is dramatically better. So, click onthe Create New Adjustment Layer iconat the bottom of the Layers panel, andchoose Hue/Saturation from the pop-upmenu. Now, changing hair color is aseasy as dragging the Hue slider in theAdjustments panel. Here, I dragged itto the left a little bit and the hair turnedpink. Once you make an adjustment likethis, you’ll be able to see much moreclearly if you missed any areas with yourselection, and luckily, your Hue/Saturationadjustment layer comes with a layer mask,so you’re ready to edit. If you see youmissed an area, get the Brush tool (B),make sure your Foreground color is setto white, choose a small brush, and paintright on the photo on the area you missedto add it. If you selected too much, painton that area in black to get rid of it.Step Six:Now, if the color is too intense, drag theSaturation slider to the left (I usually haveto do this to some extent when changinghair color, or the new color becomes toooverpowering, so you can almost count onhaving to lower the Saturation amount.While you’re there, go ahead and lower itquite a bit and her hair turns almost silver,which in this case looks kinda cool). Okay,the variation I talked about earlier is toturn on the Colorize checkbox at thebottom of the Hue/Saturation optionsin the Adjustments panel (shown circledin red here) and you get a different resultfrom your Hue, because now rather thanjust shifting the Hues that are there, it’spouring a tint on top of your color.
  • 233. 212 Chapter 4 Retouching HairProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:To change her hair to brunette, we’re goingto change the pop-up menu at the top ofthe Adjustments panel back to Default,then go to the Layers panel and changethe blend mode of this Hue/Saturationadjustment layer to Multiply. We’re justgoing to use this layer for the blend modechange, so, press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J)to duplicate the layer. We’ll now changethe color using this duplicate layer, so inthe Hue/Saturation options in the Adjust-ments panel, turn on the Colorize checkbox,and drag the Hue slider almost all the wayto the left, until it reads 4, then lower theSaturation until the color look about rightto you (here, I lowered it to 14). Now,click back on your first adjustment layer,and lower its Opacity until the color looksmore realistic (usually around 18%, asshown here). Note: The Multiply layerworks for changing light hair to a darkercolor. If you need to change dark hair toa lighter color, you’d change the blendmode to Screen instead.Step Eight:This last step is optional, but if it looks likeyou still are missing any part of her hair,now is when you’ll fix it (there were a fewhairs by each ear and along the templeon the left that I missed in my selection,and that still looked blonde). So, get theBrush tool, and lower the Opacity in theOptions Bar to around 30%, then paint overthe hairs you missed. By painting with alow opacity like this, you can build up thecolor—perfect for these small, wispy hairs.Then you’ll need to copy this layer maskover the one on the bottom Hue/Saturationadjustment layer, so they match. To do this,simply press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt)key and click-and-drag the mask on thetop adjustment layer over the one on thebottom adjustment layer. A dialog willappear asking if you want to replace themask, so click Yes and you’re done.
  • 234. Try thistechnique onanother image!Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Hair Chapter 4 213Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 235. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop214 Chapter 4 Retouching HairStep One:Here’s the image we’re working on, andif you look at the part in her hair, it’s justwide enough, and the light is positionedin just such a way, that it accentuates thepart line and draws your attention up there.So, we’re going to darken that area tomake it appear thinner and less noticeable.Start by pressing Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J)to duplicate the Background layer.Step Two:Change the duplicate layer’s blendmode to Multiply. Notice how muchdarker her part looks compared toStep One. Of course, the rest of theimage is way too dark, but we’ll fixthat in a minute.Since the human eye is drawn to the brightest part of an image, you don’t want your viewer’s eye drawn to the partin your subject’s hair. Sometimes that’s the case, but luckily for us, it’s a pretty quick fix. This is one of those retouchesthat you may not have to do to every portrait, but when you need it—it makes a big difference.Darkening a Part Line
  • 236. Retouching Hair Chapter 4 215(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Since we only want the part area darker,press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) key,and click on the Add Layer Mask icon atthe bottom of the Layers panel (it’s circledin red here). This adds a black layer mask,hiding the darkened layer.Step Four:Now, get the Brush tool (B), choose amedium-sized, soft-edged brush, andmake sure your Foreground color is setto white. Start painting over the part areato darken it. If you think it looks too dark,you can always lower the layer’s Opacity,although I didn’t do that here. You can seebefore and after images on the next page.
  • 237. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!216 Chapter 4 Retouching HairDownload this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 238. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Hair Chapter 4 217(Continued)Step One:Here’s the image we’re going to beworking on. You can download it fromthe companion website, mentioned in thebook’s introduction, and follow right along.The roots aren’t too bad here, but oncewe tweak ’em, you’ll see it makes a differ-ence. Start by clicking on the Create a NewLayer icon at the bottom of the Layerspanel to add a new blank layer.Step Two:Get the Eyedropper tool (I), which we’regoing to use to steal (okay, borrow) acolor from a bright part of her hair. So,let’s do that: take the tool and click itonce on the brightest area of her hair, asshown here. By the way, that big roundring that appears is there to help you seeprecisely which color you’re choosing asyou click.This retouch, where you’re lightening your subject’s roots, is a pretty common retouch, and it’s pretty quick and easyin most cases. I’m going to show you my standard method, but I’m adding an additional step at the end that I now usein my retouching—a darkening step to add more dimension—that I picked up from retoucher Christy Schuler, and thatmakes such a difference.Hiding Roots
  • 239. 218 Chapter 4 Retouching HairProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Get the Brush tool (B), choose a medium-sized, soft-edged brush, and paint overthe dark areas at the base of her hair andin her part line (as shown here). Don’tworry if you don’t get every bit of it atthis point—you’ll be able to easily addmore in just a minute.Step Four:To get this painted layer to blend intoyour photo on the Background layer, goto the Layers panel and change the blendmode for this paint layer from Normal toSoft Light (as shown here). Now you cansee the painted area blend with yourimage (compare what you see here withthe image in Step One—look at howmuch lighter the base of her hair, wherethe roots would be, is now).
  • 240. Retouching Hair Chapter 4 219(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Now that you’ve changed to Soft Lightmode, and your Foreground color is stillthe color sampled from the brightest areaof her hair, to add more areas, you canjust paint right on the photo, and it blendsin as you paint (as seen here, where I’mpainting another area of hair on the leftside of the image).Step Six:Here’s the additional step I now add thatmakes a difference in the depth of theretouch: Take the Eyedropper tool andsample a darker area of her hair. Then, withthe Brush tool, with the Opacity loweredto around 15%, so it’s very subtle, paint afew strokes over the darker areas withinthe areas you just lightened a moment ago(as shown here). Just paint a few strokeshere and there to give it some dimension—this little step helps to make it look morenatural and realistic.
  • 241. 220 Chapter 4 Retouching HairProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Lastly, since this was all done on itsown separate layer, you have the optionof toning down the entire retouch bysimply lowering the Opacity of this paintlayer in the Layers panel. Here, I loweredit to around 75%.
  • 242. Try thistechnique onanother image!Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching Hair Chapter 4 221Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 243. 223If you’re thinking, “Aren’t the mouth andlips kinda the same thing?” then youneed this chapter more than I thought.You see, the lips are actually designedto aid in the intake of food and to helparticulate both sound and speech, wherethe mouth is the part that gets you introuble (well, it gets my kids in troubleif they get “mouthy.” Of course, theyget in trouble if they get “lippy,” too,but that’s only because they should betaking in food more and articulatingboth sound and speech less). Eitherway, they are different as best as I cantell. For one thing, your lips don’t haveteeth. Well, mine don’t anyway. But,have you ever taken a really good lookat someone’s teeth? I mean really gottenin there, rooting around like a periodon-tist on a weekend pass? Well, I can tellyou, I’ve done it (with my dog), and it’spretty disgusting, and that’s why it’s soimportant to retouch teeth (and floss,but I can tell you, my dog doesn’t likeit one bit). Anyway, all sorts of funkythings can happen to a person’s lips, likechapping, or cracking, or chapping andcracking, or crackling, or there can betiny bits of Cracker Jack on them, too—the list goes on and on. And don’t getme started about the teeth. First, there’syellowing, which comes primarily fromeating corn or squash, which is why Inever eat either, and instead I only eatwhite fruits and vegetables, like parsnips,shallots, and cauliflower (have you everhad a parsnip, shallot, and cauliflowerhoagie? Try one, and I guarantee you’llfind yourself considering suicide). Anyway,this chapter has a retouch for all thosehorrible maladies that can befall a set oflips and a mouth, and before you knowit, your subject will like be looking likeAngelina Pitt’s.LIPPS, INC.Retouching the Lips and MouthChapter5
  • 244. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop224 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthStep One:Here’s the image we’re retouching, andwhile the size of her lips actually lookspretty good with the symmetry of herface, when you make them a little bigger,they look a little better. While, techni-cally, you could do this retouch using theLiquify filter, I think this technique, whichdoesn’t distort the lips at all, gives amuch more realistic result.Step Two:Zoom in on the lips, then get the Lassotool (L) and draw a very loose selectionaround them. Notice that I didn’t justselect the lips themselves, but quite a bitof skin around them, as well. This is keyto making your retouch easy, becauseit’s easier to blend skin with skin, thanskin with the edges of lips. So, don’t beshy when making your selection—makeit nice and loose, like the one I made here.Now, to soften the edges of your selection(so it blends in smoothly), go under theSelect menu, under Modify, and chooseFeather. When the Feather Selectiondialog appears, we’re going to enter alarger number than usual—type in 10 (asshown here)—and then click OK to softenthose edges. Next, press Command-J(PC: Ctrl-J) to duplicate this selection andplace it up on its own separate layer.In the same way we find larger eyes more attractive, larger lips have wide appeal, too, so a fairly common retouch isto make the lips larger. This is one of those retouches that can look really funky if you go too far, because not everysubject can pull off the “big-lip look” (so to speak), so remember that a little “big” goes a long way with this retouch.Making Lips Larger
  • 245. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 225(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Press Command-T (PC: Ctrl-T) to bring upthe Free Transform bounding box aroundthe lips and skin area you copied to itsown separate layer. Then, go up to theOptions Bar, and click on the link icon(shown circled here in red) in betweenthe W and H fields, so the width andheight amounts are linked together (sowhen you enter a number in the W field,the H field gets the exact same amount).Now, in the W field, type in 110% (whichautomatically enters 110% in the H fieldfor you) to increase the size of the lipsby 10%. Of course, you could just press-and-hold the Shift key, grab a corner point,and drag outward, but you’re more likelyto overdo it that way. A 10% size increase isan amount you can usually get away withwithout anyone knowing you retouchedit. Any bigger and it starts to look fake(unless your subject has really thin lips, inwhich case, you just have to use your bestjudgment on how big to make them).Step Four:Press Return (PC: Enter) to lock in yourtransformation, and don’t be surprised ifthings look amazingly good at this point.That’s because of the large Feather amountyou added, which, in many cases, blendsthe skin on the top layer with the skin onthe Background layer, but there’s only onesure way to check. Toggle the top layer on/off a few times (by clicking on the Eye iconto the left of the layer) and see if you seeany visible edge. If you do, just click onthe Add Layer Mask icon at the bottomof the Layers panel, then get the Brushtool (B), and choose a small, soft-edgedbrush from the Brush Picker. With yourForeground color set to black, just brushalong any visible edge to make it blend in(as shown here). By the way, the edge wasso subtle here, I had to toggle it on/off tosee it at all. A before/after of the retouchis shown on the next page.
  • 246. Try thistechnique onanother image!226 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthDownload this image. See pg. xi.AfterProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 247. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 227(Continued)Step One:Here’s the image we’re going to work on,and although there are a few highlights inher lips, they’re really pretty flat lookingand don’t have that glossy look. So, we’regoing to take what’s there and enhance itto make them look shiny and glossy, andwe’re going to make Photoshop do all theheavy lifting.Step Two:Start by zooming in tight on the lips, soyou can really see them, then go underthe Select menu and choose Color Range(as shown here). Color Range lets you makea selection based on a range of color, butit also has a feature most folks don’t realize,and that is the ability to have it select justthe shadows, midtones, or highlights in animage, and that’s what we’re going to takeadvantage of here.Besides making them bigger, one of the most requested retouches for lips is to make them look glossy. My favoritemethod is to use the Color Range feature to select the existing highlights in the lips and then enhance those.Creating Glossy Lips
  • 248. 228 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:When the Color Range dialog appears,from the Select pop-up menu at the top,you’re going to choose Highlights, asshown here. (By the way, that Select menuis where you choose which method youwant Color Range to use to make itsselection. The default being SampledColors, which makes it start selectingwhere you click the eyedropper tool. Inthis case, we don’t need that, but I justthought you might like to know.)Step Four:When you set the Select menu to High-lights and click OK, it makes a selectionof all the highlight areas in your image(as seen here). Don’t let what you seeonscreen throw you, though, becausethe way Photoshop is designed, it can’taccurately display certain very smallselected areas, so you’ll find that it usuallyselects much more than you see selectedwith the “marching ants” selection borders.So, even if it doesn’t look like it did much,just go ahead and roll with it for now.
  • 249. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 229(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to takethe selected areas and copy them uponto their own separate layer. Now, tomake the highlights even brighter, atthe top of the Layers panel, change theblend mode of this layer from Normalto Screen (as shown here), and now it’sreally bright. Of course, it doesn’t lookvery good at this point, but that’s justbecause all we really want is the high-lights on the lips—not that all that otherstuff (which makes the skin look blotchyand harsh), but we’ll fix that in thenext step.Step Six:Press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) keyand click on the Add Layer Mask icon atthe bottom of the Layers panel. This addsa black layer mask to your layer, hiding thebrighter Screen layer behind that mask,so your photo looks back to normal. Now,with your Foreground color set to white,get the Brush tool (B), choose a small, soft-edged brush set to 100% Opacity in theOptions Bar, and paint over the highlightareas on the lips. They immediately start tolook glossy as you reveal the brighter high-lights from the Screen layer (as seen here).
  • 250. 230 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Paint over both lips to reveal the enhancedhighlights, which makes them look glossy,as seen here. If they’re too bright, you canalways lower the Opacity (like I did here,where I lowered it to around 75%). That’sthe advantage of having the highlights ontheir own separate layer—you can reducetheir strength.Step Eight:But what if you need more highlights—you need them to be brighter? If that’sthe case, just duplicate the Screen layer(press Command-J) and it becomes twiceas bright without doing anything else. Ofcourse, if one Screen layer isn’t enough,two is probably too much, right? If thathappens, just lower the Opacity of thesecond Screen layer (if you lower it to50%, then you’ll be at 1½ strength.Pretty cool, eh?).
  • 251. Try thistechnique onanother image!Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 231Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTERBEFORE AFTER
  • 252. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop232 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthStep One:Here, our subject chose a lipstick colorthat’s very muted to match the overallmood and tone of the photo, but if youwanted to punch up that color (maybeyou want to draw attention to her lipsor bring them out more), the retouch isa pretty quick and easy one.Step Two:Zoom in on the lips, get the Lasso tool(L), and draw a very large, loose selec-tion around the lips and the skin areaaround them. We’re doing this, ratherthan carefully making the selection ofthe lips, because getting rid of that extraselected area is literally a 15-second job,and much easier than making a reallyaccurate lip selection. That’s not alwaysthe case in retouching, but in this one,it works just fine. So, make a Lassoselection like the one you see here.If you want to change the color of your subject’s lipstick, or if they didn’t wear any lipstick at all, here’s how to tweakthe existing color, and add lipstick if you need it (well, not you, but the subject. You knew what I meant, right?).Applying or Tweaking Lipstick
  • 253. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 233(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Next, click on the Create New AdjustmentLayer icon at the bottom of the Layerspanel, and choose Hue/Saturation fromthe pop-up menu. Since you have a selec-tion already in place, it adds a black layermask with just your selected area availablefor adjustment, which is just what we need.In the Adjustments panel, click on the Tar-geted Adjustment tool (or TAT, for short)that lives in the upper-left corner of thepanel (it’s shown circled here in red). Then,click that tool directly on one of her lips(I clicked it on her bottom lip, just belowthe large highlight area in the center of it)and drag to the right. As you do this, Hue/Saturation senses which colors are underyour cursor and it adjusts the saturation forjust those colors. Here, it switched to theReds channel, and increased the Saturation,which affected both the lips and the skinaround it (as seen here).Step Four:Now that you’ve given her a new shadeof lipstick (a more saturated, vivid color, inthis case), get the Brush tool (B), and withyour Foreground color set to black, paintright over the selected skin areas to maskthem away. This is the 15-second part—it’s amazingly easy to remove this extraarea. Just keep in mind that when peopleput on lipstick, there’s generally a littleoverspill, so it helps to zoom in close tomake sure you don’t erase the overspillareas, which would return you to theoriginal lipstick color. Here, I’ve erasedthe extra skin on the right side, but you’llcontinue all the way around the mask.
  • 254. 234 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Here’s what it looks like after you’veremoved all the extra skin. If you wantto make sure you didn’t accidentally missan area, press-and-hold the Option (PC:Alt) key, and click directly on the blacklayer mask thumbnail in the Layers panel(it’s shown circled here in red), and itwill just show you the mask. Now, youcan just paint right over any areas out-side the lips themselves that appear inwhite. Option-click on the layer maskagain to return to your full-color image.Step Six:If your subject didn’t wear lipstick, or youwant to do a pretty major color change,then you’d still do the first couple steps(selecting the lip area and all that stuff).But, after you create the Hue/Saturationadjustment layer, you need to turn onthe Colorize checkbox at the bottom ofthe Adjustments panel (circled here inred), and now you’re adding a tint to theselected area. This tint is pretty strong,so to keep things from looking overlyfreaky, you’ll have to lower the Saturationamount quite a bit. Here, I’ve shiftedthe Hue, so the color of her lips kind ofmatches her eyes, which looks terribleby the way, but at least it shows howdrastic a move you can make using theColorize checkbox.
