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Syntax Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Sentence Structure/ Yupin Chen Syntax Intro. to Linguistics 112年12月19日星期三
  • 2. Generative Grammar 212年12月19日星期三
  • 3. Generative Grammar • Chomsky 212年12月19日星期三
  • 4. Generative Grammar • Chomsky • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity 212年12月19日星期三
  • 5. Generative Grammar • Chomsky • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity • "All and only" criterion: all and only well-formed structures 212年12月19日星期三
  • 6. Generative Grammar • Chomsky • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity • "All and only" criterion: all and only well-formed structures • A finite set of rules can generate an infinite number of sentences. 212年12月19日星期三
  • 7. Generative Grammar • Chomsky • Child language acquisition: rapidity, easiness, and regularity • "All and only" criterion: all and only well-formed structures • A finite set of rules can generate an infinite number of sentences. • Some sentences are simply superficially different; some sentences are different underlyingly. 212年12月19日星期三
  • 8. Sentences different on the surface 312年12月19日星期三
  • 9. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? 312年12月19日星期三
  • 10. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. 312年12月19日星期三
  • 11. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? 312年12月19日星期三
  • 12. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? 312年12月19日星期三
  • 13. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Charlie. 312年12月19日星期三
  • 14. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? 312年12月19日星期三
  • 15. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? 312年12月19日星期三
  • 16. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? Charlie broken • Who broke the window? the window. • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? 312年12月19日星期三
  • 17. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? Charlie broken • Who broke the window? the window. • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? surface structure/ s-structure 312年12月19日星期三
  • 18. Sentences different on the surface • What if the following sentences actually come from one identical structure? • Charlie broke the window. • Did Charlie break the window? Charlie broken • Who broke the window? the window. • The window was broken by Charlie. • What did Charlie break? deep structure/ surface structure/ d-structure s-structure 312年12月19日星期三
  • 19. D- vs. S-Structure • D-Structure: • S-Structure • Structure planned in the mind; • Structure actually produced and perceived; • Formed by PS rules; • Structure formed by applying • The simplest structure. transformation rules (0 to many); • A potentially complex structure. 412年12月19日星期三
  • 20. The Model of the Generative Grammar • Chomsky • The reversed Y model 512年12月19日星期三
  • 21. The Model of the Generative Grammar • Chomsky • The reversed Y model 512年12月19日星期三
  • 22. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar • Chomsky • The reversed Y model 512年12月19日星期三
  • 23. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky • The reversed Y model 512年12月19日星期三
  • 24. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky • The reversed Y model S-Structure 512年12月19日星期三
  • 25. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF 512年12月19日星期三
  • 26. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF 512年12月19日星期三
  • 27. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky transformation rules • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF 512年12月19日星期三
  • 28. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky transformation rules • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF 512年12月19日星期三
  • 29. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky transformation rules • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF 512年12月19日星期三
  • 30. The Model of the Lexicon Generative Grammar D-structure • Chomsky transformation rules • The reversed Y model S-Structure LF PF derivation of sentences 512年12月19日星期三
  • 31. Lexicon D-structure transformation rules S-Structure LF PF 612年12月19日星期三
  • 32. Lexicon D-structure transformation rules • Charlie broke the window. S-Structure • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? LF PF • The window was broken by Charlie. 612年12月19日星期三
  • 33. Lexicon Charlie broke the window. D-structure transformation rules • Charlie broke the window. S-Structure • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? LF PF • The window was broken by Charlie. 612年12月19日星期三
  • 34. Lexicon Charlie broke the window. D-structure transformation rules • Charlie broke the window. S-Structure • Did Charlie break the window? • Who broke the window? LF PF • The window was broken by Charlie. 612年12月19日星期三
  • 35. One sentences has two different d-structures. 712年12月19日星期三
  • 36. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? 712年12月19日星期三
  • 37. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? • The man saw the boy with a telescope. 712年12月19日星期三
