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  • 1. ECH-AEnergy-Saving and Carbon-Reducing Emulsified HeavyCrude Oil EquipmentVAST CALIBRE TECHNOLOGY INC.E- mail:VIGIRA@HOTMAIL.COMTEL:886955111899(Rep) SKYPE: VIGIRA
  • 2. Table of Contents Use of Heavy Crude Oil and Problems 2 Related technologies 3 Comparison of related technologies 4 ECH-A Emulsification Device 5 ECH-A Performance Test and Comparison 9 Estimation and Comparison of ECH-A and Related Techniques in Their Oil-efficient Capacity 25 Water Addition Suggestion for Energy-saving Heavy Crude Oil. 29 1
  • 3. Use of Heavy Crude Oil and Problems Characteristics and Use of Heavy Crude Oil  Heavy crude oil is the residues at the bottom of the tower left over from processing and cracking of crude oil. Its heating value (8,500 ~ 11,000 Kcal/kg) is high, so are its bitumen and sulfur content.  Because heavy crude oil has a high heating value and is relatively cheap, it is widely used. Problems associated with use of heavy crude oil  Incomplete burning is likely, which will lead to greater air pollution and higher emission indexes (suspension particulates SS, SOx, NOx, NO, CO, and tail gas emission temperature)  Because heavy crude oil has greater viscosity and repeated heating is thus necessary, bitumen will sediment and oil silt will clog the nozzle and pipeline. As such, the frequency of cleaning the burner nozzles and the oil tank is relatively high, leading to economic losses. 2
  • 4. Related technologies Additives in the heavy crude oil: To enhance the burning performance of heavy crude oil, additives can be pour point depressants, demulsifiers, and bitumen dissipating agents. Bottleneck problems  Compared with the saved fuels, additives are expensive with limited benefits.  Without auxiliary equipment, additives cannot be used separately. Average oil-efficient rate after additives costs are deducted: 8% With ECH-A, bottleneck problems are solved.  There is no need for any additives and it saves on fuels, with numerous benefits  There is no need to add auxiliary equipment. Installation is easy.  Ratio of water addition can be as high as 40%, depending on the needs. With addition of 18.5% of water, the oil-efficient rate is 16.19%.  Emulsifying water can be replaced by organic industrial waste water. It is more eco-friendly. 3
  • 5. Comparison of related technologies Related Techniques Use of additives ECH-AComparison Items1. Cost-saving Low (below 8%) High (With addition of 18.5%(Relatively reduced fuel of water, the oil-efficient rateexpenses) is 16.19%)2. Air pollution High Highimprovement3.Stability High High4. Burner and peripheral High Lowequipments5. Overall economic Low Highbenefit 4
  • 6. ECH-A Emulsification Device ECH-A Design Concepts  Online reconstitution of energy-saving and eco- friendly emulsified heavy crude oil.  Complete emulsification of heavy crude oil + water to generate highly-efficient secondary nebulization and contribute to complete burning for enhanced oil- efficent rate.  Complete homogenizing emulsification. Storage and transportation is possible.  Complete homogenizing emulsification with stable burning conditions.  Optimized reconstitution ratio can be applied with the burning equipment on-site to reflect actual demand. 5
  • 7. Appearance of ECH-A LxWxH = 2m x 1.5m x 1.8m 6
  • 8. Energy-Saving and Eco-Friendly Heavy Crude Oil Process of ECH-A Raw material heavy crude oil (60 – 100%) ECH-A energy- saving and eco- Burning device friendly heavyWater or organic crude oilindustrial wastewater(0-40%) ECH-A Emulsification Device 7
  • 9. Secondary nebulization of oil mistin the burning chamber(Micro-explosion) = The key forECH-A to enhance oil-efficient andreduce emissions of pollutants. 8
  • 10. ECH-A Performance Test andComparison Testing Institution  Research Developments on Combustion, Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University Secondary nebulization water drop distribution and analysis Comparison of ECH-A and heavy crude oil  Burning test  Air pollution test 9
  • 11. Secondary nebulization testingequipment 10
  • 12. From ECH-A oil mist to secondary nebulization(micro-explosion) 1. ECH oil mist is heated 2. When the temperature exceeds 100℃, water in the oil mist starts to gasify and the volume starts to inflate. 3. When the water gasifying pressure is greater than the tension on the surface of the oil mist, the oil mist explodes. 4. The oil mist explodes to several particles with smaller diameters. Their oxygen-absorbing capability is enhanced, contributing to the burning. 11
