“ Out of the Ash:” Sylvia Plath’s “ Lady Lazarus” and “Daddy” By Teresa Yuh-yi （ 談玉儀 ） 2011.9.20 談玉儀
Table of Contents 1 YouTube: Plath Reads “Lady Lazarus” Structure, Title Name, Theme YouTube: Plath Reads “Daddy” 談玉儀
Metaphor, Title Name, Theme, and Narrator
Table of Contents 2 談玉儀
Websites Reference and Bibliography
Sylvia Plath 1 (1932-1963) from Wikipedia An American poet, novelist and short story writer Known primarily for her poetry, Plath also wrote a semi-autobiographical novel, The Bell Jar , under the pseudonym Victoria Lucas. 談玉儀
The book's protagonist , Esther Greenwood , is a bright, ambitious student at Smith College who begins to experience a mental breakdown while interning for a fashion magazine in New York.
Sylvia Plath 2 (1932-1963) from Wikipedia The plot parallels Plath's experience interning at Mademoiselle magazine and subsequent mental breakdown and suicide attempt. 談玉儀
Along with Anne Sexton, Plath is credited with advancing the genre of confessional poetry initiated by Robert Lowell.
Sylvia Plath 3 (1932-1963) from Wikipedia Plath was born in Massachusetts Her father Aurelia Schober Plath , a first-generation American of Austrian descent, and mother Otto Emile Plath, an immigrant from Grabow , Germany . 談玉儀
Plath's father was a professor of zoology and German at Boston University and a noted bee specialist.
Sylvia Plath 4 (1932-1963) from Wikipedia Otto Plath died on November 5, 1940, a week and a half after Plath's eighth birthday, of complications following the amputation of a foot due to diabetes ,
Plath published her first poem in Winthrop, in the Boston Herald 's children's section, when she was eight years old.
Sylvia Plath 5 (1932-1963) from Wikipedia She obtained a Fulbright scholarship to Cambridge University where she continued actively writing poetry It was at a party given in Cambridge that she met the English poet Ted Hughes . 談玉儀
They were married on June 16, 1956 (Bloomsday) after a short courtship.
Sylvia Plath 6 (1932-1963) from Wikipedia Plath and Hughes spent from July 1957 to October 1959 living and working in the United States. Upon learning that Plath was pregnant, the couple moved back to the United Kingdom. While there, Plath published her first collection of poetry, The Colossus . 談玉儀
In February 1961, she suffered a miscarriage .
Sylvia Plath 7 (1932-1963) from Wikipedia Plath's marriage to Hughes was fraught with difficulties, particularly surrounding his affair with Assia Wevill , and the couple separated in late 1962. She returned to London with their children, Frieda and Nicholas, and rented a flat at 23 Fitzroy Road
in a house where W. B. Yeats once lived.
Sylvia Plath 8 (1932-1963) First one was an accident that made her almost drowned at 10 . Plath made her first medically documented suicide attempt by crawling under her house and taking an overdose of sleeping pills in her junior at Smith University. 談玉儀
The last one in 1963 when she put her head in the oven while the gas was turned on.
Sylvia Plath 9 (1932-1963) from Wikipedia
Plath's gravestone in Heptonstall churchyard bears the inscription " Even amidst fierce flames the golden lotus can be planted ."
Sylvia Plath 10 (1932-1963) from Wikipedia The poems in Ariel mark a departure from her earlier work into a more personal arena of poetry . The impact of Ariel was dramatic, with its potentially autobiographical descriptions of mental illness in poems 談玉儀
such as, “Daddy” and “Lady Lazarus.”
The Ted Hughes controversy Wikipedia As Plath's widower, Hughes became the executor of Plath's personal and literary estates. This proved to be controversial, as it is uncertain whether Plath had begun divorce proceedings before her death 談玉儀
Many critics accused Hughes of attempting to control the publications for his own ends
Sylvia (2004) 《瓶中美人》 Source 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=htO0-qWUvqY&feature=related 談玉儀
Source 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPK5dnE9CS4
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 1 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 YouTube: Plath Reads “Lady Lazarus” http://tw.youtube.com/watch?v=esBLxyTFDxE 我又做了一次。 每十年當中有一年 我要安排此事── 一種活生生的奇蹟，我的皮膚 明亮如納粹的燈罩， 我的右腳 是塊紙鎮 我的臉是平淡無奇，質地不差的 猶太麻布。 A sort of walking miracle, my skin Bright as a Nazi lampshade, 談玉儀
My face a featureless, fine
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 2 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 鼻子，眼窩，整副的牙齒？ 陰濕的氣息 再過一天就會消逝。 The nose, the eye pits, the full set of teeth? 談玉儀
The grave cave ate will be
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 3 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 我是個含笑的女人。 我才三十歲。 像貓一樣可死九次。 And like the cat I have nine times to die. To annihilate each decade. What a million filaments. 談玉儀
The Peanut-crunching crowd
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 4 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 他們把我的手腳攤開── 精彩的脫衣舞表演。 各位先生，女士， 不過，我還是一樣，十足的女人。 這種事第一次發生在我十歲那年。 那是意外事件。 Them unwrap me hand in foot─ Nevertheless, I am the same, identical woman. 談玉儀
The first time it happened I was ten.