  • 38. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? • The man saw the boy with a telescope. • The man saw [the boy [with a telescope]]. 712年12月19日星期三
  • 39. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? • The man saw the boy with a telescope. • The man saw [the boy [with a telescope]]. • The man [saw [the boy] [with a telescope]]. 712年12月19日星期三
  • 40. One sentences has two different d-structures. • Can you tell that the following sentences can be analyzed into two different structures? • The man saw the boy with a telescope. • The man saw [the boy [with a telescope]]. • The man [saw [the boy] [with a telescope]]. • Hence, two meanings are perceived, because of two different deep structures. 712年12月19日星期三
  • 41. Deep Structure 812年12月19日星期三
  • 42. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? 812年12月19日星期三
  • 43. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: 812年12月19日星期三
  • 44. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: • Phrase structure rules 812年12月19日星期三
  • 45. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: • Phrase structure rules • Lexical insertion 812年12月19日星期三
  • 46. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: • Phrase structure rules • Lexical insertion 812年12月19日星期三
  • 47. Deep Structure • How is a deep structure of a sentence formed? • There are mainly TWO parts: • Phrase structure rules • Lexical insertion • How do we get these PS rules? 812年12月19日星期三
  • 48. Phrase structure rules • To regularize the structure of a constituent, • To make sure that a constituent is well-formed, • To form the deep structure of a sentence, • To create a sentence "template" for lexical items to be inserted. • For example, PP -> P NP • Reading: a preposition phrase (PP) (in this language) consists of a preposition (P) and a noun phrase (NP), with the preposition, the head, ordered prior to the NP, the complement to the preposition. 912年12月19日星期三
  • 49. Phrase structure rules: Examples • NP -> {Art (Adj) N, Pro, PN, POSS N...} • VP -> {Vi, Vt NP, Vi PP, Vdt NP1 NP2...} • PP -> P NP 1012年12月19日星期三
  • 50. Commonly used symbols and abbreviations • Yule (2003, p. 101): • S (sentence) NP (noun phrase) PN (proper noun) N (noun) VP (verb phrase) Adv (adverb) V (verb) Adj (adjective) Prep (preposition) Art (article) Pro (pronoun) PP (prepositional phrase) * ungrammatical sentence → consists of / rewrites as ( ) optional constituent { } one and only one of these constituents must be selected 1112年12月19日星期三
  • 51. Lexical insertion • After the formation of a constituent, based on phrase structure rules • Inserted by matching lexical information with grammatical information in the structure • For example: * N NP Art N Art N A book A for 1212年12月19日星期三
  • 52. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure 1312年12月19日星期三
  • 53. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? 1312年12月19日星期三
  • 54. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? • Hierarchical structure, not just word order 1312年12月19日星期三
  • 55. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? • Hierarchical structure, not just word order • Word order fails to account for agreement. 1312年12月19日星期三
  • 56. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? • Hierarchical structure, not just word order • Word order fails to account for agreement. • Word order cannot reveals structural relations. 1312年12月19日星期三
  • 57. Linear order vs. hierarchical structure • Why is tree diagram preferred? • Hierarchical structure, not just word order • Word order fails to account for agreement. • Word order cannot reveals structural relations. • Word order cannot indicate structural ambiguity without changing word order. 1312年12月19日星期三
  • 58. Word order cannot account for agreement. • One of the students is absent today. • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. • A number of students are going to the contest as contestants. Vs. The number of the students going to the contest is 90. 1412年12月19日星期三
  • 59. Word order cannot reveal structural relations. • Did Bill break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Bill. • Was the window broken by Bill? • Bill broke the window. 1512年12月19日星期三
  • 60. Word order cannot reveal structural relations. • Did Bill break the window? • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Bill. • Was the window broken by Bill? • Bill broke the window. 1512年12月19日星期三
  • 61. Word order cannot reveal structural relations. • Did Bill break the window? Different word order! • Who broke the window? • The window was broken by Bill. • Was the window broken by Bill? • Bill broke the window. 1512年12月19日星期三
  • 62. Word order cannot reveal structural relations. • Did Bill break the window? Different word order! • Who broke the window? unrelated or related? • The window was broken by Bill. • Was the window broken by Bill? • Bill broke the window. 1512年12月19日星期三
  • 63. Word order cannot explain structural ambiguity. • "The man saw the boy with a telescope." • Structurally ambiguous: can be analyzed into two different ways; a sentence with two distinct structure. • Word order: • With a telescope, the man saw the boy. (a different structure) • The man saw a boy carrying a telescope. (a different structure) 1612年12月19日星期三
