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Sentence Structure/   Yupin Chen                           Syntax    Intro. to Linguistics                                ...
Generative Grammar                         212年12月19日星期三
Generative Grammar    • Chomsky                         212年12月19日星期三
Generative Grammar    • Chomsky    • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity                       ...
Generative Grammar    • Chomsky    • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity    • "All and only" cr...
Generative Grammar    • Chomsky    • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity    • "All and only" cr...
Generative Grammar    • Chomsky    • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity    • "All and only" cr...
Sentences different on the surface                                         312年12月19日星期三
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
Sentences different on the surface    • What if the following sentences actually come from one      identical structure?  ...
D- vs. S-Structure    • D-Structure:                     • S-Structure    • Structure planned in the mind;   • Structure a...
The Model of the    Generative Grammar    • Chomsky    • The reversed Y model    512年12月19日星期三
The Model of the    Generative Grammar    • Chomsky    • The reversed Y model    512年12月19日星期三
The Model of the         Lexicon    Generative Grammar    • Chomsky    • The reversed Y model    512年12月19日星期三
The Model of the                       Lexicon    Generative Grammar       D-structure    • Chomsky    • The reversed Y mo...
The Model of the                       Lexicon    Generative Grammar       D-structure    • Chomsky    • The reversed Y mo...
The Model of the                       Lexicon    Generative Grammar       D-structure    • Chomsky    • The reversed Y mo...
The Model of the                       Lexicon    Generative Grammar       D-structure    • Chomsky    • The reversed Y mo...
The Model of the                                     Lexicon    Generative Grammar                  D-structure    • Choms...
The Model of the                                     Lexicon    Generative Grammar                  D-structure    • Choms...
The Model of the                                     Lexicon    Generative Grammar                  D-structure    • Choms...
The Model of the                                     Lexicon    Generative Grammar                  D-structure    • Choms...
Lexicon                           D-structure               transformation rules                            S-Structure   ...
Lexicon                                       D-structure                           transformation rules • Charlie broke t...
Lexicon Charlie broke the window. D-structure                           transformation rules • Charlie broke the window.  ...
Lexicon Charlie broke the window. D-structure                           transformation rules • Charlie broke the window.  ...
One sentences has two different d-structures.                                                    712年12月19日星期三
One sentences has two different d-structures.    • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed      into two...
One sentences has two different d-structures.    • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed      into two...
One sentences has two different d-structures.    • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed      into two...
One sentences has two different d-structures.    • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed      into two...
One sentences has two different d-structures.    • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed      into two...
Deep Structure                     812年12月19日星期三
Deep Structure    • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed?                                                      812...
Deep Structure    • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed?    • There are mainly TWO parts:                        ...
Deep Structure    • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed?    • There are mainly TWO parts:         • Phrase struct...
Deep Structure    • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed?    • There are mainly TWO parts:         • Phrase struct...
Deep Structure    • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed?    • There are mainly TWO parts:         • Phrase struct...
Deep Structure    • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed?    • There are mainly TWO parts:         • Phrase struct...
Phrase structure rules    • To regularize the structure of a constituent,    • To make sure that a constituent is well-for...
Phrase structure rules: Examples    • NP -> {Art (Adj) N, Pro, PN, POSS N...}    • VP -> {Vi, Vt NP, Vi PP, Vdt NP1 NP2......
Commonly used symbols and abbreviations    • Yule (2003, p. 101):    • S (sentence) NP (noun phrase) PN (proper noun)    N...
Lexical insertion    • After the formation of a constituent, based on phrase      structure rules    • Inserted by matchin...
Linear order vs. hierarchical structure                                              1312年12月19日星期三
Linear order vs. hierarchical structure    • Why is tree diagram preferred?                                              1...
Linear order vs. hierarchical structure    • Why is tree diagram preferred?         • Hierarchical structure, not just wor...
Linear order vs. hierarchical structure    • Why is tree diagram preferred?         • Hierarchical structure, not just wor...
Linear order vs. hierarchical structure    • Why is tree diagram preferred?         • Hierarchical structure, not just wor...
Linear order vs. hierarchical structure    • Why is tree diagram preferred?         • Hierarchical structure, not just wor...
Word order cannot account for agreement.    • One of the students is absent today.    • The man who is playing with the ki...
Word order cannot reveal structural relations.    • Did Bill break the window?    • Who broke the window?    • The window ...