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 5 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 第二次我就決意 支撐下去而不再回頭了。 我搖擺著，緊閉 如一只貝殼。 他們得一叫再叫 將蟲像黏濕的珍珠自我的身上取出 死去 是一種藝術，和其他事情一樣。 我尤其善於此道。 To last it out and not come back at all. They had to call and call And pick the worms off me like sticky pearls. Is an art, like everything else. 談玉儀
I do it exceptionally well.
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 6 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 我使它給人地獄一般的感受。 使它像真的一樣。 我想你可以說我是受了召喚。 在密室做這件事很容易。 做完此事若無其事也很簡單。 光天化日下 戲劇性地歸返 到同樣的地點，同樣的面孔，同樣野蠻 快意的叫喊： I do it so it feels like hell. I do it so it feels real. I guess you could say I've a call. It's easy enough to do it in a cell. It's easy enough to do it and stay put. 談玉儀
To the same place, the same face, the same brute
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 7 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 為了目睹我的傷痕，出價 為了聽我的心跳── 的確還在跳動。 而且還出價，出很高的價格， 為了一句話或一次觸摸 或一絲血液 For the eyeing my scars, there is a charge For the hearing of my heart─ 談玉儀
And there is a charge, a very large charge
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 8 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 一根毛髮或一片衣物。 不錯，不錯，醫生先生。 不錯，仇敵先生。 熔解成一聲尖叫。 我翻滾發熱。 不要以為我低估了你的用心。 Or a piece of my hair on my clothes. 談玉儀
Do not think I underestimate your great concern.
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 9 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 灰燼，灰燼── 你攪撥挑動。 肌肉，骨頭，那兒什麼也沒有── 談玉儀
Flesh, bone, there is nothing there─
拉撒若夫人 /Lady Lazarus 10 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 談玉儀
“ Lady Lazarus” Structure and Title An extraordinarily bitter dramatic monologue in twenty-eight tercets ( 三行押韻的詩節 ) The title ironically identifies a sort of human oxymoron ( 矛盾修飾法 ), a female Lazarus—not the biblical male not conform to society’s traditional idea of ladylike behavior She is angry , and she wants revenge . She is egocentric, using “I” twenty-two times, “my” nine . 談玉儀
Her resurrection is owing only to herself.
“ Lady Lazarus” The Title Name 1 http://www.aboutbibleprophecy.com/p39.htm 2 Biblical forms of Lazarus There are two prominent people in the New Testament of the Bible with the name of Lazarus. The most prominent was the Lazarus who died and was brought back to life by Jesus . The other was known as Lazarus the beggar. 談玉儀
who was featured in a parable of Jesus
“ Lady Lazarus” The Title Name 2 Phoenix, the liberation spirit Reducing her body to ashes and reviving her life through flame A performer in a circus sideshow “the big strip tease” To be scrutinized by a crowd of spectators The speakers’ consciousness of performing the art of poetry 談玉儀
A Jew in a Nazi concentration camp
“ Lady Lazarus” The Title Name 3 A Jew in a Nazi concentration camp Comparing her suicide to the victimization of the Jews A cat with “nine times to die” Her three times to suicide 談玉儀
To rise and not to succumb to her own victimization
“ Lady Lazarus” Theme The public and the private The public horrors of the Nazi concentration camps and the personal horrors of fragmented identities become interchangeable. Love as unreal accompanied by fears 談玉儀
Eventual distortion and displacement of love
爹 地 /Daddy 1 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 YouTube: Plath Reads “Daddy” http://tw.youtube.com/watch?v=6hHjctqSBwM&feature=related 你再也不能，再也不能 這樣做，黑色的鞋子 我像隻腳在其中生活了 三十個年頭，可憐且蒼白， 僅敢呼吸或打噴嚏。 爹地，我早該殺了你。 我還沒來得及你卻死了── 大理石般沈重，一 只充滿神祇的袋子， 慘白的雕像──有著一根灰色腳趾 大如舊金山的海狗 You do not do, you do not do Any more, black shoe In which I have lived like a foot For thirty years, poor and white, Barely daring to breathe or Achoo. 談玉儀
Daddy, I have had to kill you. You died before I had time─ Marble-heavy, a bag full of God, Ghastly statue with one gray toe Big as a Frisco seal
爹 地 /Daddy 2 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 和一顆沈浮於怪異的大西洋中的頭顱 把綠色的豆子傾在藍色之上 美麗的瑙塞特的海水中。 我曾祈求能尋回你。 啊，你。 以德國的口音，在波蘭的市鎮 被戰爭，戰爭，戰爭的壓路機 輾壓磨平。 但是這市鎮的名稱是很尋常的。 我的波蘭朋友 And a head in the freakish Atlantic Where it pours bean green over blue In the waters off beautiful Nauset. I used to pray to recover you. In the German tongue, in the Polish town Scraped flat by the roller 談玉儀
But the name of the town is common.