  • 255. Try thistechnique onanother image!Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 235Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 256. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop236 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthStep One:Here’s the image we’re going to retouch byshifting the shade of the lips. If we wantedto change the entire color to somethingcompletely different, we’d probably reachfor a Hue/Saturation adjustment layer (likewe did in the previous technique), but inthis case, we’re just going to shift the colorthat’s already there. My favorite option fordoing this is Selective Color, so click on theCreate New Adjustment Layer icon at thebottom of the Layers panel and chooseSelective Color from the pop-up menu(as shown here).Step Two:When the Selective Color options appearin the Adjustments panel, by default theReds are already selected, so all you haveto do is move the top three sliders topush the lip color to a different shade(the fourth slider, Black, controls thelightness or darkness of the Reds). Let’sstart out by clicking-and-dragging theCyan slider almost all the way to the left(I dragged it to –95%), then let’s drag theMagenta slider almost all the way to theright (as shown here, where I draggedit to 86%). Of course, it doesn’t justchange the shade of the lips, it shiftsthe red for the entire image, but don’tworry—we’ll fix that next.This is a really handy technique for making the lips really stand out by shifting the shade of the lip color, brighteningthe natural highlights, and then lastly, doing a quick cleanup to give you really gorgeous lips.Changing the Shade of Lip Color
  • 257. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 237(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Press Command-I (PC: Ctrl-I) to Invertthe Selective Color adjustment layer’s layermask, which hides the red color versionbehind a black mask (as seen here in theLayers panel). Now, with your Foregroundcolor set to white, get the Brush tool (B),and choose a small, soft-edged brush setto 100% Opacity in the Options Bar. Then,carefully start painting over the lips (asshown here), and the new shade appearsas you paint.Step Four:Continue painting until the lips are fullypainted in, as seen here (this is anothercase where having a tablet and wirelesspen really pays off, because painting inthe lips like this with a pen takes all of10 seconds).
  • 258. 238 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:If you want to shift the shade to some-thing different, try dragging the Yellowslider to the left—as seen here, whereI dragged it over to –55%. Look at thedifference in the shade now.Step Six:If you want more of a red look to thelips, just increase the amounts of Cyanand Yellow by dragging them both wayover to the right. Here, I dragged Yellowall the way over 100%, and then Cyan to55% (I also increased Magenta a bit to95%), and the lip color is really startingto look good.
  • 259. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 239(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:If you want that deep, rich, ruby red liplook, here’s what to do: Start by returningall your Selective Color sliders to 0% (justchoose Default from the Selective Colorpop-up menu at the top of the panel), sothey’re not having any effect at all, andthe lips are back to how they looked whenyou first opened the image. Now, press-and-hold the Command (PC: Ctrl) keyand click directly on the black layer maskthumbnail over in the Layers panel (asshown circled here in red). This puts aselection around the lips, made fromthe mask you painted earlier.Step Eight:Now, click on the Create a New Layericon at the bottom of the Layers panel tocreate a new blank layer, press D to setyour Foreground color to black, and thenpress Option-Delete (PC: Alt-Backspace)to fill your lip selection with solid black.I know it looks bad at this point, but that’sall about to change. Go to the top of theLayers panel and change the layer blendmode from Normal to Soft Light andbam—the lips become that ruby red (asshown here). But, because your SelectiveColor adjustment layer is below it, youstill have control (as you’ll see in the nextstep). Press Command-D (PC: Ctrl-D)to Deselect.
  • 260. 240 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:In the Layers panel, click on the SelectiveColor adjustment layer and then in theAdjustments panel, drag the Cyan sliderback over to the left. Here, I dragged itover to –98%, and look how it shifts theshade once again.Step 10:That’s the end of the shade-shifting part,but if you’ve got spare time and reallywanted to go in and take things a stepfurther, I would start by brightening upthe highlights on her lips. You can usethe technique found on page 227, or if youwant to do something quicker, just clickon the Background layer in the Layerspanel and press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J)to duplicate it. Get the Dodge tool (O), andup in the Options Bar, set the Exposure toaround 12% and make sure Highlightsis selected in the Range pop-up menu.Then, with a small, soft-edged brush,paint a few strokes over all the brighthighlight areas in the lips to make themeven brighter (as seen here, where I’mpainting over the highlight on her bottomlip). This makes a bigger difference thanyou might think.
  • 261. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 241(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:If you have a few more minutes, you couldclean up the inside and the outside ofthe lips a bit. If you’ve got lots of time,you could do one of the skin softeningtechniques in Chapter 2. But, more likely,if you’ve got an extra five minutes or so,you’ll just want to get in there with theHealing Brush and Clone Stamp tool andremove all those little hairs under herlip and on the corner of her mouth. Dothe inside of the lips with a very smallHealing Brush (press Shift-J until you haveit), and just Option-click (PC: Alt-click) tosample a nearby clean area and then clickover little specks, spots, and anything thatlooks out of place. When you get to thelittle hairs under her lip, switch to theClone Stamp tool (S), lower the brushOpacity to 35% in the Options Bar, choosea very small, soft-edged brush, zoom intight, and then just Option-click to samplea clean area and clone those little hairsaway (as shown here, where I’m cloningunder her lip). A before/after of theretouch is shown on the next page.
  • 262. Try thistechnique onanother image!242 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthDownload this image. See pg. xi.AfterProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopAFTERBEFORE
  • 263. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopRetouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 243(Continued)Step One:Here’s the image with teeth we want toretouch. First, let’s evaluate what we needto do: I see that the two front teeth are alittle too long compared to the rest of theother teeth (the front two should be a littlelonger than the surrounding others, butjust a little). So, that’s one thing to fix. Then,I would remove some of the points fromthe canine teeth, and repair the gap on thecanine tooth on the right. Lastly, I wouldstraighten out the bottom teeth.Step Two:Go under the Filter menu and chooseLiquify. When the Liquify dialog appears(shown here), start by zooming in tight(press Command-+ [PC: Ctrl-+] a fewtimes). Then, make sure you have the firsttool at the top of the Toolbox selected(on the left side of the dialog; it’s calledthe Forward Warp tool, which lets younudge things around like they were madeof molasses). The key to working with theLiquify filter is to make a number of verysmall moves—don’t just get a big brushand push stuff around. Make your brushsize (from the Brush Size field on the right)a little larger than what you’re retouching(here, my brush is a little larger than oneof the two front teeth). Now, just gentlynudge the front teeth upward a few timeseach to shorten them, and then once ortwice in the center between them tomake them even. Also, while you’re there,you can flatten out the bottoms of them,too—just choose a smaller brush andgently nudge them upward. It’s alreadylooking better.Depending on your subject, this can be just a minor tweak, or a major reconstruction. Luckily, in most cases, you’ll be ableto fix most problems with teeth using the Liquify filter, but sometimes, you have to rebuild a tooth or two from scratch.Note: I did a teeth rebuild once during a live retouching workshop, and a dentist came up to me right after my session toscold me, because I apparently flattened out a tooth he said was essential for chewing food. He felt better once I remindedhim that the photo wasn’t going to eat anything. ;-)Repairing Teeth
  • 264. 244 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, if you look closely, you can see thaton the bottom of the front tooth on theright, there’s a little indent that we caneasily fix. Make your brush size really small(just a tiny bit bigger than the indent), andpull down on the indent until it lines upwith the rest of the bottom of the tooth tomake it nice and flat and smooth (as seenhere). Let’s now work on the two teeth oneither side of the front two—same tool,same technique, smaller brush (becausethese teeth are smaller in size). Gentlynudge these teeth downward a little tomake them longer. Keep gently nudgingthem downward, until they’re almostas long as the front two (but not quiteas long).TIP: Quick Before and AfterIf you want to see a quick before andafter of your retouch, just turn the ShowBackdrop checkbox (near the bottomright of the dialog) on and off.Step Four:Now, go to the canine tooth on the left(you can see my brush cursor there), andjust push upward on the pointy part withthe same tool (gently, gently, using a fewlittle nudges—don’t nudge it all at onetime). This helps flatten it out a bit, but ofcourse, now she won’t be able to chew—hey, it’s cheaper than buying caps. Oncewe’re done in Liquify, we’ll fix the gap onthe other pointy canine tooth manually.But, you can go ahead and fix the othertop teeth.
  • 265. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 245(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Using the same tool, we’re now goingto start straightening the bottom teeth.The bottom-middle tooth on the leftis leaning toward the left, so with theForward Warp tool, choose a brush sizelike the one you see here, click right onthe line to the left of the tooth, then click-and-hold, and nudge that line over to theright to straighten it out a bit (like yousee here). Now, the rest of this is goingto be nudging the tops of the bottomteeth down, nudging the lines betweenthem to the left or right to make themstraighter, and pulling up where theteeth start to slant downward.Step Six:Again, you’re going to use that samebrush, but a little smaller brush size.So, start by pushing the top right of thatsame bottom-middle tooth down alongthe right edge of the tooth, becauseit’s extending upward too far. Again,just gently nudge it down using a fewstrokes. Do you see a pattern in thistype of retouching? Most of the time,unless it’s something very large youhave to move, you’re better off movingit a little, letting go of the brush, andmoving it a little more, releasing, thendoing it again and again—very smallincrements work best.
  • 266. 246 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:If you look at the next tooth to the left,you’ll see the left side of it slopes downa bit. So, you’re going to have to pullthat side up, so it’s flat (as shown here)and aligns with the other bottom teeth.Same technique, same brush, just repeatwhat you’ve been doing with small,subtle nudges.Step Eight:Now, move to the next tooth to the leftand build up the right side of the tooth(it’s sloping downward), then nudge downthe left side of the tooth. Just a little bitmore Liquify work to go, but you can seethe bottom row is already lookingmuch better.
  • 267. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 247(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Move to the next tooth on the left, and dothe same thing, then move to the bottomteeth on the other side and fix those, aswell (you kind of have to fix all of them inthis image, though I usually just worryabout the ones in front).Step 10:Now, we’re going to work on that otherpointy canine tooth in the top right, butfirst, we can do one last thing here inLiquify to make our job easier. Makethe brush size larger, then remove the“pointyness” (yes, that’s a word. Okay,it’s not, but it should be) by nudging thebottom of the tooth upward a bit (asshown here). You can now click OK toapply all your Liquify filter changes, andwe can get to work on filling that pointytooth’s gap.
  • 268. 248 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:You’re going to need to make a selection ina shape that you want to add to the tooth,so I’m making a selection that covers thegap, and snuggles up against the othertooth (as seen here). I made this with theLasso tool (L), but you can use any toolyou’re comfortable with (my first choice isusually the Pen tool, because making aprecise path and turning that into a selec-tion usually gives you the best results—itjust takes a little longer. But, since I havea tablet and wireless pen, it was just tooeasy to draw this quick little selectionwith the Lasso tool). You’re going to wantto soften the edges of your selection (soit doesn’t look harsh where your newtooth area meets the tooth beside it), sogo under the Select menu, under Modifyand choose Feather. Enter 2 pixels in theFeather Selection dialog (shown here) forjust a little softening, and click OK.Step 12:Create a new, blank layer by clickingon the Create a New Layer icon at thebottom of the Layers panel, and thenget the Clone Stamp tool (S), so we cancover up that gap by cloning in some ofthe tooth from above the gap. From theBrush Picker, choose a small, soft-edgedbrush, then Option-click (PC: Alt-click) ona highlight area on the tooth to samplethat area for cloning. Move straight downand start painting over that gap. Don’tworry, you won’t accidentally paint overthe other tooth. By putting a selectionin place first, it’s like putting up a fence—you can’t paint outside that fenced-inarea. So, just paint right across until it’sall cloned in.
  • 269. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 249(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 13:Now, press Command-D (PC: Ctrl-D)to Deselect and see your newly clonedtooth, then press Command-E (PC: Ctrl-E)to merge the layers. In this particular case,the tooth looks weird—not because ofthe retouch, but because of how the reallight falls on that tooth. It’s brighter thanthe other teeth, and that brightness lookskind of yellow, so we’ll need to deal withthat. Again, you won’t normally haveto do this, but just in case this happensto you, at least you’ll know what to do.Get the Lasso tool again (or the selectiontool of your choice) and make a selectionaround that entire brighter, yellower tooth(as seen here). Add a 1-pixel feather, if youlike, to slightly soften the edge.Step 14:At the bottom of the Layers panel, clickon the Create New Adjustment Layericon and choose Hue/Saturation fromthe pop-up menu. From the second pop-up menu at the top of the Adjustmentspanel, choose Yellows, then drag theSaturation slider to the left (as shownhere) until the yellow in the tooth goesaway (here, I had to drag it nearly all theway to the left, so it matched the otherteeth), then deselect.
  • 270. 250 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 15:The last thing we’re going to do here is tobrighten the tooth to the left of the toothwe just fixed. It has a little bit of a shadowon it, and we want to make it look like it’smore in line with the other teeth. So, getthe Lasso tool again and make a selectionof that tooth. Add a 2-pixel feather, tosoften the edges a little.Step 16:Click on the Create New Adjustment Layericon again, but this time, choose Levels.In this image, there is a lot of red in theshadow area, so when the Levels optionsappear in the Adjustments panel, changethe pop-up menu above the histogramto Red. Now, drag the gray midtonesInput Levels slider, under the histogram,to the right a little to reduce the reds andbrighten the area. Each image will bedifferent, so you’ll just have to go througheach color in the pop-up menu, and dragthe midtones or shadows Input Levelsslider until the color matches the surround-ing teeth better. Here, I also switched toGreen and dragged the shadows InputLevels slider to 3, then switched to Blueand dragged the midtones Input Levelsslider to 1.06.
  • 271. Try thistechnique onanother image!Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 251TIP: You can fix all of thegaps in between the teethhere in Liquify, but be sureto use the Freeze Mask tool(F) to freeze teeth next tothe ones you’re working on. Download this image. See pg. xi.Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopAfterBEFORE AFTER
  • 272. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop252 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthStep One:Here’s the image we want to retouch,and our subject’s teeth have just a slightyellow discoloration. Nothing major, andin fact, I think with everything around himbeing white (his shirt, the background,etc.), it probably makes it stand out more,where normally you wouldn’t notice at all.But when we do the retouch, and you seethe final image, you’ll see it was worth it.Step Two:Zoom in on the teeth, then click on theCreate New Adjustment Layer icon at thebottom of the Layers panel and chooseHue/Saturation from the pop-up menu.In the Adjustments panel, change thesecond pop-up menu at the top fromMaster to Yellows, then drag the Satur-ation slider all the way to the left (asshown here) to remove all the yellowsfrom the entire image. Now, take a lookat the teeth and see how they look. In99% of the cases, they’ll look great atthis point, but in this particular case, theystill seem to have a hint of color in them,which usually means there’s some red inthere, as well.Nice white teeth look just beautiful (which is one reason why so many people each year spend thousands on porcelain veneercaps), but most people have some-to-moderate yellowing. In most cases, you’ll pretty much want to remove all the yellow,and even do a little brightening, but if your subject has very yellow teeth, you won’t be able to remove all the yellowing,or they’ll look obviously retouched. So, in those cases, you’ll just reduce and tone down the amount of yellowing, so it’snot distracting. Here’s how to do both:Whitening Teeth and Reducing Yellowing
  • 273. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 253(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Switch the same pop-up menu to Redsnow (as shown here), reduce the Saturationa bit (as shown), and now the teeth lookright. Of course, we’ve totally trashed hisskin, but we’ll fix that in the next step.Step Four:Press Command-I (PC: Ctrl-I) to Invertthe Hue/Saturation adjustment layer’slayer mask, turning it black. Now his skinlooks normal, because the entire adjust-ment we just made is hidden behind thatblack mask. We just have to paint overhis teeth to reveal the retouch, so makesure your Foreground color is set to white,get the Brush tool (B), choose a small,soft-edged brush (like the one you seehere) from the Brush Picker, and startpainting over the teeth. As you do, theyellowing is replaced with nice whiteteeth (as seen here, where I’m paintingover two of his teeth). We’re not quitedone yet, though.
  • 274. 254 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Continue painting over all the teeth untilall the yellow is gone (as seen here). Now,you’ve created a mask for the teeth, soany other changes you make in the Hue/Saturation Adjustments panel will onlyaffect the teeth, right? Right! So, let’sbrighten his teeth a bit, as well. Switchthat pop-up menu at the top of the panelback to Master, then drag the Lightnessslider to the right just a little bit (as shownhere). It’s easy to get carried away with thisslider, so be careful not to overdo it. Here,I only increased the brightness to +12.If you go much farther, it can start tolook really fake (depending on the image,of course. Some need more lighteningthan others).Step Six:At this point, you’ve removed all theyellowing and brightened the teeth. Onething to keep an eye out for is that yourteeth don’t look gray, because you’veremoved so much of the color. If youthink that’s the case (and in this one,it might be), then you can go to thetop of the Layers panel and lower theOpacity of your Hue/Saturation adjust-ment layer to bring back just a little hintof the color. Here, I’ve dropped theOpacity to around 75%, and that wasjust enough to make the color of theteeth look very natural.