Word order cannot reveal structural relations.    • Did Bill break the window?    • Who broke the window?    • The window ...
Word order cannot reveal structural relations.    • Did Bill break the window?   Different word order!    • Who broke the ...
Word order cannot reveal structural relations.    • Did Bill break the window?    Different word order!    • Who broke the...
Word order cannot explain structural ambiguity.    • "The man saw the boy with a telescope."    • Structurally ambiguous: ...
Hierarchical structure: tree diagram    • NP = The man (word order: article N)    • Hierarchical structure:    •          ...
Hierarchical structure    • What sentences can this structure generate?                                S                  ...
Hierarchical structure    • What sentences can this structure generate?                                S                  ...
A review and practice                            1912年12月19日星期三
A review and practice    • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7)      to (12))          ...
A review and practice    • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7)      to (12))    • *Dog...
A review and practice    • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7)      to (12))    • *Dog...
A review and practice    • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7)      to (12))    • *Dog...
A review and practice    • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7)      to (12))    • *Dog...
A review and practice    • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7)      to (12))    • *Dog...
A review and practice    • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7)      to (12))    • *Dog...
Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence    structure.                                                   2012年12月19日星期三
Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence    structure.    • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103)              ...
Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence    structure.    • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103)    • [[A dog]...
Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence    structure.    • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103)    • [[A dog]...
Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence    structure.    • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103)    • [[A dog]...
Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence    structure.    • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103)    • [[A dog]...
Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence    structure.    • Practice: Yule (2003, p. 103)    • Mary helped George.    ...
Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence    structure.    • Practice: Yule (2003, p. 103)    • Mary helped George.    ...
Transformation rules: Movements    • Charlie broke the window.        Did Charlie break the      window?    • S -> NP AUX ...
Transformation rules: Movements     • Transformation rule: inversion, or AUX inversion               S                    ...
Transformation rules: Movements    • WH-Movement    • Word order: Charlie broke the window => Charlie broke      what => d...
Transformation rules: WH-Movements               S                                           S    NP AUX               VP ...
Transformation rules: WH-Movements               S                                           S    NP AUX               VP ...
Transformation rules: WH-Movements               S                                           S    NP AUX               VP ...
Transformation rules: WH-Movements               S                                           S    NP AUX               VP ...
Transformation rules: WH-Movements               S                                           S    NP AUX               VP ...
Transformation rules: WH-Movements               S                                             S    NP AUX               V...
Embedded structure    • I think that he will come.    • I know that he will come.    • I believe that he will come.    • T...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • I know [that he will come].    • I believe [that he will come]. ...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].                                       A sentence is put in another   ...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the      structure?...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and      "w...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and      "w...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and      "w...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and      "w...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the      structure?...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the      structure?...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the      structure?...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the      structure?...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the      structure?...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].    • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the      structure?...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].                                      S                            NP ...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].                                      S                            NP ...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].                                      S                            NP ...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                              ...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                            S ...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                              ...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                              ...
Recursion    • The embedded structure is repeated.    • The embedded structure recurs in a structure and the      grammati...
Recursion    • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know      we know." (Friends, Season 5)                     ...
Recursion    • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know      we know." (Friends, Season 5)                     ...
Recursion    • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know      we know." (Friends, Season 5)                     ...
Recursion    • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know      we know." (Friends, Season 5)                     ...
Recursion    • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know      we know." (Friends, Season 5)                     ...
Subordination                    3512年12月19日星期三
Subordination    • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to      a main clause to add more information t...
Subordination    • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to      a main clause to add more information t...
Subordination    • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to      a main clause to add more information t...
Subordination    • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to      a main clause to add more information t...
Subordination    • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to      a main clause to add more information t...
Subordination                    3612年12月19日星期三
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.                                   3612年12月19日星期三
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.    • She sings while she takes a shower.                                    ...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.    • She sings while she takes a shower.    • What syntactic category do the...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.    • She sings while she takes a shower.    • What syntactic category do the...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.    • She sings while she takes a shower.    • What syntactic category do the...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.    • She sings while she takes a shower.    • What syntactic category do the...
Subordination                    [+ past]                               [+ past]                                          ...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.                         [+ past]                                    [+ past]...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.    • PS rule: CP -> C S                         [+ past]                    ...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.    • PS rule: CP -> C S            S                  NP       AUX       VP ...