  • 13. ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude Oil –Water Drop Distribution Analysis 100 amplification factor 200 amplification factor 400 amplification factor 100 amplification factor 200 amplification factor 400 amplification factor Figure 4 Distribution Map of Water Drop Diameters in Oil No. F03-25-10B (Test No.Figure 3 Distribution Map of Water Drop Diameters in Oil No. F03-25-10B (Test No. M06-21-10B)M05-15-10B) Test No. M05-15-10B M06-21-10B Measured water drop quantity 200 200Manufactured Date 03/25/2010 Location: Sanxia, TaipeiTest 1, 05/15/2010 Location: Guiren Campus, National Average diameter (μm) 4.96 5.3Cheng Kung University Standard deviation (μm) 3.09 2.6Test 2, 06/21/2010 Location: Guiren Campus, National Maximum diameter (μm) 19.25 18.3Cheng Kung University Minimum diameter (μm) 1.16 2.2 Distribution Map of Water Drop Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Diameters 12
  • 14. Heavy Crude Oil VS. ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude Oil Burning Temperature Test – Testing PlatformFigure 2 Photographs of Multiple-Fuel Burning Test Equipment Figure 3 Configuration Layout of Temperature Measurements for Horizontal Burners. 13
  • 15. Heavy Oil VS. ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude Oil Comparison Table and Statistics of Burning TemperaturesFuel oil Content % Water Minimum Maximum addition ratio flame flame % temperature temperature ℃(R7) ℃(R7)Heavy crude 100% 0% 1104 1136oilECH-A 81.5 % 18.5 % 1057 1095Emulsified oil 14
  • 16. Heavy Crude Oil VS. ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude OilComparison Table of Burning Temperatures – ActualMeasurement Record Sheet Heavy crude oil Burning Performance (Oil No. F06-07-10A; Test No.: B06-16-10A) Time*(minute ) Original Data 6%O2 Modification Original Data 6%O2 Modification ECH-A Burning Performance (Oil No. F06-07-10B; Test No.: B06-16-10B) Time*(minute ) Original Data 6%O2 Modification Original Data 6%O2 Modification *Timing starts after the oil has gone through the pre-burn test for 1 hour. 15
  • 17. Heavy Crude Oil VS ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude Oil Comparison Table of Secondary Air SupplyFuel oil Content % Water Consumption Secondary air addition ratio L/Hr supply % M3/hrHeavy crude 100% 0% 20 210oilECH-A 81.5 % 18.5 % 20 195Emulsified oil 16
  • 18. Heavy Crude Oil VS ECH-A EmulsifiedHeavy Crude OilComparison of Secondary Air Supply – ActualMeasurement Record Sheet Heavy crude oil ECH-A 17
  • 19. Heavy Crude Oil VS ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude Oil Comparison Table of Burning EfficiencyFuel oil Content % Water Minimum Maximum addition ratio efficiency % efficiency % %Heavy crude 100% 0% 84 85oilECH-A 81.5 % 18.5 % 85 86Emulsified oil 18
  • 20. Heavy Crude Oil VS ECH-A Emulsified HeavyCrude OilComparison Table of Efficiency and Stability –Actual Measurement Record Sheet Heavy crude oil ECH-A 19
  • 21. Heavy Crude Oil VS ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude Oil Comparison Table of Heating Values Fuel oil Heavy crude Water Net heating oil content % addition ratio value % cal/g Heavy crude 100% 0% 9711 oil ECH-A 81.5 % 18.5 % 9440 Emulsified oil 20
  • 22. Heavy Crude Oil VS ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude OilComparison Table and Statistics of Heating Values Oil No. Heavy crude oil ECH-A Test methodDensity@60℉, g/mLFlash point, ℃Sulfur content, %Flow, ℃Dynamicviscosity cStTotal aromatic hydrocarbons, wt%Water content, vol%Carbon content, wt%Hydrogen content, wt%Nitrogen content, μg%Net heating value, cal/gTotal heating value, cal/gNote: “-" in the table means that the analysis was not performed. 21
  • 23. #6 Heavy Crude Oil VS ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude Oil Comparison of Air Pollution Emissions Air Pollution Emissions Testing Equipment 22
  • 24. Heavy Crude Oil VS ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude OilComparison Table of Air Pollution EmissionsFuel oil O2 % max CO2 % max CO (ppm) NOx (ppm) Sox (ppm) min max maxHeavy 6.2 10.9 0 369 199.5crude oilECH-A 6.15 10.5 0 286.6 180.6EmulsifiedoilWaterContent18.5% 23
  • 25. Heavy Crude Oil VS ECH-A Emulsified Heavy Crude Oil Comparison Table and Statistics of Air Pollution Emissions Burning Performance (Oil No. F06-07-10A; Test No.: B06-16-10A) Heavy crude oil Time*(minute ) Original Data 6%O2 Modification Original Data 6%O2 Modification Burning Performance (Oil No. F06-07-10B; Test No.: B06-16-10B) ECH-A Time*(minute ) Original Data 6%O2 Modification Original Data 6%O2 Modification 24 *Timing starts after the oil has gone through the pre-burn test for 1 hour.