爹 地 /Daddy 3 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 說起碼有一兩打之多。 所以我從來未能告訴你該把 腳，你的根，放在何處， 從來無法和你交談。 舌頭在下顎膠著。 膠著於鐵蒺藜的陷阱裡。 我，我，我，我， 我幾乎說不出話來 我以為每個德國人都是你。 而淫穢的語言 Says there are a dozen or two. So I never could tell where you Put your foot, your root, I never could talk to you. The tongue stuck in my jaw. It stuck in a barb wire snare. 談玉儀
I thought every German was you.
爹 地 /Daddy 4 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 一具引擎，一具引擎 當我是猶太人般地斥退我 一個被送往達浩，奧胥維茲，巴森的猶太人。 我開始學習猶太的談吐。 我想我有理由成為猶太人的。 提洛爾的雪，維也納的清啤酒 並非十分純正。 以我的吉卜賽血緣和詭異的運道 加上我的塔洛紙牌，我的塔洛紙牌 我真有幾分像猶太人呢。 Chuffing me off like a Jew. A Jew to Dachau, Auschwitz, Belsen. I began to talk like a Jew. I think I may well be a Jew. The snows of the Tyrol, the clear beer of Vienna Are not very pure or true. With my gipsy ancestress and my weird luck 談玉儀
And my Taroc pack and my Taroc pack
爹 地 /Daddy 5 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 我始終畏懼你， 你的德國空軍，你的德國武士。 你整齊的短髭， 和你印歐語族的眼睛，明澈的藍。 裝甲隊員，裝甲隊員，啊你── 不是上帝，只是個卍字 如此黝黑就是天空也無法呼嘯而過。 每一個女人都崇拜法西斯主義者， 長靴踩在臉上，野蠻 野蠻如你一般獸性的心。 I have always been scared of you, With your Luftwaffe, your gobbledygoo. And your Aryan eye, bright blue. Panzer-man, panzer-man, O You─ So black no sky could squeak through. Every woman adores a Fascist, The boot in the face, the brute 談玉儀
Brute heart of a brute like you.
爹 地 /Daddy 6 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 你站在黑板旁邊，爹地， 我有這麼一張你的照片， 一道裂痕深深刻入顎部而不在腳上 但還是同樣的魔鬼，一點也不 遜於那曾把我美好赤紅的心 你下葬那年我十歲。 二十歲時我就試圖自殺 想回到，回到，回到你的身邊。 我以為屍骨也是一樣的。 You stand at the blackboard, daddy, In the picture I have of you, A cleft in your chin instead of your foot But no less a devil for that, no not Any less the black man who Bit my pretty red heart in two. I was ten when they buried you. And get back, back, back to you. 談玉儀
I thought even the bones would do.
爹 地 /Daddy 7 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 但是他們把我拖離此一劫數， 還用膠水將我黏合。 之後我知道該怎麼做。 我塑造了一尊你的偶像， 一個帶著《我的奮鬥》眼神的黑衣人 一個拷問台和螺旋鈕的愛好者。 我說著我願意，我願意。 所以爹地，我終於完了。 黑色的電話線源斷了， 聲音就是無法爬行而過。 But they pulled me out of the sack, And they stuck me together with glue. And then I knew what to do. A man in black with a Meinkampf look And a love of the rack and the screw. So daddy, I'm finally through. The black telephone's off at the root, 談玉儀
The voices just can't worm through.