Coordination    • Traditional grammar: Two sentences or clauses are joined into      one with a coordinator, and the coord...
Coordination    • She arrived and he left.            S                       S               Conj           S            ...
Coordination     • He ate or drank.                          4012年12月19日星期三
Coordination                                     S     • He ate or drank.               NP          AUX                VP ...
Adjunct vs. Complement    • Adjunct:         • A constituent that adds information to its related constituent         • No...
Embedded structure    • I think [that he will come].                                      S                            NP ...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                              ...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                            S ...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                             S...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                              ...
Embedded structure  • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you.                                              ...
Subordination                    [+ past]                               [+ past]                                          ...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.                         [+ past]                                    [+ past]...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.    • PS rule: CP -> C S                         [+ past]                    ...
Subordination    • She arrived after he left.    • PS rule: CP -> C S            S                  NP       AUX       VP ...
Adjunct vs. Complement    • Compare:    • John put it on the table.    • John wrote it on the table.                      ...
Adjunct vs. Complement    • Compare:    • John put it on the table.    • John wrote it on the table.                      ...
Adjunct vs. Complement    • Compare:                                    Complement    • John put it on the table.    • Joh...
Adjunct vs. Complement    • Compare:                                    Complement    • John put it on the table.    • Joh...
Adjunct vs. Complement    • Compare:                                        Complement    • John put it on the table.    •...
S    Adjunct vs. Complement                                        NP     AUX      VP               S                     ...
S    Adjunct vs. Complement                                        NP     AUX      VP               S                     ...
S    Adjunct vs. Complement                                        NP     AUX      VP               S                     ...
Study questions    • Yule (2003, p. 107):    • Q6    • Q3    • Task C                             4812年12月19日星期三
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Transcript of "Syntax"

  1. 1. Sentence Structure/ Yupin Chen Syntax Intro. to Linguistics 112年12月19日星期三
  2. 2. Generative Grammar 212年12月19日星期三
  3. 3. Generative Grammar • Chomsky 212年12月19日星期三
  4. 4. Generative Grammar • Chomsky • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity 212年12月19日星期三
  5. 5. Generative Grammar • Chomsky • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity • "All and only" criterion: all and only well-formed structures 212年12月19日星期三
  6. 6. Generative Grammar • Chomsky • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity • "All and only" criterion: all and only well-formed structures • A finite set of rules can generate an infinite number of sentences. 212年12月19日星期三
  7. 7. Generative Grammar • Chomsky • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity • "All and only" criterion: all and only well-formed structures • A finite set of rules can generate an infinite number of sentences. • Some sentences are simply superficially different; some sentences are different underlyingly. 212年12月19日星期三
  8. 8. Sentences different on the surface 312年12月19日星期三
  9. 9. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? 312年12月19日星期三
  10. 10. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. 312年12月19日星期三
  11. 11. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? 312年12月19日星期三
  12. 12. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? 312年12月19日星期三
  13. 13. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Charlie. 312年12月19日星期三
  14. 14. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? 312年12月19日星期三
  15. 15. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? 312年12月19日星期三
  16. 16. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? Charlie broken • Who broke the window? the window. • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? 312年12月19日星期三
  17. 17. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? Charlie broken • Who broke the window? the window. • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? surface structure/ s-structure 312年12月19日星期三
  18. 18. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? Charlie broken • Who broke the window? the window. • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? deep structure/ surface structure/ d-structure s-structure 312年12月19日星期三
  19. 19. D- vs. S-Structure • D-Structure: • S-Structure • Structure planned in the mind; • Structure actually produced and perceived; • Formed by PS rules; • Structure formed by applying • The simplest structure. transformation rules (0 to many); • A potentially complex structure. 412年12月19日星期三
  20. 20. The Model of the Generative Grammar • Chomsky • The reversed Y model 512年12月19日星期三
  21. 21. The Model of the Generative Grammar • Chomsky • The reversed Y model 512年12月19日星期三