  • 26. Estimation and Comparison ofECH-A and Related Techniques in Their Oil-efficient Capacity 25
  • 27. ECH-A Average Oil-efficient Rate Estimate Table * Based on TestReport on 07/09/2010Example: Water Content of 20%I. Oil-efficient rate1. #6 Heavy crude oil total heating value: 10,260 cal/g = 10,260,000 kcal/MT2. Total heating value of ECH-A (including 18.5% of water) emulsified heavy crude oil3. For ECH-A emulsified heavy crude oil to reach the total heating value 10,260,000 kcal/MT, the fuels that need to be used are 10,260,000 kcal/MT /9,986,000 kcal/MT = 1.027MT = 1,027kg. In other words, to maintain the same heating value when ECH-A is used, additional 1,027 – 1,000 kg = 27kg of ECH-A fuel oil that contains 18.5% of water needs to be used.4. Therefore, the oil-saving rate when ECH-A emulsified heavy crude oil is used is 1,000 kg – (815.0 kg + 27 kg)=158.0kg. In other words, the oil-efficient rate is 158.0kg/1,000kg=15.8%.II. Saved expenditureSuppose the cost for each ton of #6 heavy crude oil is NT 19,528 / MT5. The cost for each ton of ECH-A emulsified heavy oil is NT 19,528 /MT*0.815(fuel oil) + (NT65*0.1850)(Water)+ (NT 2.74kw-h*2.2kw- h)(electricity cost)= NT15,915 + 12.0 + 7.0 = NT 15,9346. When ECH-A with an equivalent heating value is used, it is NT 15,934/MT*1.027 MT = NT 16365.7. Saved fuel cost with ECH-A = NT 19,528 –NT 16365 = NT3,1638. Saved expenditure with ECH-A = NT3,163 / NT 19,528 = 16.19% Saved expenditure with water addition ratio of 18.5%= 16.19%. 26
  • 28. Estimate Table of Average Oil-efficient Ratesfor Related Technologies (GFXP)Example: Water content of 12.85% and emulsifying agent of 0.65%I. Oil-efficient rate #6 Heavy crude oil total heating value: 10,260 cal/g = 10,260,000 kcal/MT2. Total heating value of GFXP (including 18.5% of water) emulsified heavy crude oil = 10,162 cal/g =10,162,000kcal/MT3. For GFXP emulsified heavy crude oil to reach the total heating value 10,627,000 kcal/MT, the fuels that need to be used are 10, 627,000 kcal/MT / 10,162,000 kcal/MT = 1.046MT = 1,046kg. In other words, to maintain the same heating value, additional 1,046 – 1,000 kg = 46kg of GFXP fuel oil that contains 12.85% of water and 0.65% of emulsifying agent needs to be used.4. Therefore, the oil-saving rate when GFXP emulsified heavy crude oil is used is 1,000 kg – (865.5 kg + 46 kg)=88.5kg. In other words, the oil-efficient rate is 88.5kg/1,000kg=8.85%.II. Saved expenditure Suppose the cost for each ton of #6 heavy crude oil is NT 19,528 / MT5. Cost for each ton of GFXP emulsified heavy crude oil= = NT 19,528 /MT*0.8655 (fuel oil) + (NT65*0.1280)(Water)+ (NT29,100*0.0065)(emulsifying agent)(NT 2.74kw- h*7.6kw- h)(electricity cost)= NT16,901 + 8.32 + 189.15 + 20.824 = NT 17,1196. When GFXP with an equivalent heating value is used, it is NT 17,119/MT*1.046 MT = NT 17,907.7. Saved fuel cost with GFXP = NT 19,528 –NT 17,907 = NT1,6218. Saved expenditure with GFXP = NT1,621 / NT 19,528 = 8.3% Saved expenditure with water addition ratio of 18.5%= 8.3%. 27
  • 29. Comparison Table of ECH-A and Related Technologies (GFXP) in Energy-SavingEnergy-saving technology Oil-efficient rate Saved expenditureECH-A 15.8% 16.19%(Water content of 18.5%)GFXP 8.85% 8.3%(Water content of 12.85% andemulsifying additives of0.65%) 28
  • 30. Recommended water addition rates forECH-A emulsified heavy crude oil usedin different industries Industry Application Water addition ratesGlass fiber manufacturers, glassindustries, ceramics industries, Furnaces, ~20%cement industries, metallurgical melting pots,industries, mining industries, baking ovensasphalt factories, power plantsPharmaceutical industries,petrochemical industries, dyeing Steam boilers ~30%and finishing industries, printingand dyeing industries, textiles, dairyindustries, chemical industries, dyeindustriesFood industry, hospitals, hotels, Steam boilers,swimming pools, public architecture, Hot water boilers ~40%general industries 29