  • 64. Hierarchical structure: tree diagram • NP = The man (word order: article N) • Hierarchical structure: • NP Art N The man 1712年12月19日星期三
  • 65. Hierarchical structure • What sentences can this structure generate? S NP VP NP Art N V Art N 1812年12月19日星期三
  • 66. Hierarchical structure • What sentences can this structure generate? S NP VP NP Art N V Art N Lexical items 1812年12月19日星期三
  • 67. A review and practice 1912年12月19日星期三
  • 68. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) 1912年12月19日星期三
  • 69. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. 1912年12月19日星期三
  • 70. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. 1912年12月19日星期三
  • 71. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. • *George Mary dog. 1912年12月19日星期三
  • 72. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. • *George Mary dog. • *Helped George the dog. 1912年12月19日星期三
  • 73. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. • *George Mary dog. • *Helped George the dog. • *You it saw. 1912年12月19日星期三
  • 74. A review and practice • Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? (Yule, 2003, p. 103, (7) to (12)) • *Dog followed boy. • *The helped you boy. • *George Mary dog. • *Helped George the dog. • *You it saw. • *Mary George helped. 1912年12月19日星期三
  • 75. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. 2012年12月19日星期三
  • 76. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) 2012年12月19日星期三
  • 77. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) • [[A dog] [followed [the boy]]] 2012年12月19日星期三
  • 78. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) • [[A dog] [followed [the boy]]] • 2012年12月19日星期三
  • 79. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) • [[A dog] [followed [the boy]]] S • NP VP Art N V NP Art N 2012年12月19日星期三
  • 80. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • A dog followed the boy. (Yule, 2003, p. 103) • [[A dog] [followed [the boy]]] S • NP VP Art N V NP Art N A dog followed the boy 2012年12月19日星期三
  • 81. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • Practice: Yule (2003, p. 103) • Mary helped George. • George saw the dog. • The boy helped you. • It followed Mary. • You saw it. 2112年12月19日星期三
  • 82. Use “tree diagram” to represent the sentence structure. • Practice: Yule (2003, p. 103) • Mary helped George. • George saw the dog. All these sentences actually • The boy helped you. share one identical structure. • It followed Mary. • You saw it. 2112年12月19日星期三
  • 83. Transformation rules: Movements • Charlie broke the window. Did Charlie break the window? • S -> NP AUX VP => S -> AUX NP VP • Transformation rule: inversion, or AUX inversion 2212年12月19日星期三
  • 84. Transformation rules: Movements • Transformation rule: inversion, or AUX inversion S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window Do-support 2312年12月19日星期三
  • 85. Transformation rules: Movements • WH-Movement • Word order: Charlie broke the window => Charlie broke what => did Charlie break what => what did Charlie break 2412年12月19日星期三
  • 86. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  • 87. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  • 88. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  • 89. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  • 90. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  • 91. Transformation rules: WH-Movements S S NP AUX VP AUX NP VP PN V NP PN V NP Charlie broke Art N Art N the window Did Charlie break the window S NP AUX NP VP PN V What WH-movement What did Charlie break 2512年12月19日星期三
  • 92. Embedded structure • I think that he will come. • I know that he will come. • I believe that he will come. • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. • The book which is on the top shelf is really expensive. 2612年12月19日星期三
  • 93. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • I know [that he will come]. • I believe [that he will come]. • The man [who is playing with the kids] wants to see you. • The book [which is on the top shelf] is really expensive. 2712年12月19日星期三
  • 94. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. A sentence is put in another • I know [that he will come]. sentence, and hence an embedded sentence. • I believe [that he will come]. • The man [who is playing with the kids] wants to see you. • The book [which is on the top shelf] is really expensive. 2712年12月19日星期三
  • 95. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? 2812年12月19日星期三
  • 96. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? 2912年12月19日星期三
  • 97. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? 2912年12月19日星期三
  • 98. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? 2912年12月19日星期三
  • 99. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What is the syntactic category of the element "that" and "who" in such a structure? This element turns a sentence-like element into a complement of the main verb, and hence a complementizer (C). 2912年12月19日星期三
  • 100. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? 3012年12月19日星期三
  • 101. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. 3012年12月19日星期三