  22. 22. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar • Chomsky • The reversed Y model 512年12月19日星期三
  23. 23. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky • The reversed Y model 512年12月19日星期三
  24. 24. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky • The reversed Y model S-Structure 512年12月19日星期三
  25. 25. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF 512年12月19日星期三
  26. 26. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF 512年12月19日星期三
  27. 27. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky transformation rules • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF 512年12月19日星期三
  28. 28. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky transformation rules • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF 512年12月19日星期三
  29. 29. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky transformation rules • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF 512年12月19日星期三
  30. 30. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky transformation rules • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF derivation of sentences 512年12月19日星期三
  31. 31. Lexicon D-structure transformation rules S-Structure LF PF 612年12月19日星期三
  32. 32. Lexicon D-structure transformation rules • Charlie broke the window. S-Structure • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? LF PF • The window was broken by Charlie. 612年12月19日星期三
  33. 33. Lexicon Charlie broke the window. D-structure transformation rules • Charlie broke the window. S-Structure • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? LF PF • The window was broken by Charlie. 612年12月19日星期三
  34. 34. Lexicon Charlie broke the window. D-structure transformation rules • Charlie broke the window. S-Structure • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? LF PF • The window was broken by Charlie. 612年12月19日星期三
  35. 35. One sentences has two different d-structures. 712年12月19日星期三
  36. 36. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? 712年12月19日星期三
  37. 37. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? • The man saw the boy with a telescope. 712年12月19日星期三
  38. 38. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? • The man saw the boy with a telescope. • The man saw [the boy [with a telescope]]. 712年12月19日星期三
  39. 39. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? • The man saw the boy with a telescope. • The man saw [the boy [with a telescope]]. • The man [saw [the boy] [with a telescope]]. 712年12月19日星期三
  40. 40. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? • The man saw the boy with a telescope. • The man saw [the boy [with a telescope]]. • The man [saw [the boy] [with a telescope]]. • Hence, two meanings are perceived, because of two different deep structures. 712年12月19日星期三
  41. 41. Deep Structure 812年12月19日星期三
  42. 42. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? 812年12月19日星期三
  43. 43. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: 812年12月19日星期三
  44. 44. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: • Phrase structure rules 812年12月19日星期三
  45. 45. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: • Phrase structure rules • Lexical insertion 812年12月19日星期三
  46. 46. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: • Phrase structure rules • Lexical insertion 812年12月19日星期三
  47. 47. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: • Phrase structure rules • Lexical insertion • How do we get these PS rules? 812年12月19日星期三
  48. 48. Phrase structure rules • To regularize the structure of a constituent, • To make sure that a constituent is well-formed, • To form the deep structure of a sentence, • To create a sentence "template" for lexical items to be inserted. • For example, PP -> P NP • Reading: a preposition phrase (PP) (in this language) consists of a preposition (P) and a noun phrase (NP), with the preposition, the head, ordered prior to the NP, the complement to the preposition. 912年12月19日星期三
  49. 49. Phrase structure rules: Examples • NP -> {Art (Adj) N, Pro, PN, POSS N...} • VP -> {Vi, Vt NP, Vi PP, Vdt NP1 NP2...} • PP -> P NP 1012年12月19日星期三
  50. 50. Commonly used symbols and abbreviations • Yule (2003, p. 101): • S (sentence) NP (noun phrase) PN (proper noun) N (noun) VP (verb phrase) Adv (adverb) V (verb) Adj (adjective) Prep (preposition) Art (article) Pro (pronoun) PP (prepositional phrase) * ungrammatical sentence → consists of / rewrites as ( ) optional constituent { } one and only one of these constituents must be selected 1112年12月19日星期三
  51. 51. Lexical insertion • After the formation of a constituent, based on phrase structure rules • Inserted by matching lexical information with grammatical information in the structure • For example: * N NP Art N Art N A book A for 1212年12月19日星期三
  52. 52. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure 1312年12月19日星期三
  53. 53. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? 1312年12月19日星期三
  54. 54. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? • Hierarchical structure, not just word order 1312年12月19日星期三
  55. 55. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? • Hierarchical structure, not just word order • Word order fails to account for agreement. 1312年12月19日星期三
  56. 56. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? • Hierarchical structure, not just word order • Word order fails to account for agreement. • Word order cannot reveals structural relations. 1312年12月19日星期三