  • 275. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 255(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:To finish things off, I would adjust thepointy canine tooth on the right usingpart of the “Repairing Teeth” techniqueyou just learned on the previous pages.But first, you’ll need to flatten your layers,so press Command-Option-Shift-E (PC:Ctrl-Alt-Shift-E) to merge your layers intoa new layer, creating a flattened version ofyour image at the top of your layer stack.Step Eight:Luckily, in this case, you can do the wholething just using Liquify, but because thetooth is nearly touching his bottom lip,you’re going to have to use a second toolin Liquify to keep his lip from moving.You’re going to use the Freeze Mask toolto freeze his bottom lip, so it stays in placewhen you nudge up the pointy tooth. So,from the Filter menu, choose Liquify, thenget the Freeze Mask tool (it’s the fourthtool from the bottom in the Toolbox), andpaint over his bottom lip right below thattooth. As you paint with the Freeze Masktool, it paints in red (as seen here). Now,get the Forward Warp tool (W) and useit to nudge the pointy part of the toothupward, and then you can nudge part ofit over to fill in the gap. You’ll find this issurprisingly easy to do and it takes just afew seconds. When you’re done, click OKto compete your retouch.
  • 276. Try thistechnique onanother image!256 Chapter 5 Retouching the Lips and MouthDownload this image. See pg. xi.AfterProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE AFTER
  • 277. Retouching the Lips and Mouth Chapter 5 257
  • 278. 259For the entire first part of my career,I never did any retouching where I hadto slim or trim my subjects, and I thinkit’s because I used to call them threeor four days before the shoot, and warnthem not to eat anything but bouillonfrom that moment on, until two daysafter the shoot (or when their checkcleared, whichever came first). But, aftera while, they started catching on, andI’d find them sneaking a carrot stick orsome leafy greens on the set, and beforeyou knew it, I was throwing every Photo-shop trick in the book at their photos,including the “Stringbean filter,” the“Beanpole maker,” and the often over-used “Scrawnify filter.” So, here’s thething: I know talking about weight issues,even ones we’ll fix in Photoshop, is atouchy topic, and since it’s my goal todeal with my subjects in a caring andcompassionate manner, I go out of myway not to use insulting or degradingterms that might offend. To help outwith this, I thought that, throughout thischapter, we could use friendly codewords instead. So, for example, whereyou might read the phrase, “…we’regoing to make a slight adjustment tothe vertical proportions,” you know thatwhat I actually mean is “…this guy’s aporker.” But, of course, I would neversay that in print. Also, if you read, “…hisface is somewhat rounded,” what I meanis “…this guy’s a porker.” Now, in somecases, it’s not the person’s physiquethat’s causing the problem, it’s a fold intheir clothing, or the fit of their clothing,so you might see me say somethinglike, “…we’re going to tuck in this foldon his shirt,” which of course means“…this guy’s a porker,” or it could mean“…I smell bacon.” Either wouldbe correct.SLIM SHADYSlimming and TrimmingChapter6
  • 279. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop260©ISTOCKPHOTO/FLASHONSTUDIOHere’s the image we’re going to retouch.If you want to maintain the exact samesize (height and width) as the original, you’llneed to duplicate the Background layer asyour first step. If you don’t care if the finalimage is slightly trimmed in width, you canjust work on the Background layer (thoughI still always recommend working on a du-plicate layer, so all your retouches are sepa-rate from the original, and you can undothose any time by just deleting the layer).On your duplicate layer, press Command-A(PC: Ctrl-A) to select the entire image,then press Command-T (PC: Ctrl-T) tobring up Free Transform.This is one of the fastest and easiest retouches in the entire book, and yet it’s probably one that you’ll use the most.I’ve never applied this technique to a photo and (a) been caught, or (b) not had the client absolutely love the waythey look. The hardest part of this technique may be not telling your clients you used it.Overall Slimming
  • 280. (Continued)Chapter 6 261Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopNow, normally, we press-and-hold theShift key when using Free Transform, sothings stay proportional, but this time,you’re not going to do that. Instead,you’re just going to click on the left-center Free Transform handle and drag itto the right to slim the overall image. Ifyou look up in the Options Bar, you’ll seethe W (width) field update as you drag, andfor most subjects, you can keep dragginguntil you hit around 95% (so, just a 5% slim-ming), as shown here. This 5% rule worksgreat for two reasons: (1) it’s enough that itreally makes a difference, yet (2) it’s not somuch that it’s obvious something has beendone. There are some subjects where youcan go a little further, maybe to 93%, butmost of the time, 5% is all you’ll need, andsometimes even less than that. Look atyour subject while you’re dragging—don’tlook at the numbers until you’re donedragging and see where it lands.When your person looks “naturally”slimmer, press Return (PC: Enter) tolock in your transformation. Doing thistransformation leaves you with someexcess white canvas area on the leftside of the photo, but luckily, your origi-nal selection will still be in place (fromback in Step Two), so just go under theImage menu and choose Crop (as shownhere) to remove the excess white spaceand crop your image down to size. PressCommand-D (PC: Ctrl-D) to Deselect,and you’re done! There’s a before andafter on the next page to show youhow effective this quick little move is.
  • 281. 262Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopTry thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.After©ISTOCKPHOTO/JUANMONINOAFTER
  • 282. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopChapter 6 263(Continued)©ISTOCKPHOTO/JASONSTITTHere’s the image we’re going to retouch,and we’re going to make the subject onthe left slimmer, while leaving the subjecton the right untouched.Get the Rectangular Marquee tool (M),and make a rectangular selection overmost of your subject (as shown here).It’s okay that we’re selecting right overher nose and part of her mouth, thoughI generally try to avoid having the selec-tion go right through an eye.This is a retouch you do when there’s more than one person in the photo, but you want to slim just one them. This is one ofthose techniques that, when you look at it, you think, “There’s no way this is going to work.” But it actually works amazinglywell, even though it only takes a few seconds, and surprisingly you don’t use any feathering on your selection, which goesagainst almost everything we’ve done throughout the book. Go figure.Slimming One Person in a Group Shot
  • 283. 264Try thistechnique onanother image!AfterProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopDownload this image. See pg. xi.©ISTOCKPHOTO/BRADKILLERNow, you’re not going to feather theselection to soften it and you’re not goingto put it on its own separate layer (bothof these are reasons why this retouchdoesn’t make much sense, but stick withme, because it really works). Instead, pressCommand-T (PC: Ctrl-T) to bring up FreeTransform around your selected area, grabthe left-center point, and drag inward tothe right (as shown here) until your subjectlooks slimmer. Once they look good, pressReturn (PC: Enter) to lock in your transfor-mation, and then press Command-D (PC:Ctrl-D) to Deselect. Now, you’ll have touse the Crop tool (C) to crop the imagedown to size (and to get rid of that whitegap on the left). You’d think there wouldbe some kind of seam or line, but there’sjust not (as long as you don’t feather).A before/after of the retouch is shownon the next page.
  • 284. Chapter 6 265Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopAFTER
  • 285. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop266Here’s the image we want to retouch.Basically, we want to reduce her doublechin, lighten the shadow areas beneathher chin, and then because of some of thechanges we’ll make, we’ll need to finishoff with a simple Liquify adjustment, andtogether these do a really nice job of slim-ming and trimming the face and reducinga double chin.Get the Lasso tool (L) and draw a veryloose selection around your subject’s jawand the lower part of the face on bothsides (as shown here). Now, soften theedges of the selection by going under theSelect menu, under Modify, and choosingFeather. When the Feather Selection dia-log appears, enter 10 pixels and click OK.There will be times where you want to slim just one or two areas on your subject’s face, and not affect the entire image,like we did previously in the “Overall Slimming” technique. For reducing a double chin, jowls, or just thinning the face (andleaving the rest untouched), your first thought might be to grab the Liquify filter, but sometimes you can get the job donemore efficiently using a different tool, or by using Liquify in combination with other tools, like we’re going to do here.Reducing a Double Chin & Thinning the Face©ISTOCKPHOTO/WILSONVALENTIN
  • 286. (Continued)Chapter 6 267Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopGo under the Filter menu, underDistort, and choose Pinch. When thePinch dialog appears, drag the sliderto the left to 15% (as shown here). Thisparticular filter doesn’t show a full on-screen preview, so you have to lookinside the filter dialog’s little previewwindow to see how this affects yoursubject (I chose 15% here, but depend-ing on your subject, you might needto use slightly more or less, but keepthe amount fairly low, because you’llprobably apply this filter more thanonce. As usual, that depends on yoursubject). To see a quick before andafter of what the filter is doing, justtake your cursor and click-and-holdright inside the preview window tosee the before, then to see the after,release the mouse button (or unclickyour pen).Click OK, and the Pinch filter is appliedto your selected area (as shown here).I’ve found that, in most cases, applyingthe filter once just isn’t enough (it’s toosubtle), so to apply the same filter again,using the exact same settings, pressCommand-F (PC: Ctrl-F).
  • 287. 268Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopNow that we’ve applied that Pinch filter,next let’s try to lighten the shadows on herneck to de-emphasize the depth of thedouble chin. While your selection is stillin place, press Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J)to put that area up on its own separatelayer. Now, to lighten those shadows, youcould use the Dodge tool at a low opacity,and paint over the shadow until it lightens,but in this case, it’s faster to lighten thatentire area. So, go under the Image menu,under Adjustments, and choose Shadows/Highlights. When the dialog appears, dragthe Shadows Amount slider to the rightuntil the shadows have lightened up prettysignificantly (I dragged it to 63 here). Bythe way, if your Shadows/Highlights dialoglooks much smaller than this one, it’s onlybecause you don’t have the Show MoreOptions checkbox at the bottom turned on.On this particular image, there’s an orangecolor cast on the area under her chin, andit’s made more obvious by lightening theshadows in that area (while that might bejust on this particular image, I still think weneed to fix it while we’re here). Click on theCreate New Adjustment Layer icon at thebottom of the Layers panel, and chooseHue/Saturation from the pop-up menu.Then, get the Targeted Adjustment tool(TAT, for short) from the top-left cornerof the Adjustments panel. Click it right onthe orange part of her chin, and drag tothe left to reduce the reds in that area (asshown here).
  • 288. (Continued)Chapter 6 269Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopPress Command-I (PC: Ctrl-I) to Invertthe layer mask on this Hue/Saturationadjustment layer, so the version of herchin with the desaturated reds is hiddenbehind a black mask. Now, take theBrush tool (B), choose a medium-sized,soft-edged brush at 100% opacity, makesure your Foreground color is set to white,then paint along the underside of herchin to remove that orange color cast.Press Command-Option-Shift-E (PC:Ctrl-Alt-Shift-E) to merge your layersup onto a new layer. Now, step back andlook at the image. One side effect ofapplying the Pinch filter two or threetimes is that your subject’s chin tendsto get a little pointy. If that happens, gounder the Filter menu and choose Liquify.Choose the top tool in the Toolbox (theForward Warp tool), choose a really largebrush size, and gently nudge the chin backup into place. Also, now that her chin areais much smaller, I’d take that same brushand push in a little bit on both the leftand right side of her face to trim theface a bit, as well.
  • 289. 270Try thistechnique onanother image!Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopDownload this image. See pg. xi.©ISTOCKPHOTO/QUAVONDOI basically followedthe same steps with thisimage, but I only appliedthe Pinch filter once andthen at the end, I usedLiquify to nudge his neckand the left side of hisface in a little.After
  • 290. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopChapter 6 271(Continued)Here’s the image we want to retouch,and because it was taken with a 24–70mmwide-angle lens (at 40mm, on a full-framecamera), the image looks a little distortednear the edges, which makes her armslook much bigger than they actually are, sowe’re going to retouch each arm down sothey look normal-sized. Again, althoughwe’re doing this technique on our subject’sarms, it works exactly the same way on legs.Start by getting the Lasso tool (L), anddraw a selection that is at least an inchonto the subject’s skin (like you seehere), and then as you continue makingyour selection, make sure you include alarge chunk of the background, too (asshown here).We use the same technique on arms that we do on legs, and because you’re working with larger areas here, we actuallydo all our trimming by picking up and moving parts of the arm (or leg) itself, rather than just pushing it around with Liquify.The technique you’re about to learn is probably the most popular method of thinning arms and/or legs, because the results,especially along the edges of the arms and legs, are right on the money.Thinning Arms or Legs
  • 291. 272Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopYou’re not going to feather the selection(we don’t want the edges to be smoothed).Instead, first let’s just put our selected areaup on its own separate layer by pressingCommand-J (PC: Ctrl-J). Now, switch tothe Move tool (V), and drag the selectedarea inward toward the arm to trim it rightup. Make sure the bottom-left side of thearm (right near the elbow) stays in linewith the part of the arm you didn’t selectjust below it (as shown here). Now, thearm is much thinner, but we have twonew problems to deal with: (1) there’s abig nasty chunk taken out of her arm upnear her shoulder, and (2) there’s a visibleedge from where you made your selec-tion earlier. We’ll fix those next.First we’ll fix the chunk, so press Com-mand-T (PC: Ctrl-T) to bring up FreeTransform. We’re going to rotate this armpiece layer, but before we do that, go upto the Options Bar. Do you see that tinygrid of nine dots up in the top-left corner?Those correspond with the nine pointsof the Free Transform bounding box. Bydefault, the center point is selected, whichmeans if you rotate, it will rotate yourimage around the center point (kind of likethe way a steering wheel works). However,in this case, you need it to rotate from thebottom-left corner point. That way, thebottom-left corner stays in place (which iswant we want, since it’s already perfectlylined up), while the rest rotates. So, in thatlittle grid, click once on the bottom-leftcorner dot to select it, then move yourcursor outside the Free Transform bound-ing box to turn it into a two-headed arrow.Now, click-and-drag counterclockwise totilt your arm piece until it lines right up withthe rest of her shoulder (as shown here),which covers that chunk. Once it looksgood, press Return (PC: Enter) to lockin your transformation.
  • 292. (Continued)Chapter 6 273Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopThe second thing we need to clean up isthe edge. So, click on the Add Layer Maskicon at the bottom of the Layers panelto add a layer mask, then press X to setyour Foreground color to black, get theBrush tool (B), choose a medium-sized,soft-edged brush, set your brush Opacityto 100%, and paint right over that line, andthe edge goes away (as shown here).Next, you’re going to work on the lowerpart of the arm (it still looks kinda thick,and now it doesn’t match with the thin-ning you just did on the upper arm). Startby making a merged layer (a new layer thatlooks like a flattened version of your image)by pressing Command-Option-Shift-E(PC: Ctrl-Alt-Shift-E). Then, use the Lassotool again to make a selection similar tothe one you did on the upper arm (like yousee here).
  • 293. 274Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopPut that selection up on its own layer,like we did before, and get the Move toolagain. Drag the lower arm piece inward to-ward the center of that part of the arm (asshown here) to thin that part considerably.Now, add a layer mask to this layer, andwith the Brush tool (same settings), justpaint right over the visible edge on thearm to blend your retouching seamlesslyright in (as seen here). It’s looking prettygood, except for one thing: there’s a littlelump of skin left over from your move, onthe bottom side of her upper arm, rightnear the inside of her elbow (it’s aboveand to the right of where you see mybrush cursor here). That little lump hasgot to go!
  • 294. (Continued)Chapter 6 275Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopCreate another merged layer (the flat-tened-look layer). Get the Clone Stamptool (S), and choose a small, hard-edgedbrush, because the edge on her armwhere you’re going to retouch is a hardedge (actually, after you choose your hard-edged brush from the Brush Picker, youcan get better results here by lowering theHardness amount to around 75%, so it’s a“mostly-hard-edged brush”). Also, makesure your Sample pop-up menu in theOptions Bar is set to Current Layer. Now,take the Clone Stamp tool, Option-click(PC: Alt-click) somewhere on the back-ground, but right nearby the area you wantto fix (as shown here), and then just clonethat little lump away by painting right overit (as seen here). The little plus-sign cursorshows how close to where I would be clon-ing that I sampled (Option-clicked).Now, switch to the other arm, and we’repretty much going to do the same thing,but I think I can save you one step in thisprocess. Instead of moving the piece ofarm, then rotating it into place, to avoidhaving that big chunk cut out, we can justrotate to trim up the arm, which removesthe whole chunk thing altogether. Start bygetting the Lasso tool (L) and selectingthe part you want to move inward (asshown here).
  • 295. 276Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopPress Command-J (PC: Ctrl-J) to putthat selected area up on its own layer,and press Command-T (PC: Ctrl-T) tobring up Free Transform again. Up in theOptions Bar, make sure the bottom-leftcorner point is selected in the grid (so,the bottom-left corner of your selectionis locked into place), then just moveyour cursor outside the Free Transformbounding box and click-and-drag counter-clockwise to rotate to your selected areainward (as seen here). Don’t lock in yourtransformation just yet, though. Now, toget the top part of her arm to perfectlymatch up as you rotate, just Command-click (PC: Ctrl-click) on the top-right cor-ner point of the bounding box, and youcan distort that side of your selectionas you drag to make it match up perfectly.Basically, it’s going to fall a little tiny bitshort, so by holding that keyboard shortcut,you can just stretch it to fit. Once it looksgood, press Return (PC: Enter) to lock inyour transformation.You’ll still have a hard edge to deal with,so click on the Add Layer Mask icon atthe bottom of the Layers panel to add alayer mask to this layer, make sure yourForeground color is set to black, get theBrush tool, and paint over the edge toblend it in right away (as shown here).There’s one more thing left to do.