  • 102. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. • "That" is a complementizer, and thus the constituent is a CP. 3012年12月19日星期三
  • 103. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. • "That" is a complementizer, and thus the constituent is a CP. • The element in the CP appears to be a sentence, so the complement of the C is an S. 3012年12月19日星期三
  • 104. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. • "That" is a complementizer, and thus the constituent is a CP. • The element in the CP appears to be a sentence, so the complement of the C is an S. • The CP is the complement of the main verb. 3012年12月19日星期三
  • 105. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. • What PS rule is needed for the generation of the structure? • "That he will come" is a constituent, and hence a P level element. • "That" is a complementizer, and thus the constituent is a CP. • The element in the CP appears to be a sentence, so the complement of the C is an S. • The CP is the complement of the main verb. • Therefore, CP -> C S, VP -> V CP. 3012年12月19日星期三
  • 106. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. S NP VP AUX Pro V CP [+ present] C S I think that he will come 3112年12月19日星期三
  • 107. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. S NP VP AUX Pro V CP [+ present] C S I think that he will come 3112年12月19日星期三
  • 108. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. S NP VP AUX Pro V CP [+ present] C S I think that he will come 3112年12月19日星期三
  • 109. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. 3212年12月19日星期三
  • 110. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP 3212年12月19日星期三
  • 111. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] 3212年12月19日星期三
  • 112. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V wants 3212年12月19日星期三
  • 113. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V IP I VP wants 3212年12月19日星期三
  • 114. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V IP I VP wants to see you 3212年12月19日星期三
  • 115. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP [+ present] V IP Art N I VP wants The man to see you 3212年12月19日星期三
  • 116. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP CP S [+ present] V IP Art N C NP AUX VP PP I VP Pro V with NP wants is The man playing Art N to see you the kids 3212年12月19日星期三
  • 117. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP CP S [+ present] V IP Art N C NP AUX VP PP I VP Pro V with NP wants is The man who playing Art N to see you the kids 3212年12月19日星期三
  • 118. Recursion • The embedded structure is repeated. • The embedded structure recurs in a structure and the grammaticality remains good. • For example: • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) 3312年12月19日星期三
  • 119. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) 3412年12月19日星期三
  • 120. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) S NP AUX VP V CP C S They dont know NP AUX VP V CP that we that they know CP know 3412年12月19日星期三
  • 121. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) S NP AUX VP V CP C S They dont know NP AUX VP V CP that we that they know CP know 3412年12月19日星期三
  • 122. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) S NP AUX VP V CP C S They dont know NP AUX VP V CP that we that they know CP know 3412年12月19日星期三
  • 123. Recursion • Phoebe: "They dont know that we know that they know we know." (Friends, Season 5) S NP AUX VP V CP C S They dont know NP AUX VP V CP that we that they know CP know 3412年12月19日星期三
  • 124. Subordination 3512年12月19日星期三
  • 125. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. 3512年12月19日星期三
  • 126. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. • Linguistic perspective: A constituent that is adjunct to another constituent to add some information. 3512年12月19日星期三
  • 127. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. • Linguistic perspective: A constituent that is adjunct to another constituent to add some information. • For example: 3512年12月19日星期三
  • 128. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. • Linguistic perspective: A constituent that is adjunct to another constituent to add some information. • For example: • She arrived after he left. 3512年12月19日星期三
  • 129. Subordination • Traditional grammar: A clause that serves a subordinate to a main clause to add more information to the main clause. • Linguistic perspective: A constituent that is adjunct to another constituent to add some information. • For example: • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. 3512年12月19日星期三
  • 130. Subordination 3612年12月19日星期三
  • 131. Subordination • She arrived after he left. 3612年12月19日星期三
  • 132. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. 3612年12月19日星期三
  • 133. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. • What syntactic category do these elements belong to: “after,” “while,” “when,” and the like? 3612年12月19日星期三
  • 134. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. • What syntactic category do these elements belong to: “after,” “while,” “when,” and the like? • They are subordinate conjunctions. 3612年12月19日星期三