  57. 57. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? • Hierarchical structure, not just word order • Word order fails to account for agreement. • Word order cannot reveals structural relations. • Word order cannot indicate structural ambiguity without changing word order. 1312年12月19日星期三
  58. 58. Word order cannot account for agreement. • One of the students is absent today. • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. • A number of students are going to the contest as contestants. Vs. The number of the students going to the contest is 90. 1412年12月19日星期三
  59. 59. Word order cannot reveal structural relations. • Did Bill break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Bill. • Was the window broken by Bill? • Bill broke the window. 1512年12月19日星期三
  60. 60. Word order cannot reveal structural relations. • Did Bill break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Bill. • Was the window broken by Bill? • Bill broke the window. 1512年12月19日星期三
  61. 61. Word order cannot reveal structural relations. • Did Bill break the window? Different word order! • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Bill. • Was the window broken by Bill? • Bill broke the window. 1512年12月19日星期三
  62. 62. Word order cannot reveal structural relations. • Did Bill break the window? Different word order! • Who broke the window? unrelated or related? • The window was broken by Bill. • Was the window broken by Bill? • Bill broke the window. 1512年12月19日星期三
  63. 63. Word order cannot explain structural ambiguity. • "The man saw the boy with a telescope." • Structurally ambiguous: can be analyzed into two different ways; a sentence with two distinct structure. • Word order: • With a telescope, the man saw the boy. (a different structure) • The man saw a boy carrying a telescope. (a different structure) 1612年12月19日星期三
  64. 64. Hierarchical structure: tree diagram • NP = The man (word order: article N) • Hierarchical structure: • NP Art N The man 1712年12月19日星期三
  65. 65. Hierarchical structure • What sentences can this structure generate? S NP VP NP Art N V Art N 1812年12月19日星期三
  66. 66. Hierarchical structure • What sentences can this structure generate? S NP VP NP Art N V Art N Lexical items 1812年12月19日星期三
  67. 67. A review and practice 1912年12月19日星期三
  68. 68. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) 1912年12月19日星期三
  69. 69. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. 1912年12月19日星期三
  70. 70. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. 1912年12月19日星期三
  71. 71. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. • *George Mary dog. 1912年12月19日星期三
  72. 72. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. • *George Mary dog. • *Helped George the dog. 1912年12月19日星期三
  73. 73. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. • *George Mary dog. • *Helped George the dog. • *You it saw. 1912年12月19日星期三
  74. 74. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. • *George Mary dog. • *Helped George the dog. • *You it saw. • *Mary George helped. 1912年12月19日星期三
  75. 75. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. 2012年12月19日星期三
  76. 76. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) 2012年12月19日星期三
  77. 77. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) • [[A dog] [followed [the boy]]] 2012年12月19日星期三
  78. 78. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) • [[A dog] [followed [the boy]]] • 2012年12月19日星期三
  79. 79. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) • [[A dog] [followed [the boy]]] S • NP VP Art N V NP Art N 2012年12月19日星期三
  80. 80. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) • [[A dog] [followed [the boy]]] S • NP VP Art N V NP Art N A dog followed the boy 2012年12月19日星期三
  81. 81. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • Practice: Yule (2003, p. 103) • Mary helped George. • George saw the dog. • The boy helped you. • It followed Mary. • You saw it. 2112年12月19日星期三
  82. 82. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • Practice: Yule (2003, p. 103) • Mary helped George. • George saw the dog. All these sentences actually • The boy helped you. share one identical structure. • It followed Mary. • You saw it. 2112年12月19日星期三
  83. 83. Transformation rules: Movements • Charlie broke the window. Did Charlie break the window? • S -> NP AUX VP => S -> AUX NP VP • Transformation rule: inversion, or AUX inversion 2212年12月19日星期三
  84. 84. Transformation rules: Movements • Transformation rule: inversion, or AUX inversion S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window Do-support 2312年12月19日星期三
  85. 85. Transformation rules: Movements • WH-Movement • Word order: Charlie broke the window => Charlie broke what => did Charlie break what => what did Charlie break 2412年12月19日星期三
  86. 86. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  87. 87. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  88. 88. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  89. 89. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  90. 90. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  91. 91. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What WH-movement What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  92. 92. Embedded structure • I think that he will come. • I know that he will come. • I believe that he will come. • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. • The book which is on the top shelf is really expensive. 2612年12月19日星期三
  93. 93. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • I know [that he will come]. • I believe [that he will come]. • The man [who is playing with the kids] wants to see you. • The book [which is on the top shelf] is really expensive. 2712年12月19日星期三