  • 296. (Continued)Chapter 6 277Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStart by making yet another merged layer.Then get the Lasso tool one more time,and select the top part of her arm (as seenhere). Put that selection up on its ownseparate layer.Bring up Free Transform again, but thistime you’re going to need to rotate, withthe top-left corner locked down, towardthe elbow (so it rotates around that pointinstead). So, go up to the Options Barand, in the grid, click on the top-leftcorner point. Now, rotate that part ofthe arm clockwise until it almost meetsup with the rest of her arm. There will bea small gap in the skin where it doesn’tmeet up again, but now you know whatto do: press-and-hold the Command(PC: Ctrl) key, grab the bottom-rightcorner point on the bounding box, andjust drag it until it aligns perfectly withthe rest of the arm (as seen here).
  • 297. 278Try thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop©ISTOCKPHOTO/CHARLESDANIELHOWELLTime to deal with the hard edge again:add a layer mask to this layer, and paintin black over the edge to blend it away(as shown here). Note: If you think theelbows look a little too pointy, makeanother merged layer, go under the Filtermenu and choose Liquify. Use the toptool in the Toolbox on the top left, andjust nudge those pointy elbows up a tinybit to flatten them out (I didn’t do thathere, but I thought I’d mention it, just incase). Also, while I was at it, I nudgedthe skin of the armpit on the left to theright a little bit.
  • 298. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopChapter 6 279AFTER
  • 299. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop280Here’s our shot to retouch. We’re goingto basically dodge and burn the abdomi-nals to accentuate the lines that are alreadykinda here, and make them really standout, which gives your subject’s abs that“cut” look. We’re going to start with burn-ing, so go ahead and get the Burn tool(press Shift-O until you have it). Up in theOptions Bar, set your Range to Midtones,and your Exposure to 10%, so we can buildup our strokes gradually. Make sure theProtect Tones checkbox is turned on.If you want to take your subject’s abdominals up a notch, it’s a matter of just over-emphasizing what’s already there(or creating what’s not there) by adding shadows and highlights to add definition and a toned look in that area.Getting Great Abs
  • 300. (Continued)Chapter 6 281Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopWe’re going to do our dodging andburning on a separate layer, but we’regoing to use a special Soft Light graylayer for this (a layer filled with gray, but inSoft Light mode, it ignores the gray fill,and instead provides us with a great baseto dodge and burn upon). Start by goingto the Layers panel’s flyout menu andchoosing New Layer. When the New Layerdialog appears, choose Soft Light foryour Mode, and then turn on the check-box that now appears below it for Fill withSoft-Light-Neutral Color (50% Gray), andclick OK. Now, we’re ready to start dodg-ing and burning.Choose a medium-sized, soft-edged brushfrom the Brush Picker, and then look forany natural shadow areas in the abdominalarea (no matter how slight) and startpainting a few strokes down that exter-nal oblique line (as shown here, where I’mpainting a dark vertical stroke down to theleft of her navel). You’re going to have topaint a number of strokes here to get it tobuild up, because our Exposure is set solow. Go ahead and make it darker than youthink it should be, because we’ll be able toadjust it to the right amount later, sinceour burning is on its own separate layer.
  • 301. 282Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopNow, burn the shadows on the rightexternal oblique side (though therereally isn’t an ab line there), and downthe center vertical ab line leading downto the navel (as shown here). I know, atthis point, things are looking pretty over-done, but again, we’ll tweak this in thefinal step to make it look more natural.Next, you’re going to paint a few horizon-tal strokes coming inward, to the center,off those vertical burn lines you just cre-ated on each side. You’re actually goingto start right at the line, and then paintkind of an arc downward a little (likethe arrow shows here) to help build upmore depth.
  • 302. (Continued)Chapter 6 283Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopNow, switch to the Dodge tool (pressShift-O until you have it) to lighten theareas right beside your shadows to givethe abs more definition. Use the same set-tings up in the Options Bar (set the Rangeto Midtones, and the Exposure to 10%),then choose a little smaller, soft-edgedbrush, and paint a line just to the left ofyour left burned stroke (as shown here).This helps make the abs look deeper andmore defined. Continue this for the otherareas you burned, using the Dodge toolto create highlights beside your shadows.Next, choose a larger-sized, soft-edgedbrush and paint over the four areas sur-rounding the navel to make them brighter,so they looked “raised” up a bit, whichfurther helps the definition (as shown here).Now, once you’re done with this dodging,we can finally tone the whole effect downquite a bit, so we have a natural-lookingretouch. Go to the Layers panel, and lowerthe Opacity of your Soft Light layer (asshown here, where I lowered the Opacityto 40%) until the abs look natural (as seenin the After photo on the next page. Again,how low you go will be different depend-ing on the image, but for this particularimage, 40% looked about right).
  • 303. Try thistechnique onanother image!284Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopDownload this image. See pg. xi.©ISTOCKPHOTO/DASHEKAfterAFTER
  • 304. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopChapter 6 285(Continued)Here’s the image we want to retouch, andif you look at the right side of her blouse,there are lots of little areas along theoutside that need smoothing out.Go under the Filter menu and chooseLiquify to bring up the Liquify dialog yousee here. Zoom in tight on the area wherewe want to retouch (the right side). Youcan see, once you zoom in, there are allsorts of areas sticking out, pushing in, andjust bagging up. What’s going to makethis one a little tricky is that window framebehind her, because we’re going to makesure we don’t distort that frame whilewe’re fixing her blouse. We’re going touse the first tool in the Toolbox, the For-ward Warp tool, for most of our retouch,so go ahead and click on it now (if it’s notalready selected).I give the clothes a once over in every portrait I retouch, because whether your subject is trim or not, having funky lumpsor folds in their clothes can really be unflattering (and make your subject look heavier than they are, no matter how they’rebuilt). Even if your subject is wearing tight-fitting clothes, you’ll find spots where the fabric has folded or rolled, and it reallyspoils the lines of the clothing, so it’s definitely worth doing.Fixing Clothes (Lumps, Bagging & Folds)
  • 305. 286Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopChoose a brush size that’s just a littlebit larger than the fold you want to tuckin, and just push it in to the left (as shownhere). But wait!!!! The fold we’re workingon here is right along a detail area ofthe window frame, so you’re going toneed to make sure your cursor is directlyon that line in the wood work, and thatyou keep your cursor in a straight pathgoing left as you move the brush. Thatis so it extends that part of the frameperfectly as you paint. Give it a try andyou’ll see what I mean.Fixing the next fold up is easy, becausethere’s no detail area or line there in thewindow frame—you can just push it in tothe left, and the frame moves with youto fill in the gap (as shown here).
  • 306. (Continued)Chapter 6 287Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopFor the rest of her blouse, the songremains the same—you push in partsthat need to be pushed in, and if an areahas dipped in, you can gently push it backout (just make sure you make your brushsize a little bigger than what you’re push-ing out). Again, here we’re going rightalong a line in the window frame behindher, with my cursor starting right on theline, so the frame moves right along withme as I push.Go ahead and get the easy stuff out ofthe way. Following along the edge of theframe, like you see here, makes most ofthis pretty easy and routine at this point,so just keep doing what you’re doing.
  • 307. 288Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopNow, move down to her b-double-oh-tee-why and retouch the area stickingout there, as well. So far, so good.When you get to these larger parts of herblouse, along the sleeve, you have biggerareas to move, and you’ll need a biggerbrush (if you use a smaller brush size, itwill move in little chunks, which makesit harder and more time consuming toeven everything out). The problem hereis that, if you use a larger brush size (likethe one you see here), it’s going to moveand distort the line where the windowmeets the frame. So, you’ll need to freeze(lock down) that area, so it doesn’t movewhen you move her blouse. Get the FreezeMask tool (F) and paint a stroke right downthat line (as seen here in red. The frozenarea shows up in red, so you’ll know whichparts are frozen), then just gently push thesleeve area inward, and you’ll see that thefrozen area stays locked down. If you want,you can now use the Thaw Mask tool (thetool right below the Freeze Mask tool inthe Toolbox) to unfreeze that area.
  • 308. (Continued)Chapter 6 289Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopOkay, here’s where it starts to get sticky.I want to move this next section of herblouse inward a bit to smooth it out, butwhen I tuck that area in, it smudges theframe behind her (as seen here, where thebottom of the frame just kind of smears).My first thought was to freeze that area,and I tried that, but it’s just too close tothe blouse and it didn’t really work at all.In this case, you’re better off trying to fixthis after the fact with the Clone Stamptool, so that’s what we’ll do. After you’vemoved the blouse, go ahead and click OK.Once you click OK, try the History Brushtool (Y) first. I think of the History Brushas “undo on a brush,” because if you justgrab it and paint with it, it paints the imageto what it looked like when you opened it,so you might be able to just paint that partof the frame right back in. I tried that andit didn’t work in this case (rats!), but it hassaved me a ton of work in other cases, soit’s worth at least trying it out.Now that we’re done Liquifying, get theLasso tool (L) and draw a careful selectionaround the area you’re going to retouch.You can make it larger than the area, butmake sure you’re careful to keep it rightup against her blouse (as shown here).The reason we do this is that, by puttinga selection there first, it’s like putting afence around the area, and keeps youfrom accidentally cloning over an areayou don’t want cloned. So, it’s kind oflike freezing her blouse, because nowyou can only clone inside that selectedarea. The good news is that you cansample (Option-click [PC: Alt-click])outside the area, but you can onlypaint inside it.
  • 309. 290Try thistechnique onanother image!Download this image. See pg. xi.AfterProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopNow, get the Clone Stamp tool (S), press-and-hold the Option (PC: Alt) key, and clickonce on the part of the frame you want toclone just outside the selected area. Clickright on one of the seams, and then movestraight downward and start painting toclone in that part of the frame (as shownhere). One thing that really helps whencloning along a straight line like this is thatonce you Option-click that spot, and youmove your cursor down to where you wantto start cloning, it shows a preview insideyour brush cursor of what you’re about toclone. I know this sounds kind of funky justreading this here, but once you try it, you’llsee what I mean, and how helpful it is.
  • 310. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopChapter 6 291AFTER
  • 311. 293Chapter7Okay, so as photographers, we don’t havethe luxury of being able to spend hours ona retouch. Heck, we don’t have the luxuryof spending even an hour, because (a) weusually don’t get to bill separately for theretouching (unless you live in New York,where you’re allowed to bill for everythingfrom air to paper clips), and (b) the time wespend retouching is time we’re not shoot-ing, which is what we do get paid for, sowe need to get back to work as quickly aspossible. Honestly, most of my retouchesfall within the 5-to-15-minute range. Everyonce in a while, I have an important image,and I spend 30 minutes on it, but that’sabout it, because I’ve got to get back toshooting (or filling out invoices for paperclips). So, I wanted to give you three real-world scenarios, and take you from startto finish on what I would do to an imageif I had just 5 minutes, or just 15, or if I gotlucky and had 30 minutes to go from theunretouched photo to a final image. There’sanother topic we haven’t yet discussed thatplays into all this, and that is the famous“Factor3,” which you always hear retoucherstalking about. Factor3 actually refers to amathematical calculation that’s commonlyused to help determine how much time aretouch is likely to take. This calculation isbased on multiplying the number of blem-ishes on your subject’s face by the grosstonnage of a Soviet freighter, and thendividing the sum by the number of hairsyou’ll have to clone out of your subject’snostrils, which I can tell you in most casesis 38. It delivers a surprisingly accuratetime frame, especially since the grosstonnage of a Soviet freighter can varyfrom 17,053 to 18,605 tons fully laden.This is precisely why an HP 33s scientificcalculator is sometimes included right inthe box when you buy a Wacom tablet.Now you know.TAKING FIVEMy 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesChapter7
  • 312. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop294 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesRetouching ChecklistFACE:1. Are there red veins in the eyes?2. Whites of the eyes should be white,but not overly white.3. Is there good contrast in the eyes?4. Do you see catch lights in the eyes?5. Do the irises need brightening?6. Does the color of the irises needto be changed or enhanced?7. Darken the circle around the iris.8. Sharpen the eyes.9. Are both eyes symmetrical?10. Do the eyes need to be larger?11. Are both eyelids open enough?12. Check eyelashes (top & bottom).13. Are the eyebrows dark enough?14. Do the eyebrows need filling in?15. Trim any extra eyebrow hairs away.16. Check the shape of the eyebrows.17. Are the eyebrows symmetrical?18. Does the nose need to be smaller?19. Do the cheeks need to betucked in?20. Check the size of the ears.SKIN:21. Remove any blemishes.22. Remove or reduce moles orindividual freckles.23. Remove or reduce wrinkles.24. Remove dark circles under eyes.25. Remove or reduce smile lines.26. Reduce any hot spots.27. Is the skin tone consistent?28. Does the skin color of the facematch the rest of the body?29. Repair blotchy skin.30. Does the skin need smoothing?One of the things I’m asked the most is: “How do you know what needs to be retouched?” To help answer that, I put together thislist of 60 areas to at least consider for retouching, which you can quickly go through to make sure you’re covering all your bases.Now (and this is important), hopefully you’re not going to do all 60 things to any single photo (or you have an entirely differentproblem. Well, your subject does), but at least by checking this list, hopefully you’ll keep from having something sneak by you.Also, I created a Photoshop panel for you that contains this entire list (see page xiii).
  • 313. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 295Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop31. Does the skin need additionalmakeup applied?32. Add dodging and burning tosculpt the face.33. Are the hands, elbows, knees,or feet too red?34. Remove veins in the arms, wrists,hands, and feet.35. Sharpen the portrait.MOUTH & LIPS:36. Fix pointed teeth or gaps.37. Remove any yellowing on teeth.38. Brighten teeth.39. Enhance the size of the lips.40. Enhance lip color.41. Brighten up highlights.42. Clean up lips (spillover, lip liner,smudges, etc.).HAIR:43. Remove stray hairs.44. Remove strands that crossother hairs.45. Remove strands that appearover skin.46. Remove strands that cross overeyes and eyebrows.47. Fill any gaps in hair.48. Add highlights to hair.49. Change hair color.50. Darken part line.51. Fix roots.BODy:52. Reduce any double chin or jowls.53. Does the subject need slimming?54. Reduce love handles.55. Trim arms or legs, if necessary.56. Do the legs need lengthening?57. Do the arms and legs appearsymmetrical?58. Are there any distracting arm-pit wrinkles or any pit fat thatneeds reducing?59. Enhance the abs, if visible.60. Smooth and straighten clothing.
  • 314. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop296 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesWhen you can only invest five minutes in a retouch (which probably means you have a bunch of images to retouch), youhave to work smart. You’re not going to be able to do a lot of detail work on the eyes or skin—you just have to make surethe main areas get taken care of. You’re going to have to make some compromises to the list of things you want to do,versus what you’re going to have time to do. But, two things can really help you fit seven minutes of retouching into afive-minute bag: (1) use actions for stuff you do over and over, and (2) use a tablet.Step One:Here’s the original unretouched shot.Just giving it a quick look, here’s what I’lltry to retouch in the five minutes we have:(1) brighten the eyes and eye socket areas,(2) remove any major blemishes, (3) cloneaway the two buckles beneath the blousestraps, (4) soften the skin, (5) smooth outthe folds on the sides of the blouse, andthen (6) sharpen the eyes and the overallimage. That’s six things in only five min-utes, which means you’ll need to spendonly 30 seconds on some things, so you’llhave 60 seconds to spend on others. Don’tsweat it if you go over by 30 seconds orso at first (making it a 5½-minute retouch).Since you’ll probably be doing this on20 or so images at a time, by the time youget to the twentieth, you’ll probably haveit down to 4½ minutes. Here we go…My Five-Minute Retouch
  • 315. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 297(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Two:First, we’re going to fix the eyes and eyesockets all at once by just lightening thoseentire areas, like we did back on page 27.So, zoom in on the eyes, duplicate theBackground layer, and change the blendmode of the duplicate layer to Screen tomake the whole image brighter. Then, adda black layer mask to hide this brighterversion of her. With your Foregroundcolor set to white, paint over her eyes andthe surrounding eye socket areas (as shownhere, where I’m painting over and aroundthe eye on the right). I know right now itlooks like she’s been lying in the sun withsunglasses on, but we’ll fix that next.Step Three:Lower the Opacity of the Screen layer(as shown here) to the point where yourbrightening matches the rest of her face(here, I lowered it to 52%). If you see anyedges that look brighter, change yourForeground color to black and paint rightover those edges to get rid of them (I hadto do a little of that here, just under oneof her eyes, and you may need to loweryour brush’s opacity). We don’t have thetime to do any detail work on the eyes, butthey certainly look much better here thanthey did in Step One. Now, you can chooseto flatten your image (Command-E [PC:Ctrl-E]), or create a merged layer, but withonly five minutes, you’re not going to begoing back and tweaking things so muchthat you’re going to need to maintain allyour original layers. So, this is when you“flatten and move on,” and I’ll be doingthis with each retouch that I do here.