  • 135. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. • What syntactic category do these elements belong to: “after,” “while,” “when,” and the like? • They are subordinate conjunctions. • In linguistics, we can hypothetically treat them as a kind of complementizers, and thus C. 3612年12月19日星期三
  • 136. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • She sings while she takes a shower. • What syntactic category do these elements belong to: “after,” “while,” “when,” and the like? • They are subordinate conjunctions. • In linguistics, we can hypothetically treat them as a kind of complementizers, and thus C. • PS rule: CP -> C S 3612年12月19日星期三
  • 137. Subordination [+ past] [+ past] 3712年12月19日星期三
  • 138. Subordination • She arrived after he left. [+ past] [+ past] 3712年12月19日星期三
  • 139. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • PS rule: CP -> C S [+ past] [+ past] 3712年12月19日星期三
  • 140. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • PS rule: CP -> C S S NP AUX VP CP Pro V C S NP AUX VP [+ past] after She arrived Pro V he [+ past] left 3712年12月19日星期三
  • 141. Coordination • Traditional grammar: Two sentences or clauses are joined into one with a coordinator, and the coordinated elements should belong to the same parts of speech. • Linguistic view: Two constituents, belonging to the same syntactic category AND level, are coordinated with a coordinator. • For example: • She arrived and he left. • He ate or drank. 3812年12月19日星期三
  • 142. Coordination • She arrived and he left. S S Conj S NP AUX VP NP AUX VP Pro V Pro V [+ past] [+ past] She arrived he left 3912年12月19日星期三
  • 143. Coordination • He ate or drank. 4012年12月19日星期三
  • 144. Coordination S • He ate or drank. NP AUX VP Pro [+ past] VP Conj VP He V or V ate drank 4012年12月19日星期三
  • 145. Adjunct vs. Complement • Adjunct: • A constituent that adds information to its related constituent • Not required in a constituent • Complement: • A constituent that completes its dominating/governing constituent • Required by the head • Ungrammatical when absent 4112年12月19日星期三
  • 146. Embedded structure • I think [that he will come]. S NP VP AUX Pro V CP C S I think that he will come 4212年12月19日星期三
  • 147. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  • 148. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  • 149. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  • 150. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V wants 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  • 151. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V IP I VP wants 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  • 152. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP [+ present] V IP I VP wants to see you 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  • 153. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP [+ present] V IP Art N I VP wants The man to see you 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  • 154. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP CP S [+ present] V IP Art N C NP AUX VP PP I VP Pro V with NP wants is The man playing Art N to see you the kids 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  • 155. Embedded structure • The man who is playing with the kids wants to see you. S NP AUX VP NP CP S [+ present] V IP Art N C NP AUX VP PP I VP Pro V with NP wants is The man who playing Art N to see you the kids 32 4312年12月19日星期三
  • 156. Subordination [+ past] [+ past] 4412年12月19日星期三
  • 157. Subordination • She arrived after he left. [+ past] [+ past] 4412年12月19日星期三
  • 158. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • PS rule: CP -> C S [+ past] [+ past] 4412年12月19日星期三
  • 159. Subordination • She arrived after he left. • PS rule: CP -> C S S NP AUX VP CP Pro V C S [+ past] NP AUX VP after She arrived Pro V [+ past] he left 4412年12月19日星期三
  • 160. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. 4512年12月19日星期三
  • 161. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. 4612年12月19日星期三
  • 162. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: Complement • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. 4612年12月19日星期三
  • 163. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: Complement • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. Adjunct 4612年12月19日星期三
  • 164. Adjunct vs. Complement • Compare: Complement • John put it on the table. • John wrote it on the table. Adjunct Their tree diagrams/structures are different! 4612年12月19日星期三
  • 165. S Adjunct vs. Complement NP AUX VP S [+ past] VP NP PP PN NP AUX VP V Pro P NP [+ past] John PN V NP PP on it wrote Art N Pro P NP John put the table Art N it on the table 4712年12月19日星期三
  • 166. S Adjunct vs. Complement NP AUX VP S [+ past] VP NP PP PN NP AUX VP V Pro P NP [+ past] John PN V NP PP on it wrote Art N Pro P NP John put the table Art N it on the table 4712年12月19日星期三
  • 167. S Adjunct vs. Complement NP AUX VP S [+ past] VP NP PP PN NP AUX VP V Pro P NP [+ past] John PN V NP PP on it wrote Art N Pro P NP John put the table Art N it on the table 4712年12月19日星期三
  • 168. Study questions • Yule (2003, p. 107): • Q6 • Q3 • Task C 4812年12月19日星期三