爹 地 /Daddy 8 Sylvia Plath 選自《四個英語現代詩人》 , 陳黎譯 如果說我已殺了一個人，我就等於殺了兩個 那吸血鬼說他就是你 並且啜飲我的血已一年， 實際是七年，如果你真想知道。 爹地，你現在可以安息了。 你肥胖的黑心裡藏有一把利刃 村民們從來就沒有喜歡過你 他們在你身上舞蹈踐踏。 而他們很清楚那就是你。 爹地，爹地，你這渾球，我完 If I've killed one man, I've killed two─ The vampire who said he was you And drank my blood for a year, Seven years, if you want to know. Daddy, you can lie back now. There's a stake in your fat black heart And the villagers never liked you. They are dancing and stamping on you. They always knew it was you. 談玉儀
Daddy, daddy, you bastard, I'm through
“ Daddy” Metaphor 1 A head in the freakish Atlantic Train heading for the death camp (“engine”) 談玉儀
A wonderer with gipsy ancestress
“ Daddy” Metaphor 2 A man in black with a Meinkamph ( 《我的奮鬥》 )look A stake in your fat black heart Plath’s autobiographical references “ I was ten when they buried you.” “ At twenty I tried to die” 談玉儀
“ For thirty years, poor and white”
Daddy: God-like Imagery http://american-poetry.suite101.com/article.cfm/sylvia_plaths_daddy The speaker solidifies her father’s overwhelming omni-presence through an association to a geographic locale . Nauset (nauseate; disgust) The idea of the ‘bean green’ water intertwined with the blue is a nauseating association .
Path plays on this association by naming a body of some of the water Nauset.
Daddy as a Black/Devil Imagery source: http://american-poetry.suite101.com/article.cfm/sylvia_plaths_daddy A cleft, which is often associated with the devil’s hoofs , is compared to the cleft in the father’s chin.
This suggests that the father had some demonic characteristics associated with his physical form.
Daddy as a Black/Devil Imagery source: http://american-poetry.suite101.com/article.cfm/sylvia_plaths_daddy “ the black man”/ “a man in black”
a heavy color itself since it is often associated with dark full rain clouds and the “panzers” (German tanks) that were gray and heavy as well.
“ Daddy” Metaphor 3 談玉儀
The domineering self in Plath’s mind
“ Daddy” Theme 1 Like “Lady Lazarus,” the poem reflects the theme of “suicide and death” Also the motif of Holocaust Comparing her personal experience to the suffering of the Jews in Nazi concentration camps 談玉儀
A victim becomes a winner and triumphs over omnipresent cruel men
“ Daddy” Narrator 1 Plath described the persona as “ a girl with an Electra complex whose father died while she thought he was God” Plath used the Nazi imagery to suggest that the girl was a mixture of the German and the Jewish races and so must resolve their conflict within herself. 談玉儀
The childish wrath of the narrator supports this view of a God-like Daddy .
“ Daddy” Narrator 2 Plath seems to juxtapose many of the characteristics of her father on the image that she has of her husband . The narrator’s close association of this image with her father has made it a part of her own consciousness. Thus, in destroying the personal of her father, she must destroy a part of herself. 談玉儀
Effigy of her father has been destroyed.
Websites Reference and Bibliography 1 Sylvia ( 《瓶中美人》 ) 。 Dir. Christine Jeff. DVD. Perf. Gwyneth Paltrow and Daniel Craig. Taipei: Group Power Workshop, 2004 。 Hughes, Ted. Birthday Letters . London: Faber and Faber, 1998. Plath, Sylvia. The Bell Jar . London: Faber and Faber, 1998. 艾瑪．泰寧徳 (Emma Tennant) 。《悲劇的靈魂－希薇亞》 ( Sylvia and Ted ) 。黃詩芬譯。台北：高談文化事業， 2004 。 “ Lady Lazarus”: The Title Name http://www.aboutbibleprophecy.com/p39.htm 談玉儀
"Sylvia Plath's "Daddy": An Examination of a Father's Influence over Brilliant Poet" - http://american-poetry.suite101.com/article.cfm/sylvia_plaths_daddy#ixzz09tBnXMIK
Websites Reference and Bibliography 2 陳黎．張芬齡譯。《四個英語現代詩人─陳黎張芬齡詩集 1 》。花蓮：花蓮縣政府， 2005 。 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sylvia_Plath YouTube: Plath Reads “Lady Lazarus” http://tw.youtube.com/watch?v=esBLxyTFDxE YouTube: Plath Reads “Daddy” http://tw.youtube.com/watch?v=6hHjctqSBwM&feature=related http://www.womenwriters.net/editorials/whitton0500.htm Imagery in “Daddy” and “Lady Lazarus” http://www.english-test.net/forum/ftopic17631.html 談玉儀
“ Lady Lazarus” The Title Name http://www.aboutbibleprophecy.com/p39.htm