  94. 94. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. A sentence is put in another • I know [that he will come]. sentence, and hence an embedded sentence. • I believe [that he will come]. • The man [who is playing with the kids] wants to see you. • The book [which is on the top shelf] is really expensive. 2712年12月19日星期三
  95. 95. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? 2812年12月19日星期三
  96. 96. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? 2912年12月19日星期三
  97. 97. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? 2912年12月19日星期三
  98. 98. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? 2912年12月19日星期三
  99. 99. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? This element turns a sentence-like element into a complement of the main verb, and hence a complementizer (C). 2912年12月19日星期三
  100. 100. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? 3012年12月19日星期三
  101. 101. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. 3012年12月19日星期三
  102. 102. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. • "That" is a complementizer, and thus the constituent is a CP. 3012年12月19日星期三
  103. 103. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. • "That" is a complementizer, and thus the constituent is a CP. • The element in the CP appears to be a sentence, so the complement of the C is an S. 3012年12月19日星期三
  104. 104. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. • "That" is a complementizer, and thus the constituent is a CP. • The element in the CP appears to be a sentence, so the complement of the C is an S. • The CP is the complement of the main verb. 3012年12月19日星期三
  105. 105. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. • "That" is a complementizer, and thus the constituent is a CP. • The element in the CP appears to be a sentence, so the complement of the C is an S. • The CP is the complement of the main verb. • Therefore, CP -> C S, VP -> V CP. 3012年12月19日星期三
  106. 106. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. S NP VP AUX Pro V CP [+ present] C S I think that he will come 3112年12月19日星期三
  107. 107. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. S NP VP AUX Pro V CP [+ present] C S I think that he will come 3112年12月19日星期三
  108. 108. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. S NP VP AUX Pro V CP [+ present] C S I think that he will come 3112年12月19日星期三
  109. 109. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. 3212年12月19日星期三
  110. 110. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP 3212年12月19日星期三
  111. 111. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] 3212年12月19日星期三
  112. 112. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V wants 3212年12月19日星期三
  113. 113. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V IP I VP wants 3212年12月19日星期三
  114. 114. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V IP I VP wants to see you 3212年12月19日星期三
  115. 115. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP [+ present] V IP Art N I VP wants The man to see you 3212年12月19日星期三
  116. 116. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP CP S [+ present] V IP Art N C NP AUX VP PP I VP Pro V with NP wants is The man playing Art N to see you the kids 3212年12月19日星期三
  117. 117. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP CP S [+ present] V IP Art N C NP AUX VP PP I VP Pro V with NP wants is The man who playing Art N to see you the kids 3212年12月19日星期三
  118. 118. Recursion • The embedded structure is repeated. • The embedded structure recurs in a structure and the grammaticality remains good. • For example: • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) 3312年12月19日星期三
  119. 119. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) 3412年12月19日星期三
  120. 120. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) S NP AUX VP V CP C S They dont know NP AUX VP V CP that we that they know CP know 3412年12月19日星期三
  121. 121. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) S NP AUX VP V CP C S They dont know NP AUX VP V CP that we that they know CP know 3412年12月19日星期三
  122. 122. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) S NP AUX VP V CP C S They dont know NP AUX VP V CP that we that they know CP know 3412年12月19日星期三
  123. 123. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) S NP AUX VP V CP C S They dont know NP AUX VP V CP that we that they know CP know 3412年12月19日星期三
  124. 124. Subordination 3512年12月19日星期三
  125. 125. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. 3512年12月19日星期三
  126. 126. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. • Linguistic perspective: A constituent that is adjunct to another constituent to add some information. 3512年12月19日星期三
  127. 127. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. • Linguistic perspective: A constituent that is adjunct to another constituent to add some information. • For example: 3512年12月19日星期三
  128. 128. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. • Linguistic perspective: A constituent that is adjunct to another constituent to add some information. • For example: • She arrived after he left. 3512年12月19日星期三
  129. 129. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. • Linguistic perspective: A constituent that is adjunct to another constituent to add some information. • For example: • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. 3512年12月19日星期三
  130. 130. Subordination 3612年12月19日星期三
  131. 131. Subordination • She arrived after he left. 3612年12月19日星期三
  132. 132. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. 3612年12月19日星期三
