Examining the impact of rich media
on consumer willingness to pay in online stores
指導⽼老師 蔡家⽂文 教授
Journal：Electronic Commerce Research and Applications
Author：Ting Li , Zornitsa Meshkova
Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, The Netherlands
Received 8 March 2013
Received in revised form 3 July 2013
Accepted 3 July 2013
Available online 13 July 2013
Virtual product experience(VPE)
Willingness to pay
Examples of innovative online shopping projects enabled
by web development technologies.
Virtual makeover solutions, where customers can try
different hairstyles and accessories on top of their own
• Product videos, 360-degree product views, and other
interactive ways of looking at products
(Apple.com,Canon-Europe.com, Philips.nl, and
Sony.com) (Azo 2010, Fiore et al. 2005).
Product videos and interactive technologies such as
virtual product experience (VPE) provide customers with
the opportunity to create a more detailed mental picture
of products before buying them.
虛擬產品體驗(virtual product experience)：!
Rich media can improve the online customer shopping
It is well known that product videos, and especially VPE
capabilities are costly marketing tools.
But will e-merchants beneﬁt economically?
This research examines:
This paper delves into the consumer responses directly
related to purchase behavior – consumer purchase
intentions and willingness to pay a price under different
This research has three objectives:
It will determine whether the use of rich media
(VPE or product videos) in online product presentations inﬂuences consumer
purchase behavior in terms of purchase intentions and willingness to pay.
It will examine the extent to which the two rich media formats affect
consumer informedness and excitement about the shopping experience
and will determine whether these factors in turn inﬂuence consumer
It will examine whether the effects of rich media on consumer responses
differ depending on the product type being explored.
Theoretical background and hypothesis development
. It was based on the availability of sufﬁcient product information before purchase (Nelson 1974). Product search
attributes easily can be evaluated before purchase based on the presented product information – for example, the
color of clothes, the design of furniture, etc. Experience attributes are harder to judge before purchasing a product
because they require a more direct consumer experience than the passive observation of the product.
Including a new dimension, important for online retailers’ proﬁtability: marginal
consumer willingness to pay.
• The results supported the suggested hypothesis that VPE and product videos surpass
static presentations in terms of the level of informedness and the feeling of excitement
they leave in consumers.
• The two rich media displays led to higher purchase intentions via the strong mediation
effects of consumer informedness and excitement.
• The interactive technology of VPE in particular had a signiﬁcant direct positive
inﬂuence on purchase intentions.
• Willingness to pay values were explained partially by the signiﬁcant effects of product
type and purchase intentions.
[Although not statistically signiﬁcant, the mean values analysis of willingness to pay
showed that the highest willingness to pay estimates were taken during the interactive
examination of the experience product, suggesting that VPE might be more beneﬁcial
for retailers of experience products.]