  • 316. 298 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Four:Duplicate the Background layer again,then switch to the Healing Brush tool,Option-click (PC: Alt-click) in a clean areabeneath a wrinkle, and completely removeas many wrinkles under her eyes as possi-ble, like you learned back on page 119. Usea small brush size and avoid the eyelashesas much as you can, because we’re notgoing to work on those at all. For now,just remove as many wrinkles as possiblein as little time as possible. We’re goingto bring some of these wrinkles back inthe next step, so don’t sweat making thiswrinkle removal perfect—just get close.Step Five:Now, go to the Layers panel and lowerthe Opacity of this layer, so just a littlebit of the wrinkle, and the darkeningunder her eyes, comes back for a morenatural look. If your subject is someoneolder, make sure you don’t leave thisOpacity setting too high, or they’ll lookweird. The older your subject is, themore wrinkles they’re expected to have.Your job is to make them look 10 yearsyounger—not 40 years younger. Okay,we’re done with the eyes and eye areas(critical retouches), so now let’s go getrid of the blemishes, just like we didback on page 86.
  • 317. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 299(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Six:Flatten your layers again, and then withthe Healing Brush still selected, makeyour brush just a little bit larger thanthe blemishes you’re going to remove.Option-click (PC: Alt-click) in a nearbyarea of clean skin (as shown here), thenmove your cursor over a blemish and justclick once to remove it. Since all you’redoing is just moving around and clicking,this goes really quickly. Don’t worry abouttiny little blemishes, because they’ll behidden somewhat in the skin softeningprocess. For now, just remove the stuffthat really stands out. Also, as you makeyour way near her mouth, remove thoselittle smile lines on either side of it.Step Seven:Here’s what it looks like after 15 secondsof individual clicks, and two brush strokesto remove the smile lines. Getting rid ofblemishes is one of the things you want toleave yourself the most time for, becausewe’ve only done one section of her face,and we used up 15 or 20 seconds.
  • 318. 300 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Eight:Work your way down from top to bottom(that way you won’t miss any areas like youwould if you were just jumping around).When you get to her neck and chest, don’tforget to only remove the most obviousand large blemishes—the rest will prettymuch get taken care of during skin smooth-ing, so don’t waste your time getting everysingle one. Here, I’ve removed a few ofthe bigger blemishes from the right sideof her chest, and now I’m moving over tothe center and left. You’ll also see someareas where the skin is a lighter color thanthe surrounding area (like she’s peelinga little from a sunburn a week ago), sojust remove the most obvious of thoseby painting over them with the HealingBrush, as well. If this was a larger areathat needed to be fixed, you could use thetechnique you learned back on page 131.Step Nine:This is one you’re going to have to makea call on whether to fix or not, becauseit’s going to eat up a minute all by itself.See those little metal buckles stickingout beneath the straps of her blouse?Because they’re reflecting the lighting,they draw the eye, and to me they’rereally distracting, but if it doesn’t botheryou, just jump straight over to Step 13.If it’s driving you nuts (like it is me), thenget the Lasso tool (L) and draw a quick,loose selection around the buckle on theright, but make sure you get your selectionnice and snug up against the material ofher blouse (as shown here). Remember,as you learned back on page 289 whenwe were fixing clothes, by putting thisselection here first, you’re making sureyour cloning stays inside that area, andthat you don’t run the risk of accidentallypainting on her blouse.
  • 319. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 301(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 10:Get the Clone Stamp tool, and thensample an area nearby that has the sametone and texture as what we’re trying toremove (in this case, the buckle is in ashadow area, so I sampled right belowwhere the buckle is—you can see whereI sampled from by where the little cross-hair cursor is here), and then quickly clonethat buckle away. This took just a few sec-onds, thanks to the fact that the selectionwas in place. Without it, I would have hadto be really careful, and work with a smallbrush. With it, I can use a medium-sizedbrush and just “get ’er done!”Step 11:Now, this is where I got worried, and why(if I had any sense) I would have let thispart of the retouch go. The buckle onthe other side is a nightmare. There’s hairoverlapping it, and getting a convincingretouch with hair intact is going to takesome serious time. So, I went with “Plan B,”which is to just cover it up with some ofthe black strap. This isn’t going to be apretty fix, but with the limited time wehave, I just want to make sure it doesn’tdraw the eye. Draw a quick Lasso selectionaround it (like you see here), that’s snugon the side up against the strap.
  • 320. 302 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 12:Switch back to the Clone Stamp tooland sample an area on the strap an inchor so below where the buckle is, and thenjust clone right over the buckle, basicallyextending the strap where the buckle usedto be (while I was at it, I also cloned awaythe stray threads to the right of the strapon the left). I told you this wouldn’t bepretty (and it’s not), but these are thekind of trade-offs you have to make whenyou’ve only got a few minutes to invest,and 19 more pictures waiting to be re-touched. Like I said, I probably should havelet this go, and spent more time on makingthe rest of the retouch look good, butI decided to go “all-in” and get rid of thosebuckles. I wish I had just had the makeupartist fix this during the shoot, and thenI wouldn’t have had to deal with it at all. I’mall for fixing it during the shoot. That way,I could have skipped this part altogether.Step 13:Now, we’re going to do some quickie skinsoftening, like we did back on page 90.Because we only have five minutes, we’regoing to break my “no blurring skin” rulea tiny bit, but we’re going to bring backlots of skin texture, so it’ll look prettydecent when we’re done. Start by dupli-cating the Background layer (remember,we’ve been flattening as we go to savetime), then add a 20-pixel Gaussian Blur.Lower the Opacity of this layer to 50%, soyou can easily see the blur (don’t worry,we’re not going to leave it at 50%—wejust want it set high, so we can easily seewhat we’re painting as we go), and add ablack layer mask to hide your blurry layer(as seen here).
  • 321. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 303(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 14:Get the Brush tool, and with yourForeground color set to white, choosea medium-to-large-sized, soft-edgedbrush at 100% Opacity (if you use toosmall a brush, you’ll never make it in fiveminutes), and paint over all the skin areas,being careful to avoid the eyes, eyebrows,hair, nostrils, lips, the edges of her face,and anything that should remain sharp.Step 15:Once you get it kind of roughed out,Option-click (PC: Alt-click) on the blacklayer mask thumbnail in the Layers panel,so you can see just the mask (seen here).Now, you can quickly see exactly whichareas you missed and you can paint rightover them in white on the mask (areas inwhite are getting softened). See all thoselittle black spots I missed on her neck andcheek? And I missed an entire area to theright of her eye on the right. You can toggleback and forth between this mask and thefull-color image by just Option-clickingon the mask in the Layers panel. That way,you can check to make sure you don’taccidentally blur over an area that shouldbe sharp.
  • 322. 304 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 16:Once you’re done painting, Option-clickback on the layer mask thumbnail to returnto the full-color image. Now, here’s whereyou can bring detail back. Although wepainted at 50% opacity, we only did thatso we could easily see where we’re paintingas we go, but 50% is too high an amount—it obliterates the skin texture, and her skinlooks plastic. Your job, then, is to lower thelayer’s Opacity setting as low as you cango to retain some of the smoothing, andyet still see skin texture. In most cases,that’s somewhere between 25% and 35%.Here, I lowered it to 30%, and then zoomedin, so you can see the skin texture, whichis definitely clearly visible. If you can getaway with 20%, and you think the skinis improved, all the better, but this is acall you’ll have to make based on yoursubject’s skin.Step 17:Now, let’s tackle all those unflatteringfolds on the sides of her blouse. Flattenyour layers, then go under the Filter menuand choose Liquify. Using the ForwardWarp tool, we’re going to use the sametechnique you learned back on page 285for dealing with folds in clothes like this.The key to this is working with a smallbrush size—one that is the approximatesize of what you’ll be working on. So, ifyou’re pushing in/out a small fold, yourbrush should be about that same size.If you’re moving a large area, use a large-sized brush, so it all moves as a unit.
  • 323. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 305(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 18:There are two things I would do here: Lookback at the image in Step 17 and you’llsee that the top of her blouse on the rightside of her breast looks pushed inward,which makes her breast look flat on thatside. We’re not going to make her breastlarger, but I think we need to use a largebrush and push that right side out a bit,so it looks fuller and matches the shape ofthe breast on the left. So, start by fixingthat. The key is to use a very large brush,but without distorting her arm on the right.Compare this capture, with the blousepushed out, versus the one shown inStep 17. Next, let’s work on the folds goingdown the right side of the blouse. Switchto a much smaller brush, and start pushingout those tucked-in areas between thefolds on her side. With folds, it’s a processof pushing out the crease, then tucking inthe side. Again, just keep your brush sizesmall and gently nudge the folds in and outuntil it starts to flatten out nicely, withoutlooking too uniform, or it’ll look retouched.Here, I’m about of the way down on herside, pushing in a fold.Step 19:Do the same fold-fixing to the other sideof her blouse, and while you’re there, I’dtuck in the sides a little bit, giving a slightcurve to her side, so it matches the rightside (as seen here). Now, you can click OKto apply these changes.
  • 324. 306 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 20:Now, let’s apply some overall sharpening,like you learned back on page 160. Sincethis is a photo of a woman, we want toavoid sharpening the skin as much aspossible, so go to the Channels panel andclick on the Red channel. This restrictsthe sharpening we’re about to apply tomostly the non-skin areas (the Red chan-nel doesn’t hold a lot of skin texturedetail), and since we’re applying thissharpening to just the Red channel, Ican apply more than I normally would.So, apply an Unsharp Mask filter, usingsettings of Amount: 120%, Radius: 1,Threshold: 3.
  • 325. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 307(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 21:Click back on the RGB channel at the topof the Channels panel to return to thefull-color image. Get the Sharpen tool(like you did back on page 81) and painta few strokes over the eyes (as shownhere) to finish off our retouch. Now, ifyou’re looking at this image and thinkingwe missed some things that should beretouched—you’re right. Doing a five-minute retouch means you fix what youcan fix in five minutes and move on to thenext image. So, for this image, we coveredthe most important areas we could, in areally fast and efficient way. Now, if youran a timer to see how you did, and you’reat seven minutes or 10 minutes, don’t let itget you down (also, remove any time youspent on the buckles). What makes youfaster at this is simply repetition. The moretimes you do this, the less you’ll have toread out of the book what to do next, andthe faster you’ll get. You’ll get this down tofour minutes before you know it.
  • 326. 308 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE
  • 327. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 309Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopAFTER
  • 328. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop310 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesStep One:Here’s the original, unretouched shot.I know what you’re thinking, “Hey, thehair is covered, so this won’t take as long.”Actually, I chose this one because it’sgoing to take the full 15 minutes (remem-ber, removing flyaway hair doesn’t takelong), because of her skin, which has lotsof tiny bumps (almost like goose pimples),and although we can’t remove them all,we can hide a lot of them and still retainlots of skin texture. Here, we’re goingto work on the skin, eyes, and eyebrows.We’re also going to remove the strapfrom the shoulder on the left, and we’regoing to tone the scarf she’s wearing, aswell. Don’t worry, you’ll be plenty busy.Step Two:I’m going to zoom in tight on one part ofher face, so you can see the goose bumpsI was talking about, and a few blemishes,as well. Here’s the strategy based on uskeeping this a 15-minute retouch: we’regoing to start by removing the majorblemishes and bumps the way we didon page 86, mostly ignoring the smallerones, because the skin softening tech-nique we’re going to use next will helplessen them quite a bit. So, create a newlayer for your blemish removal. Next, getthe Healing Brush tool, then go up tothe Options Bar and, in the Brush Picker,set the Hardness to 75% (as shown here)to get a little better blending alongthe edges.I try to keep my regular, run-of-the-mill retouching tasks to around 10 to 15 minutes, but keeping it closer to 10 makes abig difference. For a standard shoot, in most cases, I give the subject five to six finished images for their portfolio or project.If I spend just 15 minutes on each image, that’s an hour and a half of editing for just six images. If I can take it down to10 minutes an image, it’s only an hour, but that’s an hour I’m not shooting, so working fast and efficiently is key. Most ofmy retouching falls in the range of what you’ll see me doing here (hopefully, I can do it in less than 15, but of course, itdepends on the subject, and the client).My 15-Minute Retouch
  • 329. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 311(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Now, with a very small brush size—just atiny bit bigger than the blemishes andbumps we want to remove—sample aclean area near a blemish or bump, thenmove your cursor over each one and justclick. Don’t paint. Click (like you learnedback in Chapter 2). This is when a tabletwith a wireless pen really pays off, becauseyou can tap the head of a pen a lot oftimes in a minute. Make your way around,removing just the largest and most obviousblemishes, lines, or bumps. Remember tosample in a clean area near where you’ll behealing, and don’t hesitate to resample asyou move from the side of the face, to thecheek, to the nose. They all have slightlydifferent skin textures, so you need tosample from those areas.Step Four:Just move around her face and forehead,and continue this process of removingonly the biggest, most distracting bumps,lines, or blemishes. It’s okay to spend alittle extra time doing this, because themain retouch on this image will be theskin. The other stuff is pretty quick andeasy. So, for example, if you had a dollarto spend on retouching, I’d spend 40¢on this removing blemishes part. Theskin smoothing that comes next is prettyquick, so take a few extra seconds on this.
  • 330. 312 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:We’re going to do a simplified version ofthe skin smoothing technique you learnedback on page 96. It’s simplified because,rather than determining how much ofthe High Pass filter you should apply, I’mgoing to give you a number that (a) worksokay for your average high-res image (notideal, but okay), and (b) is easily divisibleby three. So, create a new merged layerat the top of your layer stack, then add aHigh Pass filter with a Radius of 9 pixels.Step Six:Next, you’ll apply a Gaussian Blur filterto your High Pass layer using an amountthat’s one-third as much as you used inthe High Pass filter. So, from the Filtermenu, under Blur, choose Gaussian Blur,and in this case, you’d enter 3 pixels, andthen click OK to blur the High Pass layera bit. Now, invert that High Pass layer.
  • 331. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 313(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Go to the Layers panel and do two things:(1) change the blend mode of thislayer to Linear Light, and (2) lower theOpacity to 50% (as shown here).Step Eight:Of course, we want to limit this smoothingto just the skin, and not the detail areas,so add a black layer mask to hide thissmoothing layer (as seen here, in theLayers panel). With your Foregroundcolor set to white, get the Brush tool,choose a medium, soft-edged brush at100% Opacity, and start painting over herskin. Of course, as always, avoid areasthat shouldn’t get softened, like hereyebrows, eyes, inside of her nostrils,lips, the scarf, and so on. As you paint,you’ll see that it smoothes out the bumps,yet there is a lot of texture, courtesy ofthat High Pass layer. Don’t forget to paintover her shoulder on the left and herfingers (avoid the fingernails, though).
  • 332. 314 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Nine:Here’s how the image looks at this stage.The skin is softened and the transitionsbetween the shadow and highlight areasare smoothed out. To make sure youdidn’t miss any areas, Option-click (PC:Alt-click) directly on the black layer maskthumbnail in the Layers panel and you’llsee the black-and-white mask (shownhere at the bottom). You can paint inwhite, right on the mask, over any areasyou might have missed. At this point, theopacity of this layer is at 50%, but if youfeel you can get away with a lower amount(40%, 35%), I would consider it. Zoom out abit to make seeing the overall image easier,lower the Opacity, and then try a few differ-ent opacities to see which one looks best(I ended up leaving it at 50%).Step 10:Now that we’ve spent all this time onthe skin, we’d better finish up all theother stuff fairly quickly, so let’s moveon to the eyes. We’re going to use atrick I mentioned on page 4 here. Adda Curves adjustment layer. Then, fromthe Curves pop-up menu at the top ofthe Adjustments panel, choose StrongContrast (RGB) (as shown here).
  • 333. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 315(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 11:Invert the layer mask to hide the contrastyversion of your image behind a black mask.With your Foreground color set to white,get the Brush tool, choose a medium, soft-edged brush at 100% Opacity and paintover the eyes to add lots of contrast(as seen here). Tweaking the contrast likethis can tend to actually change the colorof the eyes, but since we just want morecontrast, change the blend mode of thislayer from Normal to Luminosity (as shownhere), so you get the contrast, but not thecolor shift. Compare the eyes here, withthe eyes in Step Nine, and you can seewhat a difference this quick trick makes.Step 12:Now, let’s work on the eyebrows, whichneed to be darkened, like you learnedback on page 79. Add another Curvesadjustment layer to the top of your layerstack, and from the Curves pop-up menuat the top of the Adjustments panel,choose Darker (RGB) to darken the mid-tones in the image. Invert the layer maskto hide this darker version, then paint overjust her eyebrows (in white, of course) tomake them darker (as seen here, whereI’m painting the eyebrow on the right).
  • 334. 316 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 13:If you think her eyebrows need to bedarker, just go to the Adjustments paneland drag the center point of the curvefarther down (as I have here). Since youalready masked the eyebrows, as youdrag the curve downward, only the eye-brows get darker. However, just like withthe eyes, darkening the midtones canchange the color of the eyebrows, as well.So, don’t forget to change the adjustmentlayer’s blend mode to Luminosity (asseen here) to keep the color lookingthe same, but give them the addeddarkening they need.Step 14:Next, let’s work on removing the orangestrap on her shoulder. This is going totake two different retouches: one toremove the strap, and then where hershoulder is indented, you’re going tohave to smooth that out, as well. So,start by creating a new merged layer atthe top of your layer stack (we’ll needthis because we’re going to pick up partof her shoulder later on) and then zoomin on her shoulder.