  133. 133. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. • What syntactic category do these elements belong to: “after,” “while,” “when,” and the like? 3612年12月19日星期三
  134. 134. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. • What syntactic category do these elements belong to: “after,” “while,” “when,” and the like? • They are subordinate conjunctions. 3612年12月19日星期三
  135. 135. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. • What syntactic category do these elements belong to: “after,” “while,” “when,” and the like? • They are subordinate conjunctions. • In linguistics, we can hypothetically treat them as a kind of complementizers, and thus C. 3612年12月19日星期三
  136. 136. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. • What syntactic category do these elements belong to: “after,” “while,” “when,” and the like? • They are subordinate conjunctions. • In linguistics, we can hypothetically treat them as a kind of complementizers, and thus C. • PS rule: CP -> C S 3612年12月19日星期三
  137. 137. Subordination [+ past] [+ past] 3712年12月19日星期三
  138. 138. Subordination • She arrived after he left. [+ past] [+ past] 3712年12月19日星期三
  139. 139. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • PS rule: CP -> C S [+ past] [+ past] 3712年12月19日星期三
  140. 140. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • PS rule: CP -> C S S NP AUX VP CP Pro V C S NP AUX VP [+ past] after She arrived Pro V he [+ past] left 3712年12月19日星期三
  141. 141. Coordination • Traditional grammar: Two sentences or clauses are joined into one with a coordinator, and the coordinated elements should belong to the same parts of speech. • Linguistic view: Two constituents, belonging to the same syntactic category AND level, are coordinated with a coordinator. • For example: • She arrived and he left. • He ate or drank. 3812年12月19日星期三
  142. 142. Coordination • She arrived and he left. S S Conj S NP AUX VP NP AUX VP Pro V Pro V [+ past] [+ past] She arrived he left 3912年12月19日星期三
  143. 143. Coordination • He ate or drank. 4012年12月19日星期三
  144. 144. Coordination S • He ate or drank. NP AUX VP Pro [+ past] VP Conj VP He V or V ate drank 4012年12月19日星期三
  145. 145. Adjunct vs. Complement • Adjunct: • A constituent that adds information to its related constituent • Not required in a constituent • Complement: • A constituent that completes its dominating/governing constituent • Required by the head • Ungrammatical when absent 4112年12月19日星期三
  146. 146. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. S NP VP AUX Pro V CP C S I think that he will come 4212年12月19日星期三
  147. 147. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  148. 148. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  149. 149. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  150. 150. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V wants 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  151. 151. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V IP I VP wants 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  152. 152. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V IP I VP wants to see you 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  153. 153. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP [+ present] V IP Art N I VP wants The man to see you 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  154. 154. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP CP S [+ present] V IP Art N C NP AUX VP PP I VP Pro V with NP wants is The man playing Art N to see you the kids 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  155. 155. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP CP S [+ present] V IP Art N C NP AUX VP PP I VP Pro V with NP wants is The man who playing Art N to see you the kids 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  156. 156. Subordination [+ past] [+ past] 4412年12月19日星期三
  157. 157. Subordination • She arrived after he left. [+ past] [+ past] 4412年12月19日星期三
  158. 158. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • PS rule: CP -> C S [+ past] [+ past] 4412年12月19日星期三
  159. 159. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • PS rule: CP -> C S S NP AUX VP CP Pro V C S [+ past] NP AUX VP after She arrived Pro V [+ past] he left 4412年12月19日星期三
  160. 160. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. 4512年12月19日星期三
  161. 161. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. 4612年12月19日星期三
  162. 162. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: Complement • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. 4612年12月19日星期三
  163. 163. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: Complement • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. Adjunct 4612年12月19日星期三
  164. 164. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: Complement • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. Adjunct Their tree diagrams/structures are different! 4612年12月19日星期三
  165. 165. S Adjunct vs. Complement NP AUX VP S [+ past] VP NP PP PN NP AUX VP V Pro P NP [+ past] John PN V NP PP on it wrote Art N Pro P NP John put the table Art N it on the table 4712年12月19日星期三
  166. 166. S Adjunct vs. Complement NP AUX VP S [+ past] VP NP PP PN NP AUX VP V Pro P NP [+ past] John PN V NP PP on it wrote Art N Pro P NP John put the table Art N it on the table 4712年12月19日星期三
  167. 167. S Adjunct vs. Complement NP AUX VP S [+ past] VP NP PP PN NP AUX VP V Pro P NP [+ past] John PN V NP PP on it wrote Art N Pro P NP John put the table Art N it on the table 4712年12月19日星期三
  168. 168. Study questions • Yule (2003, p. 107): • Q6 • Q3 • Task C 4812年12月19日星期三

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