  • 335. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 317(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 15:For large things like this, I prefer to use thePatch tool, rather than the Healing Brush.But, the problem with using either for aretouch like this is they don’t like edges—they smear if what you’re trying to removeis touching an edge. So, what I do is startby using the Clone Stamp tool. Here, whatI’ll do is make a break in the strap, so it’sno longer touching anything. So, grabthe Clone Stamp tool (S), start down atthe bottom where the strap touches thebottom of the image, Option-click (PC:Alt-click) to sample a clean area of skin,and just clone away a little ½" gap. Thendo the same thing up near the top (asshown here), but leave the part of thestrap that lies in the indent (we’ll be fix-ing that next).Step 16:Get the Patch tool (we’ll use it kinda likeyou did when you removed the hot spotson page 127), and draw a loose selectionaround the strap, just like you would withthe Lasso tool. Now, click your cursorinside your selected area and drag yourselection over to a clean nearby area(I dragged mine straight over to the right,where you see my cursor here), and thenrelease the mouse button. Your selectionsnaps back to its original location and thestrap is gone (as seen here)! You can pressCommand-D (PC: Ctrl-D) to Deselect, andif there are any tiny bits left over, just getrid of them with the Healing Brush. But, inthis case, it pretty much did the trick firsttime out for me.
  • 336. 318 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 17:We still have that little bit of strap and theindent it caused to get rid of. We’re goingto use the body sculpting technique weused back on page 271, except here, we’llfeather the selection. So, get the regularol’ Lasso tool and draw a loose selectionaround a part of the shoulder that doesn’thave an indent (as shown here). Make sureyou grab some of the background, as wellas a decent amount of skin. Next, let’ssoften the edges of the selection, so itblends in with the rest of the skin. Gounder the Select menu, under Modify,and choose Feather. When the dialogappears, enter 10, and click OK.Step 18:Duplicate that selection to get it up on itsown layer, and then use the Move tool todrag that chunk of shoulder up over thearea with the indent. Of course, it’s notgoing to line up (as you can see), so bringup Free Transform. Now, move your cursoroutside the Free Transform bounding boxand it changes into a two-headed arrow.Click-and-drag downward to rotate thecopied piece of shoulder, so it lines upwith the part of the shoulder that we’retrying to fix.
  • 337. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 319(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 19:Keep rotating until it lines up perfectly.Since you feathered the edges, youprobably won’t even have to do anyedge blending (but if you do, you couldalways just add a layer mask andpaint it away in black). Once it’s rotatedto perfectly line up (like you see here),press the Return (PC: Enter) key tolock in your rotation.Step 20:Now, to add some contrast to her scarf,do like we did with her eyes and eye-brows: add a Curves adjustment layerto the top of your layer stack, and then,from the Curves pop-up menu at thetop of the Adjustments panel, chooseMedium Contrast (RGB). My originalidea was to darken just the scarf (so we’ddarken the whole image with a Curvesadjustment layer, and then mask in just thescarf), but once I chose Medium Contrast,I thought the whole image looked prettygood, so let’s just leave it as is. But,go ahead and change the layer blendmode to Luminosity, so we don’t geta color shift.
  • 338. 320 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 21:If you have time left (I ran a timer duringmy retouch, and I had over two minutesleft), I would do some dodging and burningto sculpt the face. So, first create anothermerged layer, then duplicate that layer—this will be where you do your dodgingand burning (you already learned this backin Chapter 3, along with the differencesbetween using CS5 or newer, or workingwith an older version of Photoshop). Ialways start with burning (darkening), soget the Burn tool, set your Exposure inthe Options Bar to 10% or 12%, choosea medium-sized, soft-edged brush, andstart painting over the shadow areas (seepage 185 for an example of where to burn).Step 22:Now, switch to the Dodge tool andbrighten the highlight areas, like thestraight-line highlight going down thetop of her nose, her chin, her forehead—basically everything that extends outwardfrom the face (again, see page 187 formore on what to dodge). Dodging andburning like this tends to change the colorof the image, so change the blend modeof this layer from Normal to Luminosity(as seen here), then lower the Opacityquite a bit, so it blends in with the image(here I lowered it to 43%).
  • 339. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 321(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 23:It’s time to sharpen and finish this babyup (before our 15 minutes are up), somerge your layers once again. We wantto sharpen the image without sharpeningher skin detail, like we did on page 160,so go to the Channels panel and click onthe Red channel. Now, our sharpeningwill be applied just to this channel, andyou can see by looking at the channel,there’s not much skin detail here at all (it’smostly in the Green and Blue channels).So, by sharpening here, for women’s skin,you can avoid making the skin texturestand out. Add an Unsharp Mask filter,using settings of Amount: 120%, Radius:1.0, Threshold: 3, and click OK.Step 24:Now, click back on the RGB channel atthe top of the Channels panel to returnto the full-color image. To finish thingsup, let’s give those eyes a final sharpen-ing. Get the Sharpen tool (only do this ifyou have Photoshop CS5—see page 81)and sharpen both irises by painting overthem with a soft-edged brush, with theStrength set at 20%. Since your Strengthis set pretty low, you may have to paint afew strokes over them to get them niceand sharp—just be careful not to over-sharpen. Well, our 15 minutes are up,and we covered a lot of territory here.Remember, don’t be upset if this tookyou 20 minutes or more. You’ll get muchfaster the more you do this. So, for now,just get the steps down—the speed willcome next.
  • 340. 322 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE
  • 341. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 323Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopAFTER
  • 342. Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop324 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesStep One:Here’s the original unretouched shot, sowe’re starting from scratch. Let’s start witha quick evaluation of what we’re going toretouch, and we’ll go from top to bottom.As always, we have lots of stray hairs tofix, some minor gaps in the hair on theleft side of her forehead, and we need toremove that extra sprig of hair coming offher neck and going down her back. We’llalso need to darken the part in her hair.From there, we’ll fill in the eyebrows a bit,and enhance the top and bottom eye-lashes, too. She has an earring hole in herearlobe we need to remove, and the topof her ear has a red patch that needs to beremoved, as well. But, we’re not done yet.Zoom in just a little.Step Two:If you look at her eyes, you’ll see weneed to remove some red veins fromthem, and add contrast and sharpeningto them, as well. There are a few linesunder her eyes, so we’ll remove those,too. We have some more hair going overinto her ear that has to go, and we haveminor skin blemishes that need to beremoved from her face, along with somefreckles and blemishes on her neck andshoulders. We’ll also lessen or removemost of the lines on her neck. I know thatseems like a lot, but the good news isthis should be a pretty quick and easyretouch (especially since we have solittle to do to the skin).Here, I’m going to show you my workflow for a start-to-finish beauty-style retouch. We’re not retouching this for the cover ofa fashion magazine or anything like that, so my goal is to make this a 20- to 30-minute retouch from start to finish. Youmight think that, because our subject has great skin, the process will be really simple, but not having to do that muchwith her skin really only saves us one step, so you’ll still stay pretty busy for the next 20 to 30 minutes.My 30-Minute Retouch
  • 343. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 325(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Three:Although I evaluate the image from topto bottom (to figure out which retouchesI might need to do), I usually start theactual retouch by retouching the thingthat bothers me the most first. That way,it’s no longer distracting me, and I don’twind up rushing through other retouches,so I can finally get to fix the part that’sdriving me crazy. In this particular case,it’s the red veins in her eyes that botherme the most, so we’ll start there, usingthe technique you learned on page 32.But more often than not, it’s large blem-ishes that I usually wind up getting rid offirst. So, let’s get to it (start your timer).First, zoom in really tight on the eye onthe right and then create a new layer. Getthe Brush tool and choose a small, soft-edged brush set to 20% Opacity. Then,Option-click (PC: Alt-click) in a clean areaof eye right near the red veins to switchto the Eyedropper tool, and sample andset your Foreground color, then just painta series of strokes over each vein untilthey’re gone.Step Four:Just keep painting them, one-by-one, re-membering to resample (I had to resamplea number of different times as I moved todifferent areas of the eye, because lightfalling on a spherical eye causes the toneto change), until they’re gone (doesn’t takevery long at all). By the way, don’t forget todo both eyes. Also, we’re going to add atiny bit of noise to this layer. So, go underthe Filter menu, under Noise, and chooseAdd Noise. When the filter dialog appears,choose 1%, Uniform distribution, turn onthe Monochromatic checkbox, and clickOK. Since we’re doing an entire start-to-finish retouch, you’re going to have a lotof layers, so this would be a good time tostart naming your layers. Name this one“Eye Veins” (okay, that was kind of obvious).
  • 344. 326 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Five:Next, we’ll add some contrast to theeye, so add a Curves adjustment layer(we learned this trick on page 4). Fromthe Curves pop-up menu at the top ofthe Adjustments panel, choose StrongContrast (RGB). This adds an S-shape tothe curve, which increases the highlightsand shadows, which increases the con-trast in the image (as you can see here).Step Six:Of course, this contrast curve totallytrashed her skin color (and we don’t gen-erally want to add contrast to a woman’sskin), so Invert the adjustment layer’slayer mask, hiding the contrasty versionof her behind a black mask. Now, get theBrush tool, choose a small, soft-edgedbrush set to 100% Opacity, and thenpaint over each iris to give them lots ofcontrast (like you see here). This strongamount of contrast actually changed thecolor of the eyes a little bit (that’s prettycommon), so to get around that, atthe top of the Layers panel, change theblend mode of this adjustment layer fromNormal to Luminosity (as shown here).Also in the Layers panel, toggle the vis-ibility of this Curves adjustment layeron/off a couple of times, and you’ll seewhat a difference this makes.
  • 345. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 327(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Seven:Three more things left to do to her eyes:First, create a merged layer at the topof the layer stack to work on. Now, let’sdarken the outer ring of the irises usingthe technique you learned back on page6, where we make a selection of an iris,feather it, and put it up on its own layer(I’m doing each iris on its own layer here,instead of both on one, because thelighting is different on each eye). Next,change the layer blend mode to Multiply,Command-click (PC: Ctrl-click) on thelayer thumbnail to bring the selectionback up, and then contract it. Hit theDelete key to knock a hole out of thecenter of the darker eye, leaving just thedarker outer ring, and then deselect. Ifthere’s any spillover, add a layer maskand paint it away in black. Don’t forgetthe other eye. In this case, when I didthe eye on the left, because of where Ipositioned the lighting, that eye is darker,and the ring looked too dark at 100%, soI reduced its Opacity to 37%.
  • 346. 328 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep Eight:Now, you’re going to create those iriskickers that make the eyes sparkle (fromback on page 12) by first clicking back onthe merged layer and creating a new blanklayer, then drawing a white circle overthe iris a little smaller than the iris itself.Deselect, then cut off the top half of yourcircle (put a rectangular selection acrossthe top half of the circle, then hit Deleteand deselect. I used the Polygonal Lassotool for the rectangular selection, since herface is on an angle). Command-click on thelayer thumbnail to put a selection aroundyour half-circle. While the Polygonal Lassotool is active, click-and-drag that selectionupward about half the height of the half-circle and hit Delete. Deselect, and you’releft with a quarter-moon shape. Now, adda 2.5-pixel blur to soften, change the layerblend mode to Soft Light, then lower theOpacity until it looks right to you (for me,the right eye was 40%; the left 80%. I alsomoved both iris kicker layers to the top ofthe layer stack).Step Nine:We still need to work on the eyebrowsand eyelashes, but our last little tweakto the eyes is to sharpen them separatelyfrom the rest of the image. In PhotoshopCS5, I use the Sharpen tool, because it’sgot the best sharpening algorithm ofanything in Photoshop (as I explained backon page 81). So, start by creating anothermerged layer, then get the Sharpen tooland, at a Strength of around 20% and withthe Protect Detail checkbox turned on inthe Options Bar, paint over each iris andpupil—don’t forget to paint a little overthe edges of the irises to make them reallysharp. Now, take a look at her eyebrowon the right, because we’re about to fillit in, trim the top, and heal away any strayeyebrow hairs.
  • 347. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 329(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 10:First, we’ll do the fill (like you learnedback on page 75). Just a reminder: thiseyebrow fill-in looks awful until we’re donewith it. Also, if you were doing this for amakeup company, you’d be filling in theeyebrow by copying the original hairs oneat a time, but for our 30-minute retouch,we’re just going to get the Brush tool, thenquickly sample the color of the eyebrowhairs (by pressing-and-holding the Option[PC: Alt] key to switch to the Eyedroppertool). So, create a new blank layer (nameit “Right Eyebrow”), then with the Brushtool, Option-click to sample, and paintin 1- or 2-pixel-wide, soft-edged strokesover the thin areas (as seen here at the top.The cursor is so small here, it’s hard to see,but I’m painting 2-pixel strokes over hereyebrow hairs, following the same direc-tion as the hairs). Now, change the blendmode of this layer to Multiply, then lowerthe Opacity of it until it blends right in withthe existing hair and looks natural (here Ilowered the Opacity of the Right Eyebrowlayer to 40%).Step 11:Next, let’s trim the top of the eyebrow(like we learned back on page 72). First,click back on your last merged layer(Layer 3), then take the Lasso tool anddraw an eyebrow-shaped selection (likethe one you see here) in a clean arearight above the eyebrow. Add a 3-pixelFeather to soften the edges, copy thisselection up onto its own layer, name it“Trim Eyebrow,” and then move the layerto the top of the layer stack.
  • 348. 330 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 12:Switch to the Move tool and drag thisarea downward toward the top of theeyebrow, until it trims off the top andmakes it nice and smooth (like you seehere). Lastly, using the Healing Brush, let’sclean up the stray hairs on the left end ofthe brow (as shown here) and under thecenter (you can see them in Step 11). Ifanything smears, undo it, switch to theClone Stamp tool, and use a small, soft-edged brush instead. Now, while I wasretouching in this area, I noticed a smallbluish vertical vein just below the far-rightside of the eyebrow (again, look back atStep 11 to see this), which I removed,along with a few little skin bumps.Step 13:Now, we’ll move on to the eyelashes.Create a new blank layer, name it “TopRight Lash,” and then get the Brush tool.Load the eyelash brush set that youdownloaded from the book’s companionwebsite (see page 57) and choose theFeather Lash Right brush (shown circledhere in red). For this image, you need tolower the size of the brush to around 300pixels (remember, it’s okay to have thelash be too big at first, because you cansize it down. What you don’t want is tomake it too small and then have to stretchit larger, because the brush will getpixelated and soft). Now, just click theeyelash brush once on your blank layer,somewhere near where it’s going to go(as shown here).
  • 349. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 331(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 14:Bring up Free Transform, and rotate theeyelash, so it matches the angle of theeye, and then size it down to match thesize (by the way, the way to make sureyou’ve chosen the proper right or leftbrush is the longer lashes should be atthe outside of the eye—the end closestto the ear). Next, you’re going to Right-click inside the Free Transform boundingbox and choose Warp from the pop-upmenu (as shown here) to tweak the eye-lash, so it perfectly fits the eye (as youlearned back on page 60).Step 15:Lower the Opacity of the lashes layer, sothat it blends in better with the naturallashes in the image (here, I lowered it to40%). Now, on to the bottom lashes (fromthe same technique in Chapter 1). Createa new blank layer, name it “Bottom RightLash,” and then go to the Brush Pickeragain, but this time choose one of thesingle eyelash brushes (I like the BottomLash 3 single lash brush, shown circledhere). For this image, lower the Size toaround 32 pixels using the Size slider atthe top of the Picker. Don’t forget to goto the actual Brush panel and set your32-pixel brush up, so it varies the size andshape as you paint with it (here, I set theSize Jitter to 40%, and the Angle Jitteramount to 3%. See page 63 for moreon this).
  • 350. 332 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 16:Now that your brush is set up to auto-matically vary size and angle slightly, you’llneed to choose the direction to match thenatural eyelashes (which form an arc underthe eye, with the lashes fanning from left toright). In the Brush panel’s Brush Tip Shapeoptions, click-and-drag the brush directionpreview to change the direction of youreyelash brush. You’re going to start paint-ing just to the right of the center, so haveyour lashes arcing to the right a bit, thenstart painting along the lash line (as shownhere). It’s way too much at this point, butwe’ll fix that in a moment.Step 17:Change the direction so the lashes arestraight and paint over the center, thenrotate the brush again as you get nearthe left side of the eyelashes (nearestthe nose). As you get closer to the nose,you’ll need to shrink the lash size andangle as you go, because the left sideshould have smaller lashes than the right.So, just remember to rotate the brushand adjust the Size slider in the Brushpanel as you go. By the way, I don’t nor-mally do the right, then the center, andthen back to the left. I normally start onthe inside side of the eye and work my wayout, but I just wanted to do it this way tohelp you understand what has to be done.You can paint your strokes any way you’recomfortable with, as long as you vary thedirection and size as you go. Now, to makethe bottom fake eyelashes blend in withthe real ones, lower the layer Opacity ofyour Bottom Right Lash layer to around40% and then add a Drop Shadow layerstyle. Important: Don’t forget to do theother eye—both top and bottom lashes!
  • 351. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 333(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 18:The last thing we want to do with theeyes is to heal away those small linesbeneath them (look back in Step 17 andyou’ll see them) using the technique youlearned on page 119. So, create anothermerged layer and then switch to theHealing Brush tool. Just a simple healingwith a small brush will do the trick. Lastly,let’s put all these eye layers together in agroup (so we’re not dealing with all theselayers for the rest of our retouch). Select allof the eye layers in the Layers panel, thenchoose New Group from Layers from thepanel’s flyout menu. Name this set “Eyes”and now they’re all in one tidy folder.Step 19:Now, let’s clean up the hair, using thetechnique on page 196. First, create a newblank layer (name it “Hair Cleanup”), thenget the Clone Stamp tool, and choosea small, hard-edged brush (we have to usea fairly hard brush tip like this, so we don’tsoften the edge of her hair when we reachit, but if the hard edge seems too hard, inthe Brush Picker, lower the Hardness from100% to 75%). Her hair is more in focuson the top of her head, and less so on theside, so you might have to vary the soft-ness a bit. Now, go around the head andclone away any stray hairs (as shown here)by sampling a clean background area rightnear the hair you want to remove, thenpainting over it to clone it away.
  • 352. 334 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 20:Continue going around removing thestray hairs, but leave a few here and thereor it’ll look like she has plastic hair (hereI’ve cleaned up most of the stray hairs,including a few crossed hairs within herhead). Now, let’s work on darkening thepart in her hair, like you learned back onpage 214. Start by creating a merged layer,then change the layer’s blend mode toMultiply. Option-click (PC: Alt-click) on theAdd Layer Mask icon at the bottom of theLayers panel to add a black layer mask,hiding the darker version of your image.Now, get the Brush tool, choose a medium-sized, soft-edged brush, and paint in whiteover the part area (as shown here). If youthink the part looks too dark, reduce thelayer’s opacity.Step 21:Now, let’s work on the hairs that extendover onto her back (here, we’ll follow partof that same technique from Chapter 4we used to clean up the edges of her hair).Start by creating a new layer, name it“Hair on Back” (not “Back Hair,” which issomething else and just sounds so cruel),and then switch to the Healing Brush tool(which works really well and is my go-totool when hair extends over skin, but otherthan that, when it comes to removing hair,I use the Clone Stamp tool). There reallyisn’t any trick to this—you just have tobe patient, sample clean areas, and healall the hair away strand by strand. Onceyou’ve got those healed away (you mayhave to switch to the Clone Stamp toolto get the edge of her back), while you’vestill got the Healing Brush, you might aswell get to work on those blemishes andget rid of them, as well. I also got rid ofher earring hole.
  • 353. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 335(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 22:Just go around and keep healing awaythose blemishes, until they’re all gone.Her skin is a little bit blotchy on her back,so we’ll deal with that, but before we getto that, we have two more annoying hairthings to work on: (1) those little wispsof hair at the top of the back of her neck,and behind her ear, extending into therest of her hair (we’ll just clone that out),and (2) the hair extending onto her ear.Step 23:Normally, when you’re working insidethe hair area, outside of cloning awaysome individual crossed hair strands,your best bet is to pick up some existinghair, copy it onto its own layer, and thenmove that hair over the large piece youwant to cover (like you learned back onpage 202). If you need to, you can thenuse Free Transform’s Distort feature—just Command-click on a corner pointand drag to make it fit perfectly. However,since there’s not much detail in this darkarea of her hair behind her neck to beginwith, we can get away with just cloningover those wisps. So, create a new blanklayer (name it “Extra Hair”), then get theClone Stamp tool, choose a medium-sized,soft-edged brush, and clone over thoseareas (don’t forget to follow the directionof the hair). While you’re there, shrink yourbrush size way down and trim away thoselittle hairs on the back of her neck, as well.
  • 354. 336 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 24:Now, the hair-over-the-ear retouch isone of those pain-in-the-butt retouchesthat there isn’t a great trick for—just agreat pair of tools. Use the Healing Brushtool as much as possible, then switch tothe Clone Stamp tool when you get tothe edges to keep them from smearing.It’ll take a few minutes, so be preparedto spend some time here. Create a newblank layer (name it “Hair Over Ear”),zoom in tight, like I did here, use a smallHealing Brush, and start just chippingaway at each strand of hair, until they’reall gone.Step 25:Here, the hair’s pretty much gone. Again,I only used the Healing Brush and CloneStamp tools with a very small brush size,and I just took the time to painstakinglyremove every strand. It wasn’t fun, andI wouldn’t normally do this for a quickieretouch, but in this case, we’re going togo a little farther than I normally wouldjust to show you what can be done withsome patience and a small brush size.We still have the issue of that red patchat the top of her ear (that I mentioned inthe first step), but you can get rid of thatin five seconds using the Healing Brush,so it’s really not an issue (go ahead anddo that now). She does have a gap in herhair on the left side of her forehead, solet’s go fix that next.
  • 355. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 337(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 26:To fix that gap, we’re going to borrowsome hair from somewhere nearby, copyit up onto its own layer, and move it overto cover up the gap (like you learned backon page 204). The piece that looked to melike it might look the best is the one infront with the nice highlight near the top.Before you make your selection in this area,though, get rid of any crossed hairs, spots,specks, or anything else that might repeatitself, in case you have to make more thanone copy. Now, create a new merged layer,then get the Lasso tool and make a selec-tion around that perfectly clean nearbyarea (as shown here). Normally, I wouldfeather this area by 10 pixels, but sincethe selection is so thin, let’s just go for5 pixels, and then copy this selection upon its own layer.Step 27:Now, switch to the Move tool and dragthat chunk of hair over until it starts to fillin the gap. Moving it straight over leavesa little gap at the bottom, so go to FreeTransform and rotate this a little counter-clockwise (as shown here) to cover thatsmall gap at the left end.
  • 356. 338 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 28:You’ll need to do this two more times(make two copies of the selected hairlayer, move them over to cover the nextpart of the gap, and then rotate them asnecessary). Once the gap is fully covered(as seen here), zoom in tight and checkto see if you have any obvious repeatingpatterns in the hair (like a speck or crossedhair you see three times in a row—a deadgiveaway). If you see something like that,just get the Clone Stamp tool, use a reallysmall brush, and clone those little repeat-ing areas away so it looks natural, like yousee here. Now, go to the Layers panel,select all the hair layers, and put theminto a group (like you did with the eyelayers back in Step 18), and name thisgroup “Hair.”Step 29:There’s not that much left to do on thisimage, but I would generally either tonedown or remove the neck lines, so let’sdo that. For a beauty shot like this, whenit comes to neck lines, less is more, so let’sremove the top two lines altogether (andany other little neck muscle twists), andthen we’ll greatly tone down the bottomone (we’ll do this like we removed thewrinkles back on page 119). Create a newblank layer, name it “Neck Lines,” andthen get to work with the Healing Brushtool. Just sample a nearby area andremove those top two neck lines andany nearby stragglers.
  • 357. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 339(Continued)Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopStep 30:Now, let’s create a separate blank layerfor the main neck line (name it “MainNeck Line”), so we can remove it com-pletely, then bring it back a little bit bylowering the Opacity a tiny bit (as shownhere)—so it’s there, but it’s really subtle.You can certainly remove the neck linealtogether (I’ve seen it done numeroustimes in beauty shots), so it’s reallyyour call, but I will usually leave alittle line there because to me itlooks more natural.Step 31:I’d finish the retouch of this image offwith a skin retouch. But, since the skin onher face is very good, it would just be amatter of getting in tight with a very smallHealing Brush, finding any small blemishesor discolorations, and healing them away.There’s a little area under her left eyeI would probably work on, and a few littleblemishes here and there. But what I’mmost concerned about is the uneven skinon her back, so for a fairly quick retouchlike this, I’d finish off by using the skinsmoothing technique found on page 102.Now, while it does use the Surface Blurfilter, it brings back the original skin textureon top, so the final result is not blurred-away detail, but nice, clearly visible texture.Lastly, I’d sharpen the entire image bygoing to the Channels panel, clickingon the Red channel, and then applyingthe Unsharp Mask filter with settings ofAmount: 120, Radius: 1, and Threshold:3 (you learned this back on page 160).
  • 358. 340 Chapter 7 My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute RetouchesProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopBEFORE
  • 359. My 5-, 15-, and 30-Minute Retouches Chapter 7 341Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using PhotoshopAFTER
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  • 361. Index 343INDEX[ ] (bracket keys), 46, 1715% slimming rule, 2615-minute retouch, 296–30915-minute retouch, 310–32330-minute retouch, 324–341100% size setting, xixAabdominal retouching, 280–284about this book, x–xiiiactions, recording, xxiiAdd a Layer Style icon, 65Add Layer Mask icon, 3, 45Add Noise filter, 33, 94, 325adjustment layersadvantages of, 18blend modes vs., 15toggling on/off, 9Adjustments panel, 4, 10Adobe Photoshop. See Photoshopaligning facial features, 176–183Amount slider (Camera Raw), 165Angle Jitter slider, 63, 331Angle preview, Brush panel, 64arm and leg thinning, 271–279automating tasks, xxiiBBackground layer, xviii, 2, 24Backspace key, 9Barker, Corey, 57, 113, 140beauty-style retouchbefore and after examples of, 340–341overview of workflow for, 324–339See also thirty-minute retouchBlack & White adjustment layer, xxiblemish removal, 86–88digital make-up and, 140in five-minute retouch, 299–300in fifteen-minute retouch, 310–311in thirty-minute retouch, 335, 339blend modesadjustment layers vs., 15Color, 185Linear Light, 98, 313Luminosity, 4, 79, 82, 315, 316Multiply, 8, 77, 142, 148, 212Overlay, 94, 108Screen, 24, 27, 143, 192, 212, 229Soft Light, 2, 14, 94, 106, 184, 239, 281Bloat tool, 46–47Blue channel, 113, 160Blur filtersGaussian Blur, 14, 90, 96, 97, 109, 188Surface Blur, 102, 114blurring techniquesfor porcelain skin look, 155for skin softening, 89, 90–91, 96, 97, 109for sparkling eyes, 14body retouching, 259–291accentuating abs, 280–284checklist for, 295double chin reduction, 266–270in fifteen-minute retouch, 318–319fixing clothes issues, 285–291overall slimming technique, 260–262slimming one person in group shot, 263–265thinning arms and legs, 271–279bracket keys ([ ]), 46, 171brightening techniquesfor eye sockets, 27for sculpting the face, 186–187for teeth, 250, 252–256for whites of eyes, 24–31See also lightening techniquesBrush panelBrush Tip Shape options, 64, 332eyelash brush adjustments, 63–64Pen Pressure settings, 141Brush Pickerchoosing brushes from, 3custom eyelash brushes in, 57–58resizing brushes in, 59Brush Size slider, 46Brush Tip Shape adjustment, 64, 332Brush toolEyedropper tool used with, 32, 76keyboard shortcut for, 3Brush tool (retouching examples)adding highlights to hair, 193–194arm/leg thinning process, 273, 274, 276brightening whites of eyes, 25–26, 30catch light enhancement/creation, 18, 21darkening parts in hair, 215digital makeup techniques, 141–149double chin reduction, 269enlarging eyes, 45, 46–47eye color changes, 36eyebrow beautification, 75–76, 79eyelash enhancement, 57–58, 63–64, 330, 331fixing gaps in hair, 206hair color changes, 211, 212hiding hair roots, 218iris retouching, 3, 9lightening eye sockets, 27lip retouching, 229, 233, 237porcelain skin look, 153, 154, 158Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
  • 362. 344 IndexBrush tool (retouching examples) (continued)portrait sharpening, 163removing eye veins, 32–33sculpting the face, 184–188skin softening, 91–92, 100, 103–104, 110, 115–116swapping eyes, 52–53whitening teeth, 253–254wrinkle removal, 125brushesadvice on choosing, xvicustom eyelash, 57–58, 330, 331Hardness setting for, 146–147, 275resizing in Brush Picker, 59shortcut for resizing, 46, 171stroke direction for, xxbuckle removal, 300–302Burn toolabdominal retouching with, 280–282sculpting the face with, 320burning and dodgingabdominal retouching by, 280–283sculpting the face by, 184–189, 320used by high-end retouchers, 184CCamera Rawopening images in, 151, 163porcelain skin technique in, 151–159sharpening portraits in, 163–165Camera Raw Defaults option, 154catch light in eyes, 17–23creating, 20–23enhancing, 17–19repositioning, 53–55channelsloading as selections, 114sharpening portraits using, 160–162skin softening using, 113–118Channels panelLab Color mode, 162RGB mode, 113, 160checklist for portrait retouching, xiii, 294–295cheeksdigital makeup applied to, 142–144wrinkle removal around, 123–124chin reduction, 266–270Clone Stamp toolarm/leg thinning with, 275clothes retouching with, 289, 290, 301, 317eye retouching with, 39–40, 54–55, 56eyebrow retouching with, 70, 330fixing gaps in hair with, 338lip area retouching with, 241stray hair removal with, 140, 196–199, 201,333–334, 335–336stubble reduction with, 136–138tooth repair with, 248clothes retouching, 285–291in five-minute retouch, 300–302, 304–305in fifteen-minute retouch, 316–317colorremoving with Desaturate command, 157sampling with Eyedropper tool, 32, 54, 76, 141,185, 217color adjustmentseye color changes, 35–37hair color changes, 209–213lip color changes, 236–242porcelain skin look and, 154–155See also tonal adjustmentsColor blend mode, 185color channels. See channelsColor Picker, 144, 146Color Range feature, 227–228Colorize checkboxeye color and, 35hair color and, 211, 212lip color and, 234Colors pop-up menu, 156companion website, xiContract Selection dialog, 8contrast adjustmentsclothes retouching and, 319eye retouching and, 2–5, 314, 326Create a New Layer icon, 2, 12Create New Action icon, xxiiCreate New Adjustment Layer icon, 4Create New Channel icon, 114Crop tool, 261, 264cropping images, 261, 264crosshair cursor, 120Current Layer setting, 275cursorcrosshair, 120plus-sign, 275two-headed arrow, 60, 178Curves adjustment layercontrast adjustments using, 4, 79, 314, 319, 326finding potential fixes using, xxitonal adjustments using, 132–133, 134, 315Curves pop-up menuDarker (RGB) option, 315Medium Contrast (RGB) option, 319Strong Contrast (RGB) option, 4, 314, 326Cyan slider, 236, 238, 240Ddark circle removal, 38–41Darken mode, Clone Stamp tool, 139Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
  • 363. Index 345darkening techniquesfor eyebrows, 79–80, 315–316for facial stubble, 139for lips, 157–158for outer rim of iris, 6–11, 327for part lines in hair, 214–216for sculpting the face, 185–186Darker (RGB) option, 315Delete key, 9Desaturate command, 157, 185Deselect command, 9Detail panel (Camera Raw), 164digital makeup, 140–150digital photos. See imagesdistorting selections, 6, 202, 276, 335Dodge toolabdominal retouching with, 283double chin retouching with, 268lip retouching with, 240sculpting the face with, 320dodging and burningabdominal retouching by, 280–283sculpting the face by, 184–189, 320used by high-end retouchers, 184double chin reduction, 266–270Down Arrow key, 178downloading practice images, xiDrop Shadow layer style, 65, 332duplicatingchannels, 114layers, 2, 22, 81Smart Object layers, 152Eearsremoving hair over, 336retouching, 172–173, 181, 336Edge Detection options, 210Elliptical Marquee tooleye retouching and, 6, 12, 20, 42, 49ring color changes and, 185enlarging featureseyes, 42–48, 177lips, 224–226Eye icon, xviii, 9eye retouching, 1–83adding sparkle to eyes, 12–16, 328brightening whites of eyes, 24–31catch light enhancement/creation, 17–23changing color of eyes, 35–37darkening outer rim of iris, 6–11digital makeup techniques, 145–147enlarging size of eyes, 42–48eyebrow beautification, 68–80eyelash enhancement, 57–67in five-minute retouch, 297in fifteen-minute retouch, 314–315increasing iris contrast, 2–5, 314, 326lightening eye sockets, 27reducing dark circles, 38–41removing veins from eyes, 32–34, 325sharpening eyes, 81–83, 307, 321, 328swapping one eye for the other, 49–56symmetry adjustments, 176–178in thirty-minute retouch, 325–328wrinkle removal around eyes, 120–122eye shadow technique, 145eyebrow retouching, 68–80basic technique, 68–74darkening eyebrows, 79–80, 315–316digital makeup technique, 145, 147in fifteen-minute retouch, 315–316making fuller eyebrows, 75–78in thirty-minute retouch, 329–330Eyedropper tooldigital makeup and, 141, 142, 143, 147, 148eye retouching and, 32, 54eyebrow enhancement and, 76hair root retouching and, 217, 219keyboard shortcut for, 32eyelashesbrushes for retouching, 57–58, 330, 331enhancing appearance of, 57–67eye swapping technique and, 55thirty-minute retouch and, 330–332eyeliner technique, 145–146Ffacial feature reshaping, 169–189dodging-and-burning technique for, 184–189double chin reduction, 266–270face and head reshaping methods for, 170–175symmetrically aligning features, 176–183facial line removalin five-minute retouch, 298in fifteen-minute retouch, 311in thirty-minute retouch, 333See also wrinkle removalfacial retouchingchecklist for, 294–295sculpting the face, 184–189, 320See also specific facial featuresFade dialog, 128–129Feather Selection dialog, 7, 43, 69feathering selectionsbody sculpting and, 318eye retouching and, 7, 43eyebrow enhancement and, 69, 73facial feature alignment and, 176hair retouching and, 202, 204lip retouching and, 224skin tone balancing and, 131Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
  • 364. 346 Indexfeathering selections (continued)slimming methods and, 266tooth repair and, 248, 250fifteen-minute retouch, 310–323before and after examples of, 322–323blemish removal in, 310–311body sculpting in, 318–319clothes retouching in, 316–317, 319eye retouching in, 314–315eyebrow darkening in, 315–316goose bump removal in, 310–311sculpting the face in, 320sharpening process in, 321See also five-minute retouch; thirty-minute retouchFill dialog, 93Fill Pixels icon, 21filtersAdd Noise, 33, 94, 325Gaussian Blur, 14, 90, 96, 97, 109, 188High Pass, 97, 105, 109Liquify, 46, 147, 170, 243, 269, 278, 285Pinch, 267Surface Blur, 102, 114Unsharp Mask, 81, 161, 162five-minute retouch, 296–309before and after examples of, 308–309blemish removal in, 299–300clothes retouching in, 300–302, 304–305eye retouching in, 297sharpening process in, 306–307skin softening in, 302–304wrinkle removal in, 298See also fifteen-minute retouch; thirty-minuteretouchF-key assignments, xxiiflattening layers, 255Flip Horizontal command, 50, 54, 62, 207Flip X checkbox, Brush panel, 64Flow Jitter pop-up menu, 141Foreground color swatch, 144, 146Format pop-up menu, 163Forward Warp toolclothes retouching with, 285–288, 304double chin reduction and, 269facial symmetry adjustments, 178, 179, 181lip retouching technique, 147repairing teeth using, 243–247, 255reshaping the face and head with, 171, 173Free Transform bounding boxdistorting selections with, 202resizing selections with, 44, 52, 177, 225, 261, 264rotating selections with, 205, 272, 276, 277selecting specific points on, 272, 276Free Transform commandsFlip Horizontal command, 50, 54, 62, 207Warp command, 60–61, 62, 331Freeze Mask toolclothes retouching with, 288facial symmetry adjustments, 178, 181reshaping the face and head with, 170, 173tooth repair with, 251, 255GGaussian Blur filterface sculpting and, 188iris retouching and, 14skin softening and, 90, 96, 97, 109Giard, Shelley, 57, 140glossy lips, 227–231goose bump removal, 310–311Green channel, 113, 161group shots, slimming one person in, 263–265grouping layers, 66, 144Hhair, 191–221adding highlights to, 192–195changing color of, 209–213checklist for retouching, 295darkening parts in, 214–216fixing gaps in, 204–208, 337–338hiding roots of, 217–221porcelain skin look and, 154–155removing stray hairs, 140, 196–203, 333–336halos, avoiding, 165Hardness setting, 146–147, 275head and face reshaping, 170–175Healing Brush toolblemish removal with, 86–87, 140, 299eye retouching with, 38–39eyebrow retouching with, 330lip area retouching with, 241neck line removal with, 338stray hair removal with, 196, 200, 334, 336wrinkle removal with, 119–125, 298“helmet head” effect, 198hidinghair roots, 217–221layer mask effects, 116selections, xix, 70, 71, 128High Pass filter, 97, 105, 109high pass skin softening, 108–112, 312highlight adjustmentsabdominal retouching and, 283adding highlights to hair, 192–195dodging technique for, 186–187, 283eye retouching and, 17, 29lip retouching and, 149, 228–230, 240See also shadow adjustmentsProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
  • 365. Index 347History Brush tool, 289History States, 197Hollywood, Calvin, 151hot spot removal, 127–130HSL/Color/B&W panel (Lightroom), 151HSL/Grayscale panel (Camera Raw), 151, 153Hue slidereye color changes, 35hair color changes, 211, 212lip color changes, 234Hue/Saturation adjustmentseye color changes, 35facial slimming and, 268hair color changes, 211–212lip color changes, 233tooth whitening, 249, 252–254Iimagesdownloading for practice, xievaluating for retouch process, 324–325opening in Camera Raw, 151, 163Inverse command, 69, 71Invert command, 4irisadding sparkle to, 12–16, 328darkening outer rim of, 6–11, 327increasing contrast in, 2–5, 314, 326sharpening technique, 82, 328See also eye retouchingJjawdouble chin reduction, 266–270reshaping technique, 170–172Kkelbytraining.com website, xikeyboard shortcutsBrush tool, 3creating custom, 43Desaturate command, 157Eyedropper tool, 32feathering selections, 43hiding selections, xix, 70, 128merging layers, xix, 53resizing brushes, 46, 171Undo command, 47, 179, 197Zoom tool, 2Keyboard Shortcuts and Menus dialog, 43LLab Color mode, 162Lasso toolbody sculpting and, 318clothes retouching and, 289, 300eyebrow retouching and, 72, 329facial feature alignment and, 176hair retouching and, 202, 204, 337lip retouching and, 224, 232skin tone balancing and, 131, 133, 134slimming techniques and, 266, 271, 273, 275, 277tooth repair and, 248, 249, 250layer masksadding to images, 3channels and, 115displaying, 92, 104hiding effects of, 116inverting, 4, 18selections and, 7, 104thumbnails for, 8, 92, 115, 116, 234, 303layer style, Drop Shadow, 65, 332layerscreating new, 2, 12duplicating, 2, 22, 81flattening, 255grouping, 66, 144merged, xix, 53, 255, 273naming/renaming, 63, 65reason for working on, xviiiSmart Object, 152See also adjustment layersLayers panelAdd a Layer Style icon, 65Add Layer Mask icon, 3Create a New Layer icon, 2Create New Adjustment Layer icon, 4Eye icon, xviiiLeft Bracket key, 46, 171leg and arm thinning, 271–279Levels adjustment layerblend modes vs., 15highlight adjustments, 17, 29layer mask creation, 7midtone adjustments, 10, 157, 250shadow adjustments, 157, 250Lighten mode, Clone Stamp tool, 39, 136lightening techniquesfor dark circles under eyes, 39for eye sockets, 27for facial stubble, 136for sculpting the face, 186–187for teeth, 250, 252–256See also brightening techniquesLightness channel, 162Lightness slider, 35, 37Lightroom Develop Module, 151Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
  • 366. 348 Indexline removalfacial lines, 298, 311, 333neck lines, 338–339See also wrinkle removalLinear Light blend mode, 98, 313lips, 224–242changing the color of, 234checklist for retouching, 295color shade changes for, 236–242darkening the appearance of, 148, 157–158enlarging the size of, 224–226glossy/shiny look for, 227–231increasing red color of, 156, 238–239lipstick color adjustments, 232–235removing hairs around, 241retouching center dip in, 147smoothing rough areas of, 148symmetry adjustments for, 182Liquify adjustmentsarm/leg thinning, 278clothes retouching, 285, 304eye resizing, 46–47face/head reshaping, 170–174facial symmetry, 178–182lip retouching, 147, 224repairing teeth, 243–247, 251, 255slimming the face, 269, 270Liquify filter toolsBloat tool, 46–47Forward Warp tool, 147, 171, 173, 178, 179, 243–247,255, 269, 285Freeze Mask tool, 170, 173, 178, 181, 251, 255, 288Pucker tool, 179Thaw Mask tool, 170, 288Twirl Clockwise tool, 180Load Brushes command, 57Luminosity blend modeclothes retouching and, 319eye retouching and, 4, 79, 82, 315, 326eyebrow darkening and, 316facial sculpting and, 320MMagenta slider, 236, 238makeupapplying digital, 140–150importance of, 140Masking slider (Camera Raw), 164masks. See layer masksMedium Contrast (RGB) option, 319menretouching applied to, xxstubble reduction on, 136–139merged layers, xix, 53, 255, 273midtone adjustmentseyebrow darkening and, 315iris retouching and, 10lip darkening and, 157skin tone balancing and, 132–133, 134tooth whitening and, 250mouthchecklist for retouching, 295wrinkle removal around, 123See also lips; teethMove toolarm/leg thinning and, 272, 274eye retouching and, 22, 50, 62, 73, 330hair retouching and, 202, 205, 207, 337Multiply blend modedigital makeup and, 142, 143, 145, 146, 148eyebrow retouching and, 77, 329hair retouching and, 212, 214, 334iris retouching and, 8, 327Nnaming/renaminggroups, 66layers, 63, 65, 66neck retouchingdodging-and-burning technique for, 186Liquify filter used for, 270removing neck lines, 338–339New Action dialog, xxiiNew Group from Layers command, 66New Layer dialog, 281New Smart Object via Copy command, 152noise, adding to images, 33, 94, 325nose retouchingsymmetry adjustments and, 179–181wrinkle removal and, 122OOpacity Jitter pop-up menu, 141Opacity settingsabdominal retouching and, 283advice on choosing, xvialigning images using, 51catch light adjustments and, 18, 21, 22dark circle removal and, 40digital makeup techniques and, 141, 143dodging/burning layers and, 188eye retouching and, 10, 15, 27, 36eyebrow retouching and, 77eyelash enhancements and, 61, 65hair retouching and, 194, 212, 220hot spot removal and, 128–129lip retouching and, 230porcelain skin look and, 155, 158Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
  • 367. Index 349skin softening and, 91, 93, 99, 103, 106, 111, 117stubble reduction and, 138tooth whitening and, 254wrinkle removal and, 125Opacity slider, 27Open Object button, 152Oranges slider (Camera Raw), 151–152Overlay blend mode, 94, 108Ppart lines in hair, 214–216Patch toolclothes retouching with, 317hot spot removal with, 127–128pathsdrawing with Pen tool, 68turning into selections, 69Pen tooleyebrow retouching and, 68Pen Pressure settings, 141tooth repair and, 248video on using, 68photographersprofessional retouchers vs., xretouching checklist for, xiii, 294–295time considerations for, x, xxiii, 293Photoshopopening Smart Objects in, 152recording new actions in, xxiiretouching checklist panel for, xiii, 294Pinch filter, 267plus-sign cursor, 275Polygon tool, 20–21Polygonal Lasso tool, 328porcelain skin look, 151–159portrait retouchingauthor’s philosophy on, xvchecklist for, xiii, 294–295five-minute workflow, 296–309fifteen-minute workflow, 310–323thirty-minute workflow, 324–341time considerations for, xxiiitwelve things to know about, xvi–xxiiiportrait sharpening, 160–166practice images, xipresets, tool, xviiPressure Sensitivity, 141, 184previewingeyelash adjustments, 63, 64Gaussian Blur effects, 188portrait sharpening, 162, 164Protect Detail checkbox, 81Protect Tones checkbox, 280Pucker tool, 179pupilcatch lights and, 21, 22retouching iris and, 3–4See also eye retouchingQQuick Selection tool, 209“quickie” skin softening, 90–95RRadius settingGaussian Blur filter, 90, 109, 188High Pass filter, 105Refine Edge dialog, 210Surface Blur filter, 102Radius slider (Camera Raw), 165recording actions, xxiiRectangular Marquee tooleye retouching and, 13, 20slimming techniques and, 263Red channel, 113, 114, 160, 161–162Reds slider (Camera Raw), 153Refine Edge dialog, 210removing/reducingblemishes, 86–88, 140, 299–300, 310–311, 335dark circles under eyes, 38–41distracting buckles, 300–302double chin, 266–270hair around lips, 241hot spots, 127–130neck lines, 338–339stray hairs, 140, 196–203, 333–336stubble, 136–139veins from eyes, 32–34, 325wrinkles from face, 119–126, 298renaming. See naming/renamingrepairing teeth, 243–251, 255reshaping facial features, 169–189face and head reshaping methods, 170–175sculpting the face by dodging and burning, 184–189symmetrically aligning features, 176–183resizing. See sizing/resizingretouching portraitsauthor’s philosophy on, xvchecklist for, xiii, 294–295five-minute workflow, 296–309fifteen-minute workflow, 310–323thirty-minute workflow, 324–341time considerations for, xxiiitwelve things to know about, xvi–xxiiiRetouchPRO.com website, 96RGB channel, 162, 307, 321RGB Color mode, 163Right Bracket key, 46, 171rotating selections, 205, 272, 276, 277, 318–319, 331Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
  • 368. 350 IndexSSample pop-up menu, 38, 275sampling imageswith Brush tool, 38with Clone Stamp tool, 39, 137with Eyedropper tool, 32, 54, 76, 141, 185, 217with Healing Brush tool, 86, 119Saturation slidereye color changes, 35hair color changes, 211, 212lip color changes, 234teeth whitening, 252Schuler, Christy, 217Screen blend modedigital makeup and, 143, 147eye retouching and, 24, 27, 297hair retouching and, 192, 212lip retouching and, 229sculpting the face, 184–189, 320selection toolsElliptical Marquee tool, 6, 12, 20, 42, 49, 185Lasso tool, 72, 131, 176, 202, 224, 232Pen tool, 68Quick Selection tool, 209Rectangular Marquee tool, 13, 20selectionsdistorting, 6, 202, 276, 335entire image, 260hiding, xix, 70, 71, 128inversing, 69, 71layer masks and, 7, 104loading channels as, 114refining edges of, 210resizing, 44, 52, 177, 225, 261rotating, 205, 272, 276, 277, 318–319, 331softening edges of, 7, 43, 69turning paths into, 69Selective Color adjustment layer, 156, 236–240shadow adjustmentsabdominal retouching and, 281–282burning technique for, 185–186lip darkening and, 157–158slimming techniques and, 268tooth whitening and, 250See also highlight adjustmentsShadows Amount slider, 268Shadows/Highlights dialog, 268shape distortion, 202Shape Dynamics checkbox, 63Sharpen toolProtect Details checkbox, 81, 328Strength setting, 82, 321, 328Sharpening sliders (Camera Raw), 164sharpening techniquesfor eye sharpening, 81–83for five-minute retouch, 306–307for fifteen-minute retouch, 321for portrait sharpening, 160–166for thirty-minute retouch, 328, 339shortcuts. See keyboard shortcutsShow Backdrop checkbox, 244Show Mask checkbox, 171Size Jitter slider, 63, 331sizing/resizingbrushes, 46, 59selections, 44, 52, 177, 225, 261See also enlarging featuresskin retouching, 85–166blemish removal, 86–88blurring techniques, 89, 302channel skin softening, 113–118checklist for, 294–295digital makeup techniques, 140–150in five-minute retouch, 302–304in fifteen-minute retouch, 312–314high pass skin softening, 108–112hot spot removal, 127–130porcelain skin look, 151–159“quickie” skin softening, 90–95, 302–304retaining texture with skin softening, 96–101, 339sharpening techniques, 160–166skin tone balancing, 131–135stray hair removal, 200stubble reduction, 136–139texture added after skin softening, 102–107wrinkle removal, 119–126slimming/trimming techniques, 260–279abdominal retouching, 280–284double chin reduction, 266–270fixing clothes issues, 285–291overall slimming technique, 260–262slimming one person in a group shot, 263–265thinning arms and legs, 271–279Smart Objects, 152Smart Radius checkbox, 210smile lines, 123–124Smudge tool, 198Soft Light blend modeabdominal retouching and, 281dodging and burning using, 184hair root retouching and, 218–219increasing contrast using, 2iris retouching and, 2, 14lip retouching and, 239skin texture effect and, 94, 106softbox reflections, 20softening skinadding texture after, 102–107blurring methods used for, 89channels used for, 113–118in five-minute retouch, 302–304in fifteen-minute retouch, 312–314Professional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
  • 369. Index 351high pass technique for, 108–112“quickie” technique for, 90–95, 302–304retaining texture while, 96–101, 339sparkle, adding to eyes, 12–16, 328stray hair removal, 140, 196–203, 333–336stroke direction, xxStrong Contrast (RGB) option, 4, 314, 326stubble reduction, 136–139Surface Blur filter, 102, 114swapping eyes, 49–56symmetry adjustments, 176–183Ttablet sensitivity settings, 141Targeted Adjustment tool (TAT)facial slimming and, 268lip retouching and, 233teeth, 243–256repairing, 243–251, 255whitening, 252–256textureadding after softening skin, 102–107faking with skin softening, 93–94removing for porcelain skin look, 155retaining with skin softening, 96–101, 339Thaw Mask tool, 170, 288thinning methodsarm and leg thinning, 271–279double chin reduction, 266–270See also slimming/trimming techniquesthirty-minute retouch, 324–341before and after examples of, 340–341blemish removal in, 335, 339evaluating images for, 324–325eye retouching in, 325–328eyebrow retouching in, 329–330eyelash retouching in, 330–332facial line removal in, 333fixing gaps in hair in, 337–338neck line removal in, 338–339sharpening process in, 339skin smoothing technique in, 339stray hair removal in, 333–336See also fifteen-minute retouch; five-minute retouchThreshold slider, Surface Blur filter, 102thumbnailsBrush Picker, 58color channel, 114layer mask, 8, 92, 115, 116, 234, 303time considerations, xxiiitonal adjustmentseyebrow enhancement, 315Protect Tones checkbox, 280skin tone balancing, 131–135See also color adjustmentstool presets, xviiTransform Selection command, 6See also Free Transform bounding boxtrimming techniques. See slimming/trimmingtechniquesTwirl Clockwise tool, 180two-headed arrow cursor, 60, 178UUndo command, 47, 179, 197Unsharp Mask filter, 81five-minute retouch and, 306fifteen-minute retouch and, 321portrait sharpening and, 161, 162thirty-minute retouch and, 339See also sharpening techniquesVveins in eyes, 32–34, 325video on Pen tool, 68View Options, 171WWacom pen and tablet, xvii, 141Warp command, 60–61, 62, 331websiteskelbytraining.com, xiRetouchPRO.com, 96whiteningwhites of eyes, 24–31yellow teeth, 252–256workflows, xiifive-minute retouch, 296–309fifteen-minute retouch, 310–323thirty-minute retouch, 324–341wrinkle removal, 119–126, 298See also line removalXX key, 3YYellow slider, 238yellow teeth, 252–256ZZoom tool, 2, 32zooming in/out, xixProfessional Portrait Retouching Techniques Using Photoshop
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